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^wjfaolojgual  Institute  of  %mtxxm. 


FIRST,  SECOND,  AND  THIRD  ANNUAL  REPORTS 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN   SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1881-84. 

\_RE  PRINTED.'] 


OF 

1 1 

^4  |- 


FIRST  ANNUAL  REPORT 


OF  THE  COMMITTEE 

ON  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Archceo  logical  Institute : 

Gentlemen,  —  As  Chairman  of  the  Committee  ap- 
pointed at  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Institute  on  May 
21,  1 88 1,  to  devise  a  plan  for  the  creation  at  Athens  of 
an  American  School  of  Classical  Literature,  Art,  and 
Antiquities,  and  to  carry  the  plan  into  immediate  exe- 
cution should  it  appear  well  to  do  so,  I  have  the  honor 
to  submit  the  following  Report :  — 

The  Committee  held  its  first  meeting  at  Cam- 
bridge on  June  22,  1881.  At  this  meeting  two  plans 
for  the  establishment  of  the  School  were  discussed. 
The  one  proposed  to  found  it  upon  the  basis  of  an 
endowment  of  at  least  $100,000,  to  be  collected  by 
subscription  and  invested  before  the  School  should  be 
opened ;  the  other  to  open  it  at  once  with  a  temporary 
and  less  elaborate  organization,  under  the  auspices 
of  some  of  the  leading  American  Colleges,  the  work 
of  accumulating  a  permanent  fund  continuing  in  the 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  A  THENS. 


mean  time.  The  Committee  adjourned  without  com- 
ing to  a  decision. 

In  October  Mr.  Frederic  J.  de  Peyster,  of  New  York, 
was  added  to  the  Committee.  At  a  meeting  held  at 
Boston  on  November  5,  the  Chairman  reported  that 
gentlemen  in  authority  in  several  Universities  had 
been  consulted,  and  had  signified  the  probable  hearty 
co-operation  of  the  institutions  with  which  they  were 
connected  in  the  scheme  of  founding  the  School  under 
the  auspices  of  American  Colleges.  The  Committee 
thereupon  adopted  the  second  of  the  two  plans  pro- 
posed in  June,  and  appointed  a  Sub-Committee  to 
prepare  for  publication  a  brief  statement  of  the  general 
project  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  for  the  creation 
of  a  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens  and  of  the 
plan  proposed  to  be  put  into  effect,  and  to  address  a 
letter  to  the  Presidents  of  the  Colleges  which  were  to 
be  invited  to  co-operate  in  the  foundation  of  the  School. 
These  documents  follow. 

PROJECT  FOR  THE  ESTABLISHMENT  OF  AN  AMERICAN 
SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

The  Archaeological  Institute  of  America  has  had  for  some 
time  under  discussion  a  project  for  the  creation  at  Athens  of 
an  American  School  of  Classical  Literature,  Art,  and  Antiqui- 
ties, upon  the  plan  of  the  well-known  French  and  German 
Schools  already  established  there.  At  the  last  Annual  Meet- 
ing of  the  Institute,  a  Committee  was  appointed  to  devise  a 
method  for  carrying  this  project  into  execution. 

The  permanent  establishment  of  the  School  as  an  indepen- 
dent institution,  subject  to  the  control  of  a  Managing  Com- 


FIRST  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


5 


mittee  chosen  by  the  Archaeological  Institute,  would  require 
a  fund  of  at  least  $100,000,  to  provide  for  the  salary  of  the 
Director,  the  rent  and  care  of  a  house,  the  purchase  of  books, 
and  the  various  expenses  which  might  be  incurred  in  carrying 
on  the  work  of  the  School. 

The  building  of  the  School  should  contain  apartments  for 
the  Director  and  his  family,  and  suitable  rooms  for  the  meet- 
ings, collections,  and  library.  Eventually,  when  the  resources 
of  the  School  warranted  it,  there  might  be  in  the  building 
rooms  for  its  students. 

The  School  would  be  in  charge  of  a  Director  of  recognized 
ability  and  attainments,  appointed  for  such  time  as  the  Man- 
aging Committee  might  deem  proper.  It  would  be  the  duty 
of  the  Director  to  superintend  the  work  of  the  members,  and 
to  send  yearly  to  the  Managing  Committee  a  full  Report  of 
the  work  accomplished  by  the  School. 

Every  member  would  prepare,  during  each  year  of  his  mem- 
bership, a  thesis  embodying  original  research  upon  some 
subject  within  the  province  of  the  School.  These  theses, 
if  approved  by  the  Director,  would  be  sent  by  him  to  the 
Managing  Committee. 

Upon  the  completion  of  his  course  of  three  years,  each 
member  would  receive  from  the  Director  and  the  Committee 
a  certificate  setting  forth  those  branches  of  study  to  which  he 
had  devoted  himself. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  Archaeological  Institute  may  be  able  to 
undertake  the  publication  of  a  regular  illustrated  periodical, 
similar  in  character  to  the  Bulletin  of  the  French  School  at 
Athens,  to  contain  the  reports  and  theses  of  the  School  at 
Athens  and  other  contributions  of  merit,  as  well  as  archaeo- 
logical news. 

Such,  in  brief,  is  the  project  of  the  Committee  of  the  Insti- 
tute, for  the  permanent  foundation  of  the  American  School  at 
Athens. 


6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


But,  that  time  may  not  be  lost  while  the  permanent  fund  is 
accumulating,  it  has  been  thought  desirable,  if  possible,  to 
open  the  School  at  once,  with  a  temporary  and  less  elaborate 
organization,  under  the  auspices  of  some  of  our  leading  Col- 
leges. The  cordial  support  of  Harvard,  Yale,  Johns  Hopkins, 
Cornell,  and  Brown  Universities  is  already  assured  to  the  plan  ; 
and  every  effort  will  be  made  to  have  the  American  School  at 
work  in  Greece  next  autumn. 

Dec.  20,  1881. 

John  Williams  White  {Chairman). 
E.  W.  Gurney. 
Albert  Harkness. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow. 
Francis  W.  Palfrey. 
Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 


Cambridge,  Dec.  20,  1881. 

To  the  President  of  

Sir,  —  The  undersigned,  a  Committee  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute  of  America  on  the  establishment  of  an  American 
School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  desire  to  secure  the 

interest  and  support  of  in  the  establishment 

and  maintenance  of  the  proposed  School. 

There  is  no  need  to  set  forth  at  length  the  benefit  to  Clas- 
sical studies  in  this  country  which  may  be  derived  from  an 
American  School  of  a  similar  character  to  the  French  and 
German  Schools  at  Athens.  The  accompanying  paper  con- 
tains a  statement  of  the  design  of  the  School. 

In  order  to  carry  this  project  into  execution,  united  action 
on  the  part  of  our  leading  Universities  and  Colleges  is  re- 
quired, and  the  Committee  is  desirous  of  learning  from  you 

whether  the  of  which  you  are  the  head,  will  take  part 

in  the  work. 

So  long  as  the  School  has  no  permanent  fund  for  its  sup- 


FIRST  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


1 


port,  it  is  proposed  that  the  Director  of  the  School  be  chosen 
for  a  term  of  one  or  two  years  from  among  the  Professors  or 
Teachers  of  Greek  in  the  various  Universities  and  Colleges 
uniting  in  the  scheme,  and  that  a  salary  as  Instructor  be  con- 
tinued to  him.  by  the  University  or  College  to  whose  Faculty 
he  may  belong,  during  his  term  of  residence  in  Athens. 

It  is  desirable  that  each  of  the  Institutions  sharing  in  the 
support  of  the  School  should  undertake  to  offer  to  its  students 
one  or  more  fellowships  for  a  residence  of  not  less  than  two 
years  at  the  School,  to  be  obtained  as  the  reward  for  dis- 
tinguished proficiency  in  Classical  studies  during  the  under- 
graduate course. 

In  the  lack  of  a  permanent  fund,  a  certain  sum,  not  more 
than  $2,500  annually,  must  be  pledged  for  the  necessary  ex- 
penses in  Athens,  for  rent,  wages,  etc.  Of  this  sum  $250  a 
year  has  been  pledged  already  by  gentlemen  connected  with 
Harvard  College,  for  a  term  of  ten  years,  or  for  a  shorter  term 
provided  that  a  permanent  fund  be  obtained  meanwhile  for 
the  support  of  the  School ;  and  it  is  hoped  that  a  similar  sub- 
scription may  be  obtained  from  the  alumni  or  friends  of  each 
College  or  University  that  shall  join  in  carrying  the  project 
into  execution. 

We  have  received  assurance  of  the  cordial  co-operation  in 
the  scheme  of  Harvard,  Yale,  Johns  Hopkins,  Cornel],  and 
Brown  Universities. 

May  we  have  the  satisfaction  of  receiving  also  that  of 

 ,  on  the  general  terms  of  this  circular  ?  And 

may  we  request  the  honor  of  an  early  reply  to  this  com- 
munication ? 

John  Williams  White  {Chairman), 
E.  W.  Gurney. 
Albert  Harkness. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow. 
Francis  W.  Palfrey. 
Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 


8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


These  documents  were  sent  to  the  Presidents  of  Har- 
vard, Yale,  Brown,  Amherst,  Cornell,  Johns  Hopkins, 
College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  Michigan  University, 
Columbia,  University  of  Virginia,  College  of  New 
Jersey,  and,  subsequently,  to  those  of  Union,  Trinity, 
Wesleyan,  and  Dartmouth. 

The  answers  received  were  in  the  main  so  favorable 
that  the  Committee  determined  to  open  the  School  in 
the  autumn  of  1882,  and  in  February,  1882,  invited 
W.  W.  Goodwin,  Eliot  Professor  of  Greek  Literature 
at  Harvard  University,  to  become  its  Director  for  the 
first  year.  In  a  letter  received  the  middle  of  March, 
Professor  Goodwin  accepted  the  Directorship.  The 
Corporation  of  Harvard  University  had  previously 
signified  that  in  case  of  his  acceptance  they  would 
allow  him  during  the  year  of  his  absence  a  salary  of 
$3,000.  In  March  the  following  gentlemen  accepted 
membership  on  the  Committee  :  Professor  Henry 
Drisler,  of  Columbia  College  ;  Professor  Basil  L. 
Gildersleeve,  of  Johns  Hopkins  University;  Professor 
Lewis  R.  Packard,  of  Yale  College ;  Professor  William 
M.  Sloane,  of  the  College  of  New  Jersey.  It  was  subse- 
quently voted  that  the  President  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute  and  the  Director  of  the  School  should  be 
ex-officio  members  of  the  Committee,  which  therefore 
now  numbers  twelve. 

A  meeting  was  held  in  New  York  on  April  6,  at 
which  Mr.  Thomas  W.  Ludlow  was  appointed  the 
Secretary  of  the  Committee,  and  Mr.  Frederic  J.  de 


FIRST  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


9 


Peyster  the  Treasurer  of  its  funds.  The  Chairman 
reported  favorable  answers  to  the  circular  and  letter 
sent  out  on  Dec.  20,  1881,  from  Harvard,  Yale,  Brown, 
Amherst,  Johns  Hopkins,  College  of  the  City  of  New 
York,  Columbia,  College  of  New  Jersey,  and  Wes- 
leyan.  The  annual  subscriptions  of  these  Colleges 
amount  to  $2,250.  Most  of  them  are  made  for  ten 
years ;  the  remainder  for  a  shorter  time,  but  with  the 
confident  expectation  that  they  will  be  continued 
during  the  entire  period.  Trinity,  much  to  the  regret 
of  the  Committee,  was  unable  to  co-operate.  Five 
Colleges  have  not  yet  made  final  answer. 

The  Treasurer  was  authorized  to  call  in  the  subscrip- 
tion of  each  College  on  the  1st  of  June  of  each  year, 
to  meet  the  expenses  of  the  School  during  the  follow- 
ing year.  Semi-annual  meetings  of  the  Committee 
were  appointed  to  be  held  in  New  York  on  the  third 
Friday  of  November,  in  Boston  on  the  third  Friday  of 
May.  The  further  deliberations  of  the  Committee 
are  embodied  in  a  circular,  to  be  published  immedi- 
ately, which  a  Sub-Committee  was  requested  to  pre- 
pare for  the  information  of  the  public. 

In  conclusion,  the  Committee  hope  to  obtain  for 
the  School  through  the  Institute  the  good  offices  of  the 
United  States  Government,  in  order  that  the  Director 
may  have  every  facility  afforded  him  in  carrying  on  his 
work,  and  would  be  glad  to  receive  from  members  of 
the  Institute  the  suggestion  of  desirable  undertakings  in 


IO  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

archaeological  research  to  be  attempted  by  members  of 
the  School.  The  Committee  do  not  propose  to  make 
an  immediate  appeal  for  a  permanent  endowment. 
The  present  plan  closely  unites  Colleges  whose  inter- 
ests are  in  some  respects  diverse  in  the  furtherance  of 
an  object,  the  promotion  of  which  will  be  creditable 
to  American  scholarship.  Such  union  must  in  itself 
be  fraught  with  good  results.  When  the  School, 
under  the  management  of  the  Colleges,  shall  have 
demonstrated  its  usefulness,  the  Committee  confi- 
dently believe  that  means  for  its  establishment  upon 
a  permanent  basis  will  not  be  wanting. 


JOHN  WILLIAMS  WHITE, 

Chairman . 


SECOND  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE  COMMITTEE 

ON  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


TO  THE  EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE  OF  THE 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTITUTE: 

Gentlemen,  —  In  the  year  that  has  passed  since 
the  Committee  had  the  honor  to  offer  its  first  Report, 
the  plan  of  organization  of  the  School  of  Classical 
Studies  there  presented  has  been  successfully  carried 
into  execution.  The  School  has  been  established  in 
Athens,  and  has  passed  through  the  critical  period  of 
the  first  year  of  its  existence  with  credit ;  at  home  its 
interests  have  been  administered  with  care,  and  it  has 
been  strengthened  by  the  generous  support  of  new 
friends. 

In  addition  to  the  nine  Colleges  already  reported, 
five  others  have  accepted  the  invitation  of  the  Com- 
mittee to  co-operate  in  the  support  of  the  School,  — 
Dartmouth,  Cornell,  Michigan  University,  the  Uni- 
versity of  Virginia,  and  the  University  of  California. 
Four  others  to  whom  the  invitation  was  sent  have  not 


12 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


yet  made  final  answer,  —  Union,  Williams,  Bowdoin, 
and  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology.  The 
supporting  Colleges  now  number  fourteen.  Their  sub- 
scriptions amount  to  $3,500  annually,  which  will  be 
the  income  of  the  School  during  its  second  year. 
These  subscriptions  were  made  in  the  majority  of 
instances,  not  from  the  funds  of  each  College,  but 
through  the  generosity  of  its  alumni  and  other  friends. 
Some  of  them  are  made  for  a  shorter  term  than  the 
ten  years  during  which  the  School  is  to  be  maintained 
on  its  present  plan,  but  with  the  hope  on  the  part  of 
the  gentlemen  having  them  in  charge  that  they  will 
be  continued  during  the  entire  period.  The  earnest- 
ness shown  by  the  friends  of  Classical  Studies  in 
obtaining  support  for  the  School,  and  the  almost  uni- 
form success  with  which  their  efforts  have  been 
attended,  is  an  encouraging  omen  of  its  ultimate  per- 
manent endowment. 

At  its  first  semi-annual  meeting,  held  in  New 
York  on  Nov.  17,  1882,  the  Committee  unanimously 
invited  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Hillhouse  Professor  of 
Greek  in  Yale  College,  to  become  the  Director  of  the 
School  during  its  second  year;  and  the  invitation 
was  accepted.  The  continuance  of  the  direction  of 
the  School  with  scholarship  and  vigor  is  thus  hap- 
pily assured.  At  this  meeting  Professor  W.  S.  Tyler 
of  Amherst  College,  and  Professor  J.  C.  Van  Ben- 
schoten  of  Wesleyan  University,  were  made  members 
of  the  Committee.    Professors  Packard  and  Gilder- 


SECOND  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


13 


sleeve  and  Mr.  Ludlow  were  appointed  a  sub-com- 
mittee on  the  Publications  of  the  School,  to  report  at 
the  semi-annual  meeting  in  May.  The  post-office 
address  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Committee  was  an- 
nounced to  have  been  changed  to  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
The  addresses  of  the  Chairman  and  Treasurer  remain 
as  heretofore. 

The  School  was  opened  by  the  Director,  Professor 
W.  W.  Goodwin,  at  Athens,  Oct.  2,  1882,  in  a  roomy 
and  convenient  house  on  the  eO§os  'A/xaXia?.  This 
house  is  occupied  by  the  Director  and  his  family  ;  but 
one  large  salon  is  devoted  to  the  exclusive  use  of  the 
members  of  the  School,  as  library  and  reading-room. 
The  house  was  taken  empty,  and  has  been  furnished 
by  the  Committee  at  an  expense,  approximately  stated, 
of  $1,075.  ^  proved  to  be  impossible  to  find,  as 
was  first  intended,  a  suitable  house  already  furnished. 
The  other  expenditures  of  the  Committee,  —  all  the 
items  except  the  first  being  stated  approximately,  — 
have  been  $1,000  to  the  Director  for  house-rent, 
$1,225  f°r  books,  and  $200  for  incidentals.  The  to- 
tal amount  of  the  expenditure,  $3,500,  is  therefore 
in  excess  by  $500  of  the  present  year's  income.  The 
Committee,  however,  felt  justified  in  trenching  upon 
the  income  of  the  second  year,  since  during  that  year 
the  receipts  of  the  School  would  be  larger,  $3,500, 
and  the  outlay  for  furniture  inconsiderable.  The 
library  now  numbers  about  400  volumes,  exclusive  of 
sets  of  periodicals.    Some  of  these  the  School  owes  to 


14  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

the  generosity  of  the  Hon.  Eugene  Schuyler,  Minister 
of  the  United  States  to  the  Kingdom  of  Greece,  who 
has  in  many  other  ways  also  furthered  its  interests. 
The  School  is  likewise  indebted  to  the  American 
Philological  Association  for  the  gift  of  a  complete  set 
of  its  Transactions.  In  the  opinion  of  the  Director, 
urgently  expressed  in  many  letters,  the  library  should 
be  largely  increased  at  once.  It  is  hoped  that  this 
may  be  done  by  contributions  from  friends  of  the 
School,  made  independently  of  the  annual  subscrip- 
tions. The  Committee  will  be  able  from  the  funds  at 
its  disposal  to  enlarge  the  library  only  slowly  and 
gradually.  A  new  and  considerable  item  of  expense 
in  subsequent  years  will  be  the  cost  of  its  own  Publi- 
cations. 

There  have  been  seven  regular  members  of  the 
School  during  the  past  year.  Besides  these,  Dr. 
Bevier  of  Baltimore  has,  according  to  the  terms  of  the 
circular  issued  in  May,  1882,  enjoyed  its  privileges 
during  the  winter  without  being  regularly  enrolled. 
The  regular  members  of  the  School  have  been  the 
following :  — 

John  M.  Crow,  A.  B.  (Waynesbury  College),  Ph.  D.  (Syracuse 
University). 

Harold  North  Fowler,  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1880). 
Paul  Shorey,  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1878),  holder  of  the 

Kirkland  Fellowship  in  Harvard  University. 
J.  R.  S.  Sterrett,  University  of  Virginia,  Ph.  D.  (Munich, 

1880). 


SECOND  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


15 


F.  H.  Taylor,  Wesleyan  University. 

James  R.  Wheeler,  A.  B.  (University  of  Vermont,  1880), 
Graduate  Student  of  Harvard  University. 

Frank  E.  Woodruff,  A.  B.  (University  of  Vermont,  1875), 
B.  D.  (Union  Theological  Seminary),  holder  of  a  Fellow- 
ship in  the  Union  Theological  Seminary. 

The  majority  of  these  gentlemen  had  already  studied 
abroad,  some  of  them  for  a  period  of  years,  when  they 
became  members  of  the  School.  All  of  them  will 
complete  a  full  year's  work  except  Mr.  Woodruff,  who 
was  called  during  the  winter  to  a  professorship  in  the 
Andover  Theological  Seminary,  and  found  it  neces- 
sary to  leave  Athens  for  Germany. 

Each  member  has  pursued  some  definite  subject  of 
study,  and  will  finally  embody  the  results  of  his  work 
in  a  thesis,  which  may  be  published  in  the  Bulletin 
of  the  School.  Dr.  Sterrett,  for  example,  is  to  edit 
the  inscriptions  found  at  Assos  by  the  explorers  de- 
spatched thither  by  the  Institute ;  Mr.  Wheeler  is 
investigating  the  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  after  a  new  sur- 
vey begun  by  Ziller  and  completed  by  Mr.  Bacon  of 
the  Assos  Expedition ;  Mr.  Shorey  has  made  studies 
preparatory  to  an  edition  of  Theocritus ;  Mr.  Fowler 
will  present  a  thesis  upon  the  Erechtheum  ;  and  Dr. 
Crow,  aided  by  Mr.  Clarke,  leader  of  the  Assos  Expe- 
dition, with  a  careful  survey,  hopes  to  settle  definitely 
some  of  the  vexed  questions  relating  to  the  Pnyx. 

Each  Wednesday  evening  since  November  a  meet- 
ing has  been  held  at  the  library  of  the  School,  at  which 


l6  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

a  paper  was  presented  by  the  Director  or  one  of  the 
members,  which  was  then  discussed.  Among  the  sub- 
jects so  discussed  have  been  the  Olympieum,  the 
Agora,  the  Battle  of  Salamis,  and  the  Theseum.  The 
aim  has  been  to  investigate  some  important  subject, 
however  well  known,  a  thorough  knowledge  of  which 
is  necessary  to  the  archaeologist,  and  has  been  forcibly 
stated  by  the  Director.  Under  date  of  3d  December 
he  writes :  "  I  advised  the  members  not  to  try  to  write 
papers  on  subjects  never  before  discussed ;  as  it  is  just 
this  striving  after  the  absolutely  new  which  makes 
most  scientific  meetings  so  uninteresting  and  unin- 
telligible." These  meetings  have  been  attended  by 
other  persons  besides  the  members  of  the  School, 
chiefly  Americans,  who  asked  to  be  permitted  to  come. 
Meetings  have  been  held  each  week  also,  on  Friday 
evenings,  for  the  study  of  ^Eschylus  and  Thucydides. 
The  Director  speaks  in  the  highest  terms  of  the 
industry  and  enthusiasm  of  the  members. 

On  Saturdays,  excursions  have  been  made  to  places 
of  historic  interest  within  easy  reach  of  Athens.  Longer 
tours  to  the  Peloponnesus  and  to  Delphi  were  planned 
for  the  last  part  of  the  year.  In  the  rule  published  by 
the  Committee  requiring  members  to  prosecute  their 
studies  for  eight  months  of  the  year  in  Greece,  the 
Director  has  interpreted  "  Greece  "  to  mean  all  places 
in  which  Greek  settlements  were  made  and  in  which 
Greek  antiquity  can  be  studied.  Under  this  interpre- 
tation Mr.  Fowler  went  to  Sicily  to  visit  Syracuse,  Agri- 


SECOND  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


17 


gentum,  etc.,  and  Dr.  Sterrett  spent  six  weeks  at  As- 
sos.  During  the  summer  Dr.  Sterrett  is,  by  special 
invitation,  to  go  to  Asia  Minor  with  Mr.  W.  M.  Ram- 
say, who  is  sent  out  under  the  auspices  of  the  Society 
for  the  Promotion  of  Hellenic  Studies. 

As  the  result  of  steps  taken  by  the  Committee, 
the  Director  received  an  official  communication  in 
December  from  the  Secretary  of  State  at  Washington, 
enclosing  one  from  the  Hon.  John  Eaton,  United 
States  Commissioner  of  Education,  appointing  him  an 
Agent  of  the  Bureau  of  Education,  and  recommending 
him  to  the  kind  consideration  of  foreign  officials.  But 
apart  from  this,  the  Director  has  been  received  with 
the  greatest  kindness  by  all  with  whom  he  has  had  to 
do,  from  his  Majesty  the  King  of  the  Hellenes,  and  his 
prime  minister,  to  the  ordinary  citizen.  The  School 
is  already  looked  upon  with  favor  as  a  permanent  in- 
stitution, creditable  alike  to  Athens  and  to  the  United 
States. 

JOHN  WILLIAMS  WHITE, 

Chairman. 


THIRD    ANNUAL  REPORT 


OF  THE  COMMITTEE 

ON  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Archceo logical  Institute : 

Gentlemen,  —  At  a  meeting  held  in  New  York  on 
April  6,  1882,  the  Committee  in  charge  of  the  Ameri- 
can School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  then  num- 
bering ten  members,  appointed  a  sub-committee  of  two 
to  draw  up  for  publication  a  statement  of  the  manner 
in  which  the  School  had  been  organized,  the  object  of 
its  establishment,  and  the  regulations  by  which  it  was 
to  be  controlled.  This  statement  was  based  upon  the 
"  Project  for  the  Establishment  of  an  American  School 
of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens  "  and  the  accompanying 
letter,  addressed  to  the  Presidents  of  the  Colleges  which 
were  to  be  invited  to  co-operate  in  the  foundation  of 
the  School,  which  had  been  published  in  December, 
1 88 1,  (see  First  Report,  pages  4-7,)  with  such  changes 
of  detail  as  the  Committee  had  subsequently  made. 
This  statement  has  since  been  modified  from  time  to 
time  by  the  action  of  the  Committee.  I  have  now  the 
honor  to  present  it  to  you  at  the  end  of  this  Report  in 


20 


THIRD  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


codified  form  as  the  body  of  Regulations  by  which  the 
School  is  controlled.  I  have  prefixed  to  this  Report 
at  the  same  time  the  names  of  the  Managing  Commit- 
tee of  the  School,  of  the  Directors  of  the  School,  and 
of  the  Colleges  uniting  in  its  support. 

By  vote  of  the  Committee  on  November  16,  1883, 
the  Chairman  was  instructed  to  extend  an  invitation 
to  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  to  unite  with  the 
Colleges  associated  in  support  of  the  School.  This 
invitation  was  accepted.  The  co-operating  Colleges 
now  number  fifteen.  Much  to  the  regret  of  the  Com- 
mittee three  Colleges  to  which  the  invitation  had 
been  extended  have  signified  during  the  present  year 
their  inability  to  co-operate, — Williams  College,  Bow- 
doin  College,  and  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Tech- 
nology. 

By  vote  of  the  Committee  on  May  18,  1883,  Pro- 
fessor Martin  L.  D'Ooge  of  the  University  of  Michigan 
was  made  a  member  of  the  Managing  Committee,  and 
Professor  W.  W.  Goodwin  of  Harvard  University,  who 
had  previously  been  an  ex  officio  member  as  Director 
of  the  School,  was  made  a  permanent  member.  The 
resignation  of  Professor  E.  W.  Gurney  of  Harvard 
University  was  received  and  reluctantly  accepted  at 
the  meeting  on  November  16,  1883.  Professor  Gur- 
ney was  one  of  the  five  members  of  the  Committee  as 
first  appointed  by  the  Institute,  and  to  him  is  largely 
due  the  successful  development  of  the  plan  on  which 
the  School  was  organized. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


21 


At  this  meeting  the  Committee  unanimously  invited 
J.  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Professor  of  Greek  in  Wesleyan 
University,  to  become  the  Director  of  the  School  dur- 
ing its  third  year ;  and  the  invitation  was  subsequently 
accepted.  The  Committee  congratulates  itself  on  the 
acceptance  of  Professor  Van  Benschoten,  who  from 
previous  residence  in  Greece,  large  topographical 
knowledge  of  the  country,  and  interest  in  archaeologi- 
cal studies,  is  singularly  well  fitted  to  undertake  the 
direction  of  the  School.  The  Committee  further 
changed  the  regulation  by  which  the  Director  could 
be  elected  only  from  the  Professors  of  Greek  in  the 
Colleges  uniting  in  support  of  the  School,  and  threw 
the  directorship  open  to  Professors  generally  in  the 
co-operating  Colleges.  In  accordance  with  a  vote 
passed  at  this  meeting  the  Chairman  and  Secretary, 
on  January  10,  1884,  sent  a  circular  letter  to  the  Pres- 
ident and  Faculty,  and  also  to  the  Professor  of  Greek, 
of  each  co-operating '  College,  stating  what  opportuni- 
ties for  classical  study  the  School  affords;  inviting 
them  to  bring  these  opportunities,  extended  free  of 
charge  for  tuition,  to  the  attention  of  their  students; 
and  asking  them  to  urge  upon  their  Trustees  the 
advantages  to  be  gained  by  the  creation  of  travelling 
scholarships  to  facilitate  the  attendance  at  the  School 
of  graduates  of  moderate  means.  The  attendance  at 
the  School  was  larger  during  the  first  year  than  it  has 
been  during  the  second.  This  was  to  be  expected, 
since  opportunities  for  systematic  study  at  Athens 


22 


THIRD  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


under  skilled  direction  were  then  offered  for  the  first 
time  to  American  students,  and  immediately  attracted 
to  the  School  pupils  who  have  subsequently  returned 
to  other  parts  of  Europe  and  to  America  for  the  com- 
pletion of  their  studies.  There  is  good  reason  to  be- 
lieve that  a  number  of  competent  students  will  be  in 
attendance  at  the  School  during  the  coming  year. 

The  second  year  of  the  School  was  opened  by  the 
Director,  Professor  Lewis  R.  Packard,  at  Athens,  Oc- 
tober 6,  1883,  in  the  house  on  the  eO§o?  'A/xaAia? 
occupied  by  the  Director  during  the  first  year.  The 
regular  members  of  the  School  during  its  second  year 
have  been  the  following  :  — 

Walter  Ray  Bridgman,  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1881), 
holder  of  the  Soldiers'  Memorial  Fellowship  in  Yale 
College. 

Alexander  Martin  Wilcox,  A.  B.  (Yale  College, 
1877),  Ph.  D.  (Yale  College,  1880). 

Professor  Packard,  having  been  disabled  by  serious 
illness  before  reaching  Athens,  requested  Dr.  J.  R.  S. 
Sterrett  —  who  had  been  a  member  of  the  School  in 
1882-83,  and  who  was  then  at  Smyrna  on  the  eve  of 
departing  into  the  interior  of  Asia  Minor  in  further 
prosecution  of  his  epigraphical  researches  —  to  return 
to  Athens  and  assist  him  in  the  work  of  the  School. 
Dr.  Sterrett  at  once  complied  with  the  request,  and 
has  remained  at  Athens  until  the  present  month. 
Professor  Packard  writes  in  terms  of  praise  of  Dr. 
Sterretts  devotion  to  the  interests  of  the  students 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


23 


during  the  time  when  he  himself  was  too  ill  to  direct 
their  work.  In  consideration  of  these  facts  the  Com- 
mittee, by  unanimous  vote,  made  a  grant  to  Dr.  Ster- 
rett,  in  February,  1884,  of  five  hundred  dollars,  "as 
an  expression  of  their  gratitude  for  the  services  ren- 
dered by  him  to  the  School,  and  of  their  interest  in 
and  high  appreciation  of  the  results  of  his  personal 
studies."  Dr.  Sterrett  proposes  to  spend  the  coming 
summer  in  Asia  Minor  on  an  expedition  through 
some  of  the  least  well  known  regions  of  the  land,  in 
company  with  Mr.  W.  M.  Ramsay.  The  volume 
of  Papers  of  the  School  about  to  be  published  will 
show  conclusively  the  singular  fitness  of  Dr.  Sterrett 
for  the  work  to  which  he  has  devoted  himself. 

The  Director's  house  was  furnished  by  the  Com- 
mittee during  the  first  year  with  the  heavier  and  most 
needful  articles  at  an  expense  of  $1175.  Some  addi- 
tions have  been  made  to  the  furniture  during  the 
present  year,  but  it  is  still  true  that  the  Director  him- 
self furnishes  his  house  in  part.  The  library  of  the 
School  has  received  large  additions,  so  that  when  the 
books  now  ordered  shall  have  been  received  it  will 
number  about  eight  hundred  volumes  (exclusive  of 
periodicals  and  pamphlets),  illustrating  the  history, 
geography,  antiquities,  and  art  of  ancient  Greece. 
Works  of  this  kind  are  expensive,  and  at  the  end  of 
the  second  year  the  books  in  the  library  obtained  by 
direct  purchase  will  have  cost  $2500.  Of  this  sum  the 
Committee  voted  from  its  funds  $2000.    The  remain- 


24 


THIRD  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


ing  $500  was  the  gift  of  a  friend  of  the  School  who 
does  not  permit  his  name  to  be  mentioned,  made 
through  the  Hon.  Eugene  Schuyler,  Minister  of  the 
United  States  at  Athens,  who  in  many  other  ways  has 
advanced  the  interests  of  the  School.  In  addition  to 
the  volumes  obtained  by  direct  purchase  through  the 
authority  of  the  Committee,  others  have  been  received 
from  individual  friends  who  appreciated  the  importance 
of  the  library  to  the  members  of  the  School  and  de- 
sired its  enlargement.  And  it  is  important  that  the 
student  should  have  easy  command  during  the  whole 
of  the  day  and  evening  in  a  comfortable  room  of  the 
books  needed  for  the  successful  prosecution  of  the  work 
in  which  he  is  engaged.  The  economy  of  time  and  la- 
bor and  temper  thus  secured  is  great.  It  is  earnestly  to 
be  hoped  that  through  the  liberality  of  friends  and  such 
yearly  appropriations  as  the  Committee  shall  be  able 
to  make  the  School  will  soon  come  to  possess  a  good 
special  consulting  library.  It  is  neither  possible  nor 
desirable  to  add  to  the  collection  works  of  a  miscel- 
laneous character. 

Six  of  the  seven  regular  members  of  the  School 
during  the  first  year  named  in  my  last  Report  com- 
pleted the  full  year's  study  with  results  approved  by 
the  Director,  and  will,  in  accordance  with  the  regula- 
tions, each  receive  a  certificate  stating  the  work  ac- 
complished by  him  and  signed  by  the  Director  of  the 
School,  the  President  of  the  Archaeological  Institute, 
and  the  other  members  of  the  Committee.    The  theses 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


25 


presented  by  these  gentlemen  were  upon  the  following 
subjects  :  — 

1.  The  Pnyx :  by  Dr.  Crow  (who  had  the  benefit  of  a  new 
and  careful  survey  of  the  so-called  Pnyx  at  Athens,  made  by 
Mr.  Joseph  T.  Clarke). 

2.  The  Erechtheum  :  by  Mr.  Fowler. 

3.  The  Life,  Poems,  and  Language  of  Theocritus,  with  spe- 
cimens of  a  Commentary  :  by  Mr.  Shorey. 

4.  The  Inscriptions  discovered  at  Assos  by  the  Expedition 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America  :  by  Dr.  Sterrett. 

5.  The  Value  of  Modern  Greek  to  the  Classical  Student : 
by  Mr.  Taylor. 

6.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus  at  Athens  :  by  Mr.  Wheeler. 

These  theses,  in  conformity  to  the  regulations,  were 
sent  by  the  Director  to  me  as  Chairman  of  the  Man- 
aging Committee,  and  were  by  me  submitted  in  each 
case  to  a  sub-committee  of  three  for  examination. 
Those  recommended  for  publication  will  appear  in 
the  first  and  second  volumes  of  the  Papers  of  the 
School. 

The  Report  of  the  first  Director,  Professor  W.  W. 
Goodwin,  was  presented  to  the  Committee  at  its  first 
semiannual  meeting  for  the  year,  held  at  New  York  on 
November  16,  1883.  This  Report  was  approved,  and 
was  subsequently  printed  as  the  first  Bulletin  of  the 
School,  and  has  received  wide  circulation.  At  this 
meeting  the  sub-committee  on  the  Publications  of  the 
School,  which  had  been  appointed  a  year  previously 
and  had  reported  progress  at  the  following  semiannual 


26 


THIRD  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


meeting  in  May,  made  a  final  report  in  print  which 
was  adopted  with  some  modifications.  According  to 
the  plan  adopted,  the  Committee  is  to  publish,  in  addi- 
tion to  Bulletins  containing  the  reports  of  Directors, 
a  yearly  volume  of  Papers  of  the  School  to  be  made 
up  from  the  work  of  the  Director  and  students  during 
the  previous  year.  This  volume,  as  also  the  Bulletins, 
is  to  conform  in  general  style  to  the  Papers  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute.  The  expense  of  these  publi- 
cations, to  an  amount  not  exceeding  $1000  per  annum, 
is  to  be  met  from  the  funds  of  the  School.  Copies  of 
all  publications  are  to  be  sent  free  to  the  libraries  of 
the  co-operating  Colleges  and  to  such  learned  bodies  as 
the  Committee  may  select,  and  are  further  to  be  placed 
for  sale  at  a  proper  discount  with  leading  booksellers. 
The  proceeds  of  sales  are  to  be  appropriated  toward 
the  cost  of.  publication.  The  first  volume  of  Papers 
will  be  edited  by  Professor  Goodwin  and  Mr.  Thomas 
W.  Ludlow,  the  Secretary  of  the  Committee.  The 
material  is  now  ready,  and  the  volume  will  go  to  press 
immediately.  It  is  expected  that  the  second  volume 
of  Papers  will  follow  within  less  than  a  year. 

Your  Committee,  from  the  time  of  its  appointment 
by  the  Archaeological  Institute  at  its  annual  meeting 
in  the  year  1881,  has  kept  in  mind  its  original  plan  of 
ultimately  establishing  the  School  upon  the  basis  of  a 
permanent  endowment.  The  present  plan  both  for 
the  maintenance  and  for  the  direction  of  the  School 
is  temporary.    All  obligations  assumed  by  the  co- 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  A  THENS. 


27 


operating  Colleges  will  cease  at  the  end  of  ten  years, 
that  is,  with  the  close  of  the  college  year  1891-92. 
Several  of  the  Colleges,  indeed,  subscribe  from  year 
to  year,  without  a  definite  pledge  of  continuing  their 
contributions  for  the  entire  term  ;  and  in  the  instance 
of  one  of  them  the  subscription  is  still  provisional. 
But  the  Committee,  with  the  experience  of  two  years 
to  guide  it,  is  convinced  that  the  adoption  in  1881  of 
the  present  plan  of  organization  was  wise.  It  may  be 
true  that  it  would  have  been  better  if  the  School  could 
then  have  been  opened  with  a  more  stable  and  elabo- 
rate organization  than  the  present,  on  a  basis  of  sup- 
port assured  by  a  permanent  endowment  of  $150,000. 
But  it  is  also  true  that  it  would  probably  have  been 
impossible  to  obtain  a  permanent  endowment  of  this 
amount  before  the  importance  of  such  a  School  to 
the  advance  of  classical  studies  in  America  had  been 
demonstrated.  The  plan  adopted  was  practicable. 
And  while  temporary  in  character  and  possessed  of 
features  which  would  be  open  to  objection  if  it  were 
to  be  permanent,  it  has  much  to  commend  it  The 
close  union  of  fifteen  Colleges  in  the  promotion  of  a 
common  object  is  a  spectacle  unique  in  this  country, 
where  the  relations  between  the  colleges  are  far  too 
slight,  and  it  is  a  cheering  indication  of  the  future 
successful  development  among  us  of  classical  studies 
in  fields  heretofore  little  cultivated.  These  Colleges 
have  agreed  each  to  contribute  annually  a  sum  for 
the  furtherance  of  the  object  for  which  the  School 


28 


THIRD  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


was  founded,  to  send  from  their  number  each  year  to 
Athens  a  Director  to  take  charge  of  its  work,  and  to 
encourage  young  men  of  promise  among  their  gradu- 
ates to  avail  themselves  of  the  opportunities  it  offers, 
But  the  interest  thus  awakened  by  active  participation 
extends  beyond  the  Colleges.  For  the  yearly  contribu- 
tions are  made,  in  the  majority  of  instances,  by  gradu- 
ates and  friends  of  the  contributing  Colleges,  who  thus 
become  personally  interested  in  the  work  and  welfare 
of  the  School.  If  the  School  demonstrates  its  useful- 
ness, it  will  be  this  large  body  of  friends,  and  those 
whom  they  will  address,  who  will  not  leave  unheeded 
an  appeal  for  a  permanent  endowment. 

One  peculiar  feature  of  the  present  temporary  or- 
ganization of  the  School  which  distinguishes  it  from  the 
German  and  French  schools  in  Athens  is  the  yearly 
change  of  Director.  That  the  Director  should  through 
all  the  future  history  of  the  School  continue  to  be  a 
Professor  sent  from  one  of  the  contributing  Colleges 
under  an  annual  appointment  is  an  arrangement  which 
would  be  as  undesirable  as  it  would  be  impossible. 
The  objections  to  this  as  a  permanent  plan  have  been 
forcibly  stated  by  the  first  Director  in  his  report  to 
your  Committee.  But  such  an  arrangement  is  not 
contemplated.  When  established  by  a  permanent  en- 
dowment, the  School  will  be  under  the  control  of  a 
permanent  Director,  —  a  scholar  who  by  continuous 
residence  at  Athens  will  gradually  accumulate  that 
body  of  local  and  special  knowledge  without  which  the 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


highest  functions  of  the  School  cannot  be  maintained. 
In  the  mean  time  the  School  has  a  special  duty  of  great 
importance,  which  its  present  organization  enables  it 
to  meet.  It  cannot  hope  immediately  to  accomplish 
special  work  in  archaeological  investigation  which  will 
put  it  on  a  level  with  the  German  and  French  schools. 
They  also  had  their  time  of  growth.  And  an  Ameri- 
can school  in  particular  should  at  the  first  not  so 
much  aim  at  distinguished  achievements  as  seek  to 
arouse  in  American  Colleges  a  genuine  interest  in 
classical  archaeology  in  general.  The  lack  of  such 
interest  heretofore  is  conspicuous.  Without  such 
interest  an  American  School  at  Athens,  however 
well  endowed,  could  not  accomplish  the  best  results. 
That  the  presence  in  various  Colleges  of  Professors 
who  shall  have  been  resident  a  year  at  Athens  under 
favorable  circumstances,  in  practical  direction  of  the 
School,  will  do  much  to  increase  this  interest,  must  be 
beyond  dispute. 

Your  Committee,  therefore,  are  hopeful  of  good 
results  of  wide-spread  influence  from  the  present  or- 
ganization of  the  School.  But  nevertheless  having 
from  the  first  seen  the  necessity  of  taking  steps  for 
the  accumulation  of  a  permanent  endowment,  they 
instructed  their  chairman,  at  their  semiannual  meeting 
held  in  New  York  on  November  16,  1883,  to  appoint 
a  provisional  committee  of  three  to  report  at  their 
next  regular  meeting  a  detailed  scheme  for  securing 
a  permanent  fund.    This  provisional  committee,  fur- 


30 


THIRD  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


ther,  is  to  nominate  a  permanent  committee,  represented 
in  the  chief  cities  throughout  the  country,  to  carry  out 
the  scheme  and  to  appoint  trustees,  whose  duty  it 
shall  be  to  take  charge  of  the  funds  as  collected,  to 
invest  them,  and  to  hold  them  in  trust  for  the  purposes 
of  the  School.  I  shall  hope  from  time  to  time  in  the 
future  to  report  to  you  the  successful  execution  of 
this  plan. 

JOHN  WILLIAMS  WHITE, 

Chairman. 


I^jmologitd  Institute  of  %mtxuu. 


FOURTH   ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES   AT  ATHENS. 

1884-85. 


CAMBRIDGE: 
JOHN    WILSON    AND  SON. 
SKmtorsttg  Ipress. 
1885. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


1884-1885. 


JUanagmg  (JTommittee. 

John  Williams  White  {Chairman),  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York,  N.  Y. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 
Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 
William  W.  Goodwin,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
William  G.  Hale,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 
Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary),  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton  (ex  officio),  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Francis  W.  Palfrey,  255  Beacon  St.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer),  7  East  42d  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour,  Yale  College,  New  Haven,  Conn. 

William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.J. 

W.  S.  Tyler,  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

J.  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 

John  H.  Wheeler,  University  of  Virginia,  Va. 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


jpirectorg. 

William  Watson  Goodwin,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  Eliot  Professor  of  Greek 
Literature  in  Harvard  University.  1882-83. 

Lewis  R.  Packard,  Ph.D.,  Hillhouse  Professor  of  Greek  in  Yale  Col- 
lege.   1883-84.  ' 

James  Cooke  Van  Benschoten,  LL.D.,  Seney  Professor  of  the  Greek 
Language  and  Literature  in  Wesleyan  University.  1884-85. 


(Cooperating  (Eollegcg. 

AMHERST  COLLEGE.  DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 

BROWN  UNIVERSITY.  HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 
COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK.        JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 

COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY.  UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 

COLUMBIA  COLLEGE.  UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA. 

CORNELL  UNIVERSITY.  WESLEYAN  UNIVERSITY. 

YALE  COLLEGE. 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Archceological  Institute  of  America  : 

Gentlemen, —  It  is  my  sad  duty  to  announce  to 
you  the  death  of  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Ph.D.,  Hillhouse 
Professor  of  Greek  in  Yale  College,  the  second  Direc- 
tor of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at 
Athens,  and  a  member  of  its  Managing  Committee. 
The  last  service  which  Professor  Packard  rendered 
to  the  cause  of  learning  was  given  to  the  School  at 
Athens.  He  died  at  New  Haven,  Conn.,  October 
26,  1884,  four  months  after  he  returned  from  Greece 
at  the  expiration  of  the  term  of  his  directorship.  The 
Committee  feel  keenly  the  loss  that  classical  studies 
have  sustained  in  the  death  at  middle  age  of  a  man  in 
whom  were  united  in  happy  adjustment  such  thorough- 
ness of  training,  high  scholarship,  independence  of 
opinion,  and  ready  and  sympathetic  appreciation ;  and 


6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


they  have  made  a  record  of  their  judgment  of  his 
great  learning,  and  of  their  sense  of  his  complete  de- 
votion to  the  School,  in  their  second  Bulletin.  This 
has  just  been  published,  and  contains,  besides  the  usual 
matter,  the  resolutions  passed  by  the  Committee  on 
the  death  of  Professor  Packard,  a  brief  memoir  of  his 
life,  and  such  an  account  of  the  year  of  his  directorship 
as  could  be  prepared  from  his  letters  to  the  Chairman 
of  the  Committee  and  from  other  sources. 

The  reports  of  your  Committee  have  heretofore  been 
made  to  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute,  and  have  been  presented  by  them  to  the  In- 
stitute in  print,  in  connexion  with  their  own  reports, 
at  the  annual  meetings  held  on  the  third  Saturday  in 
May,  The  present  report,  as  was  announced  in  the 
last  annual  report  of  the  Council,  was  unavoidably  de- 
layed. The  second  preliminary  report  for  the  last  year 
from  the  Director  of  the  School  to  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee, upon  which  the  Committee  relied,  as  is  yearly 
the  case,  for  information,  from  unfortunate  causes  failed 
to  come  to  hand  until  the  last  of  May.  It  was  impos- 
sible without  this  to  give  any  trustworthy  account  that 
should  be  complete  of  the  work  of  the  past  year.  This 
is  simply  an  aggravated  form  of  the  embarrassment 
annually  felt  in  making  a  report  on  the  School  for 
any  year  before  that  year  has  come  to  a  close.  It  is, 
perhaps,  advisable  to  take  advantage  of  accident,  and 
make  permanent  the  change  of  time  at  which  the  Com- 
mittee's report  shall  be  made  to  you.    Owing  to  the 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 

I 


reorganization  of  the  Institute  in  October,  1884,  the 
Council  now  holds  its  annual  meeting  on  the  second 
Saturday  of  May,  —  a  week  earlier  than  the  Insti- 
tute has  met  heretofore.  It  would  be  difficult  to 
make  an  adequate  report  as  early  as  this.  The  Man- 
aging Committee  holds  two  regular  meetings  in  each 
year,  on  the  third  Friday  in  November  and  on  the 
third  Friday  in  May.  The  School  year  extends  from 
the  first  of  October  to  the  first  of  June,  during  which 
time  members  are  required  to  prosecute  their  studies 
exclusively  in  Greek  lands.  But  four  months  more  are 
necessary  to  complete  a  full  year,  twelve  months  being 
the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given.  The 
Director  commonly  does  not  return,  nor  are  the  finan- 
cial accounts  closed,  till  the  first  of  October.  It  is 
very  desirable  that  the  report  of  the  Committee  to 
the  Council  should  present  a  complete  general  account 
of  the  affairs  of  the  School  for  the  whole  previous  year. 
If,  therefore,  the  change  meets  with  your  approval,  the 
annual  report  will  hereafter  be  presented  to  you  sepa- 
rately, in  print,  in  the  autumn.  This  will  be  followed  in 
January  by  the  regular  annual  Bulletin  of  the  School, 
containing  the  full  report  of  the  work  done  at  Athens 
the  previous  year,  made  by  the  Director,  and  the  report 
of  the  more  important  business  transacted  at  the  two 
semi-annual  sessions  of  the  Committee,  made  by  its 
Secretary. 

Your  Committee  has  the  satisfaction  of  announcing 
that  the  first  volume  of  Papers  of  the  School  was 


3 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


published  in  February,  1885,  under  the  editorial  super- 
vision of  Professor  W.  W.  Goodwin,  first  Director  of  the 
School,  and  Mr.  Thomas  W.  Ludlow,  Secretary  of  the 
Committee.  This  volume,  which  is  a  handsome  octavo 
of  262  pages,  conforming  in  general  style  to  the  papers 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  and  is  fully  illustrated, 
represents  the  work  done  by  the  School  in  1882-83. 
It  contains  the  following  papers  :  — 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R.  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier. 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salamis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 

This  volume  of  Papers  has  been  sent  to  the  libraries 
of  all  the  contributing  Colleges,  and  to  various  learned 
bodies  in  this  country  and  in  Europe,  and  has  had  be- 
sides wide  circulation.  A  second  edition  has  been 
called  for.  It  has  been  received  with  lively  interest, 
and  reflects  honor  upon  the  Institute.  As  an  expo- 
nent of  solid  and  valuable  work  on  special  subjects, 
performed  by  our  students  at  Athens  in  connexion 
with  their  general  studies  in  art,  architecture,  topog- 
raphy, inscriptions,  language,  and  literature,  the  vol- 
ume confirms  and  strengthens  the  conviction  of  the 
usefulness  of  the  School  felt  by  its  friends  and  sup- 
porters when  they  founded  it;  and  we  trust  it  may 
be  one  of  the  effective  means  by  which  the  School 
will  gradually  win  the  confidence  and  support  of  those 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


9 


who  are  able  to  put  it  upon  a  secure  and  permanent 
footing. 

The  regulations  of  the  School  provide  that  a  vol- 
ume of  Papers  similar  to  this  shall  be  published  annu- 
ally, to  be  made  up  from  the  work  of  the  Director  and 
the  students  during  the  previous  year.  This  regula- 
tion, however,  falls  into  temporary  abeyance.  At  its 
meeting  held  May  15,  1885,  the  Committee  voted  that, 
on  account  of  the  confusion  and  delay  resulting  from 
the  second  Director's  illness,  the  papers  of  his  year 
should  be  combined  with  those  of  the  third  year,  and 
that  these  should  together  form  the  second  volume 
of  Papers  of  the  School.  This  volume  will  include 
Dr.  Sterrett's  Preliminary  Report  of  his  journey  in 
Asia  Minor  in  the  summer  of  1884,  with  his  collec- 
tion of  inscriptions  (including  those  of  forty-two  Ro- 
man mile-stones),  which  has  already  been  published  in 
separate  form ;  and  probably  Professor  Crow's  paper 
on  the  Pnyx  at  Athens,  which  belongs  to  the  work 
of  the  first  year  of  the  School.  The  material  for 
this  second  volume  of  Papers  is  now  fairly  ready,  and 
its  publication  in  the  course  of  the  next  year  may 
be  confidently  predicted.  The  publications  of  the 
Committee  now  comprise  the  first  volume  of  Papers, 
Dr.  Sterrett's  Preliminary  Report,  four  Reports,  and 
two  Bulletins.  For  the  convenience  of  the  Council  a 
formal  list  of  these  is  added  at  the  end  of  this  report. 

It  is,  perhaps,  not  inappropriate  at  this  point  to 
speak  of  the  distinguished  work  of  exploration  accom- 


IO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS, 


plished  by  one  of  the  first  members  of  the  School,  Dr. 
J.  R.  S.  Sterrett.  Dr.  Sterrett,  who  had  previously 
studied  at.  the  University  of  Virginia  and  in  Germany, 
receiving  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy  at  the 
University  of  Munich  in  1880,  left  the  United  States 
in  the  autumn  of  1882,  and  became  a  member  of 
the  School  at  Athens.  In  April  of  the  next  year  he 
went  to  Assos,  to  study  the  inscriptions  collected  in 
1881-82  by  the  expedition  sent  out  by  the  Archae- 
ological Institute.  These  he  edited,  and  they  were 
subsequently  published,  as  before  stated,  in  the  first 
volume  of  Papers.  During  the  following  summer  he 
accompanied  Mr.  W.  M.  Ramsay,  now  Professor  of 
Archaeology  at  the  University  of  Oxford,  into  Asia 
Minor.  Professor  Ramsay  was  then  prosecuting  re- 
searches by  means  of  the  Asia  Minor  Exploration 
Fund,  which  had  been  subscribed  in  England  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Hel- 
lenic Studies.  One  of  the  results  of  this  expedition 
was  the  collection  of  inscriptions  of  Tralles,  which 
were  copied  by  these  gentlemen  with  much  difficulty 
and  no  little  personal  danger.  These  inscriptions 
were  first  published  by  Dr.  Sterrett  in  the  Mittheilun- 
gen  of  the  German  Archaeological  Institute  at  Athens, 
and  later,  with  important  changes,  in  the  Papers  of  the 
American  School.  Dr.  Sterrett  was  at  Smyrna  in  the 
following  September,  on  the  point  of  again  departing 
into  the  interior  in  prosecution  of  his  epigraphical  re- 
searches, when  he  was  recalled  to  Athens  by  Professor 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


Packard.  His  immediate  and  generous  response,  and 
his  connexion  with  the  School  during  the  following 
year,  are  fully  related  in  the  second  Bulletin.  Dr. 
Sterrett  devoted  the  summer  of  1884  in  like  manner 
to  researches  in  Asia  Minor.  The  results  of  this  tour 
are  given  in  the  Preliminary  Report  above  mentioned, 
which  was  published  by  the  Committee  in  January  of 
the  present  year. 

Dr.  Sterrett  had  stated  to  me  that  he  was  without 
private  means  for  making  further  archaeological  ex- 
plorations. Your  Committee  were  loath  that  a  man 
who  had  attached  himself  to  the  School  at  the  begin- 
ning, who  had  devoted  himself  so  generously  to  its 
interests,  who  had  manifested  such  patience,  courage, 
and  skill  in  the  exploration  of  fields  rich  in  prom- 
ise but  full  of  danger  to  the  explorer,  should  be 
recalled  from  the  chosen  scene  of  his  devoted  and 
successful  labors  by  such  considerations ;  and  they 
unanimously  voted,  at  the  meeting  held  May  16,  1884, 
to  appoint  Dr.  Sterrett  the  assistant  of  the  Director 
for  1884-85,  with  the  title  of  Secretary  of  the  School, 
on  a  salary  of  $500.  This  was  the  largest  sum  at 
the  command  of  the  Committee ;  but  it  was  thought 
that  it  would  enable  him  to  live  with  economy  at 
Athens  during  the  eight  months  of  the  School  year, 
and  that  during  this  time  he  would  be  able  to  prepare 
for  publication  a  final  statement  of  the  results  of  his 
previous  summers  work.  The  Committee  then  enter- 
tained the  hope,  which  was  afterwards  realized,  that 


I  2 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


means  could  be  provided  for  sending  him  again  into 
Asia  Minor  in  the  summer  of  1885. 

Dr.  Sterrett  was  prevented  from  undertaking  the 
secretaryship  of  the  School  by  his  acceptance  of  an 
invitation  extended  to  him  by  Dr.  W.  H.  Ward,  of 
New  York  City,  who  proposed  that  he  should  join 
him  and  Mr.  Haynes  as  a  member  of  the  Wolfe  ex- 
pedition into  Babylonia  sent  out  under  the  auspices  of 
the  Archaeological  Institute.  Dr.  Sterrett  left  Athens 
in  October,  and  proceeded  as  far  as  Bagdad,  which  was 
reached  January  1,  1885.  Here  his  health  unfortu- 
nately broke  down,  and  he  was  obliged  to  leave  the 
party.  His  illness  was  lingering  and  severe,  but  he 
eventually  recovered  his  health.  Though  unable  to 
take  full  part  in  the  expedition,  his  journey,  as  he  him- 
self wrote,  was  not  without  educational  results  of  great 
value  to  him.  The  Committee  was  enabled,  by  the 
liberality  of  Miss  Catharine  L.  Wolfe,  of  New  York 
City,  to  send  him  in  February,  1885,  the  sum  of  $1,000, 
with  which  to  carry  on  his  researches  in  Asia  Minor 
the  following  summer.  Miss  Wolfe's  generous  gift  was 
not  misbestowed.  The  results  of  Dr.  Sterrett's  jour- 
ney, which  was  properly  confined  within  narrow  limits, 
are  of  extraordinary  interest.  He  copied  six  hundred 
and  eleven  inscriptions,  almost  all  of  them  new,  al- 
though many  of  them  may  not  be  of  great  intrinsic 
value.  His  geographical  work  was  of  substantial  and 
enduring  character.  He  gathered  material  from  which 
he  will  be  able  to  construct  the  map  of  large  districts 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


13 


hitherto  imperfectly  known.  He  discovered  the  sites 
of  a  number  of  ancient  towns,  some  of  which  can  be 
named  from  direct  epigraphic  evidence,  some  from 
general  considerations.  Among  these  are  Lystra  of 
the  New  Testament,  and  the  second  Isaura.  But  Dr. 
Sterrett  must  not  be  anticipated  and  robbed  of  the  sat- 
isfaction of  making  his  own  statement  of  the  brilliant 
results  of  his  summer's  expedition.  It  is  sufficient  to 
add  that  a  European  archaeologist  of  signal  attain- 
ments and  distinguished  reputation  has  expressed  di- 
rectly to  the  Chairman  of  your  Committee  the  opinion 
that  the  magnificent  collection  of  inscriptions  which 
Dr.  Sterrett  now  has  will  make  a  publication  of  the 
very  first  importance ;  that  it  will  be  the  third  great 
event  in  Anatolian  epigraphy,  —  the  first  two  being 
the  Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum  and  the  Lebas- 
Waddington  collection. 

To  prepare  properly  the  results  of  this  noteworthy 
journey  for  publication  will  be  a  work  of  difficulty.  It 
will  require  time,  free  access  to  libraries,  and  frequent 
consultation  with  living  authorities,  and  can  hardly  be 
done  elsewhere  than  in  Europe.  It  is  of  absolute  and 
unquestionable  importance  to  the  Institute  that  the 
account  shall  be  written  under  circumstances  that  will 
ensure  strict  accuracy,  and  Dr.  Sterrett  should  re- 
ceive generous  support.  The  Committee  will  not  be 
able  to  devote  funds  to  this  purpose  from  its  own 
resources,  and  must  look  to  the  friends  of  the  School 
for  help. 


14 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


The  third  year  of  the  School  was  opened  by  the 
Director,  Professor  J.  C.  Van  Benschoten,  at  Athens, 
October  i,  1884,  in  the  house  occupied  during  the 
two  previous  years.  But  one  regular  member  has  been 
present  during  the  third  year ;  namely, 

Thomas  Hooper  Eckfeldt,  A.  B.  (Wesleyan  University, 
1882). 

Mr.  Eckfeldt  will  present  a  thesis  on  the  Temple  of 
Asklepios  at  Epidaurus. 

The  Committee  had  admitted  one  other  member  by 
special  vote  at  its  meeting  held  May  16,  1884,  and  in- 
quiries had  come  from  other  persons,  who  stated  their 
expectation  of  becoming  members  of  the  School  dur- 
ing 1884-85.  The  reason  why  these  students  did  not 
appear  and  enter  upon  their  work  was  undoubtedly 
the  prevalence  of  Asiatic  cholera  in  the  Mediterra- 
nean basin.  The  alarm  in  Southern  Europe  on 
account  of  the  cholera  in  the  autumn  of  1884  was 
phenomenal,  amounting  almost  to  a  panic.  Athens, 
however,  remained  free  from  the  scourge,  and  was  gen- 
erally healthful.  A  number  of  young  men,  all  grad- 
uates of  American  colleges,  accepted  the  hospitality 
of  the  School  for  a  longer  or  shorter  time  in  the 
course  of  the  winter,  receiving  the  assistance  and 
advice  of  the  Director  and  making  free  use  of  the 
library.  Two  gentlemen,  Mr.  Eckfeldt  and  Profes- 
sor Thomas  W.  Kelsey,  of  Lake  Forest  University, 
accompanied  Professor  Van  Benschoten  in  his  tour 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


*5 


through  Peloponnesus  in  April,  1885,  and  afterwards 
went  with  him  to  Asia  Minor. 

Aside  from  such  special  causes  as  the  one  just 
mentioned,  there  are  two  important  reasons  why  large 
numbers  of  students  have  not  already  availed  them- 
selves of  the  singular  advantages  offered  by  the 
School.  First,  its  existence  is  not  sufficiently  well 
known  throughout  the  country.  It  was  not,  perhaps, 
reasonable  to  expect  that  the  fact  of  the  foundation  of 
such  a  school  could  be  communicated  at  once  to  all 
persons  interested,  or  that  these  persons,  when  their 
attention  had  been  called  to  it  and  its  plan  of  organ- 
ization had  been  made  known  to  them,  could  make 
their  arrangements  immediately  to  avail  themselves  of 
its  privileges.  The  Committee  has  not  failed  to  realize 
the  need  of  making  the  existence  of  the  School  known. 
As  stated  in  its  last  report  (page  7),  it  first  addressed 
itself  on  this  subject  to  the  Faculties  and  Professors  of 
Greek  in  the  co-operating  colleges,  in  January,  1884. 
Again,  in  January,  1885,  the  Secretary,  by  instruction 
of  the  Committee,  sent  to  the  proper  officers  of  the 
colleges  of  the  country  generally  a  circular  of  nine 
pages,  giving  a  satisfactory  account  of  the  organization 
of  the  School  and  its  object,  with  a  request  that  they 
would  insert  in  their  catalogues  some  notice  of  the 
opportunities  which  it  offered,  and  would  bring  these 
opportunities  to  the  attention  of  their  students.  A 
second  reason  why  attendance  has  been  small  is  that 
students  at  the  American  School  are  obliged  to  pay 


i6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS, 


their  own  charges ;  no  scholarships  have  as  yet  been 
founded,  either  by  the  Committee  or  the  Institute,  or 
by  the  beneficence  of  individuals,  on  the  income  of 
which  students  could  be  sent  to  Greece.  In  this  re- 
gard the  American  School  is  greatly  at  a  disadvantage 
as  compared  with  the  French  and  German  Schools  in 
Athens.  In  both  of  these,  students  are  supported  at 
the  expense  of  their  governments.  Six  scholarships, 
of  the  value  of  $800  each,  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the 
Committee,  to  be  assigned  by  a  rigorous  competitive 
examination  on  a  course  of  study  duly  announced  be- 
forehand, would  in  course  of  time  have  a  telling  effect 
for  good  upon  the  classical  scholarship  of  the  country. 
There  must  be  in  the  United  States  a  large  number  of 
persons  of  ability  who  are  already  teachers  of  Greek,  or 
propose  to  become  such,  who  realize  the  importance 
of  a  year's  study  at  Athens  under  competent  guid- 
ance. Many  of  these  are  absolutely  debarred  from 
going  abroad  by  lack  of  means ;  others  of  them  will  go 
sooner  or  later,  at  whatever  cost  or  hardship.  It  would 
be  a  great  mistake  to  conclude  that,  because  the  School 
has  not  been  crowded,  it  has  no  function.  Deterring 
causes  must  be  taken  into  account,  and  time  for  growth 
must  be  patiently  granted  it.  In  the  mean  time,  the 
fact  should  be  published  as  widely  as  possible  that  it 
is  open  to  all  persons,  both  men  and  women,  who  are 
properly  qualified  to  avail  themselves  of  its  advantages. 
In  view  of  the  difficulties  named,  it  is  with  especial 
satisfaction  that  I  am  able  to  announce  with  certainty 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  17 

that  there  will  be  at  least  five  students  in  attendance 
at  the  school  during  its  fourth  year. 

The  reception  extended  to  Professor  Van  Benscho- 
ten  at  Athens  was  of  the  most  friendly  character.  In 
his  second  preliminary  report  to  the  Committee  he 
dwells  upon  the  exceeding  kindness  of  the  King  and 
the  Greek  people.  The  learned  societies  sent  their 
welcome,  and  emphasized  it  in  substantial  form  by 
copies  of  their  publications.  The  two  elder  Archae- 
ological Schools  vied  with  one  another  in  cordial 
helpfulness  toward  the  American  School.  And  the 
representatives  of  the  British  School  were  no  less 
hearty  and  friendly.  The  disposition  of  the  Greek 
Government  toward  the  School  is  shown  in  its  gen- 
erous offer  to  confer  upon  it  the  full  right  and  title 
to  a  site  for  a  building. 

The  library  grows  steadily,  and  increases  in  use- 
fulness. The  Committee  devoted  last  year  the  sum 
of  $647.32  to  the  purchase  of  books.  The  liberal- 
ity of  individuals  also  is  constantly  increasing  the 
collection. 

I  regret  to  announce  the  withdrawal  of  two  of  the 
supporting  colleges,  —  the  University  of  California  and 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  The  first  contrib- 
uted to  the  support  of  the  School  during  its  first  two 
years,  the  second  during  the  third  year  only.  The 
withdrawal  of  the  first  leaves  the  School  without  a 
representative  on  the  Pacific  coast.  The  Committee 
regrets  the  loss  of  the  active  support  of  these  two 


i8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


great  universities,  but  is  glad  still  to  have  the  assur- 
ance of  their  friendly  interest.  The  contributing 
colleges  now  number  thirteen.  By  vote  of  May  15, 
1885,  the  Chairman  was  instructed  to  extend  the  in- 
vitation of  the  Committee  to  six  other  colleges ; 
namely,  Boston  University,  Kenyon  College,  Lafayette 
College,  Rochester  University,  Tufts  College,  and  the 
University  of  Vermont. 

By  vote  of  the  Committee  November  21,  1884, 
Professor  Thomas  D.  Seymour,  of  Yale  College,  and 
Professor  John  H.  Wheeler,  of  the  University  of  Vir- 
ginia, were  made  members  of  the  Managing  Commit- 
tee. By  vote  of  May  15,  1885,  Professor  Francis 
Brown,  of  the  Union  Theological  Seminary,  and  Pro- 
fessor William  G.  Hale,  of  Cornell  University,  were 
also  added  to  its  number.  Each  of  the  contributing 
colleges  is  now  represented  on  the  Committee  by  at 
least  one  member. 

At  the  last  meeting  the  Committee  unanimously  in- 
vited Frederic  De  Forest  Allen,  Professor  of  Classical 
Philology  in  Harvard  University,  to  become  the  Direc- 
tor of  the  School  during  its  fourth  year ;  and  the  in- 
vitation was  accepted.  Professor  Allen  brings  to  the 
service  of  the  School  critical  scholarship  of  the  high- 
est character  and  great  learning.  The  Committee 
had  previously,  on  November  21,  1884,  unanimously 
invited  Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  Professor  of  Greek  in 
the  University  of  Michigan,  to  become  the  Director 
of  the  School  during  its  fifth  year.    This  invitation 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


19 


Professor  D'Ooge  accepts.  For  the  convenience  of  the 
Council,  lists  of  the  present  members  of  the  Managing 
Committee,  of  the  Directors,  and  of  the  co-operating 
Colleges,  precede  this  report. 

At  its  meeting  held  November  21,  18S4,  the  Com- 
mittee modified  two  of  the  Regulations.  In  the  fifth 
regulation  the  words  "  from  the  Professors  of  the 
Colleges  uniting  in  the  support  of  the  School "  were 
stricken  out.  In  the  eleventh  regulation  the  words 
"  but  who  come  properly  recommended  as  earnest  stu- 
dents "  were  stricken  out,  and  the  words  "will  receive  " 
were  changed  to  "may  apply  for."  At  this  meeting 
the  Committee  also  voted  that  the  regulations  govern- 
ing the  publications  of  the  School,  as  adopted  and 
amended,  should  be  added  to  the  general  Regulations. 
These  Regulations,  in  full,  will  be  found  at  the  end  of 
this  report. 

The  School  has  occupied  up  to  the  present  time 
the  upper  part  of  the  roomy  and  in  many  ways  con- 
venient house  on  the  fOSo?  'AfiaXlas  in  Athens,  of  which 
it  took  possession  in  October,  1882.  This  is  the  resi- 
dence of  the  Director  and  his  family;  but  one  large 
room  is  devoted  to  the  exclusive  use  of  the  mem- 
bers of  the  School,  as  a  library  and  reading-room. 
The  rent  is  now  4,400  francs  a  year.  The  owner, 
Dr.  Makkas,  receives  other  rents  from  the  house  to 
the  amount  of  2,800  francs.  He  values  the  property 
at  130,000  francs.  House-rent  at  Athens  is  high 
relatively  to  the  cost  of  building. 


20 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Your  Committee  has  frequently  discussed  the  plan  of 
providing  for  the  School  permanent  and  appropriate 
quarters  of  its  own.  It  is  probable  that  its  present 
house  cannot  be  rented  again  for  less  than  5,000  francs. 
A  change  of  quarters  inevitably  involves  expense,  and 
the  risk  of  injury  to  the  library  and  other  property. 
A  suitable  building  of  its  own  would  give  the  School 
dignity,  and  above  all  would  be  a  visible  and  encourag- 
ing token  of  the  permanence  which  the  School  will 
have  when  securely  based  upon  an  adequate  endow- 
ment ;  and  it  would  be  likely  to  produce  contributions 
to  that  end.  The  provisional  committee  on  endow- 
ment, appointed  November  16,  1883,  have  twice  re- 
ported that  they  did  not  think  it  wise  to  proceed  as 
yet  to  carry  into  effect  the  plan  detailed  in  your  Com- 
mittee's last  report  (pages  15,  16).  But  it  has  seemed 
possible  to  the  Committee  to  develop  so  much  of  the 
plan  of  endowment  as  concerns  a  house.  The  good 
example  of  the  British  School  has  doubtless  stimulated 
our  own  interest. 

The  first  decisive  steps  toward  the  establishment 
of  a  British  School  at  Athens  were  taken  June  25, 
1883.  At  a  meeting  then  held  at  Marlborough  House, 
under  the  presidency  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  in 
which  about  thirty  of  the  best  known  statesmen  and 
scholars  in  England  took  part,  it  was  resolved  that  it 
was  desirable  to  found  a  British  School  of  Archaeo- 
logical and  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  and  other 
resolutions  were  passed  defining  the  object  of  the 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


21 


School  and  the  duties  of  the  Director,  stating  the 
conditions  of  membership  in  it,  proposing  the  occupa- 
tion of  a  house  at  Athens,  moving  a  subscription  for 
the  general  purpose,  and  constituting  a  committee  to 
take  the  matter  in  charge.  This  general  committee 
subsequently  appointed  an  executive  committee,  which 
has  since  held  frequent  sittings.  In  the  autumn  of 
1882  the  Greek  Government  had  offered,  through  the 
British  Foreign  Office,  to  give  a  piece  of  ground  at 
Athens  for  the  proposed  School ;  and  this  offer  was,  in 
due  course,  accepted  by  the  Committee.  The  site  of 
the  School  is  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Athens,  on 
the  southern  slope  of  Mt.  Lycabettus.  It  has  an  ex- 
tent of  somewhat  less  than  two  acres,  and  is  valued  at 
about  ,£2,700.  The  final  contract  by  which  the  ground 
was  formally  conveyed  to  the  Trustees  of  the  Com- 
mittee for  the  School  was  not  signed  until  November  3, 
1884.  The  funds  subscribed  or  promised,  in  answer  to 
the  appeals  of  the  Committee,  now  amount  to  over 
,£4,000.  With  these  funds  the  Executive  Committee 
are  building  a  house  at  a  cost  of  ,£3,000,  and  propose 
to  provide  a  library  of  reference.  The  house  was 
begun  last  spring,  and  will  be  ready  for  occupation  in 
January.  The  plans  were  drawn  by  Mr.  C.  F.  Penrose. 
It  is  a  two-storied  building,  with  six  bedrooms  and  two 
other  rooms  for  the  use  of  the  Director,  and  also  a  large 
room,  40  ft.  by  20,  for  the  library.  It  is  so  planned 
that  it  will  be  possible  to  add  a  lateral  extension  sub- 
sequently.   Thus  have  the  authorities  of  the  British 


2  2 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


School,  —  while  they  have  no  funds  in  hand  from  the 
income  of  which  they  can  pay  the  salary  of  a  Direc- 
tor, when,  indeed,  they  have  as  yet  neither  Director  nor 
students,  —  with  a  courage  which  is  not  rashness, 
actually  founded  their  School ! 

At  its  meeting  held  May  16,  1884,  your  Committee 
discussed  at  length  the  question  of  a  permanent  home 
at  Athens  for  the  American  School.  The  result  of 
the  discussion  was  the  request  that  Professor  Van 
Benschoten,  the  next  Director,  should  consider  at 
Athens  the  question  of  the  permanent  establishment 
of  the  School,  in  all  its  bearings,  and  report  to  the 
Committee  before  its  meeting  in  November.  Arriving 
at  Athens  in  September,  Professor  Van  Benschoten 
with  great  promptness  proceeded  to  discharge  the 
request  made  of  him.  He  inspected  the  site  of  the 
British  School  and  other  sites,  advised  with  the  United 
States  Minister,  the  Hon.  Eugene  Schuyler,  from 
whom  he  received  important  assistance,  and  finally 
had  a  conference  with  Mr.  Tricoupes,  the  Prime  Min- 
ister of  Greece.  Mr.  Tricoupes  with  great  kindness 
promptly  stated  that  his  Government  would  confer 
upon  the  American  School  the  site  proper  for  a  build- 
ing, and  suggested  that  it  should  be  near  the  plot  which 
was  about  to  be  bestowed  upon  the  British  School. 
Your  Committee,  at  its  meeting  held  November  21, 
1884,  requested  Professor  Van  Benschoten  to  convey 
to  the  Prime  Minister  the  grateful  acknowledgments  of 
the  Committee  for  his  promise  of  a  plot  of  ground  for  a 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


23 


building  for  the  School ;  to  inform  him  that  the  Com- 
mittee had  at  present  no  means  for  building,  but  that 
it  hoped  at  some  future  time  it  might  be  enabled  to 
erect  a  suitable  building ;  and  to  inquire  of  him  if  the 
delay  would  cause  him  to  withdraw  the  offer  made  on 
the  part  of  his  Administration.  The  Director  replied 
that  his  Excellency  readily  consented  to  hold  the  plot 
of  ground  that  had  been  promised,  the  situation  of 
which  was  to  be  subsequently  determined,  until  the 
School  should  find  itself  able  to  occupy  it.  Mr.  Tri- 
coupes  afterwards  called  upon  the  Director  at  the 
School,  evidently  for  the  express  purpose  of  consider- 
ing the  question  of  situation,  and  suggested,  in  case 
the  site  on  Mt.  Lycabettus  was  not  satisfactory,  among 
others,  one  near  the  Stadium  on  the  east  bank  of  the 
Ilissus. 

This  generous  offer  of  the  Greek  Government  to 
confer  upon  the  American  School  a  site  of  the  value 
of  $13,500  (taking  the  land  of  the  British  School  as 
the  basis  of  estimate)  naturally  awakened  enthusiasm 
among  the  friends  of  the  School  at  home.  Without 
direct  action  of  your  Committee,  mainly  through  the 
instrumentality  of  the  first  Director,  the  sum  of  $4,000 
was  almost  at  once  subscribed  for  a  building.  It 
is  probable  that  the  Committee,  at  its  meeting  to  be 
held  November  20,  1885,  will  authorize  and  organize 
a  special  effort  to  secure  at  once  the  remainder  of 
the  sum  of  $20,000  required  for  building.  If  this 
is  successful,  the  building  can  be  made  ready  for 


24 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


occupation  within  eighteen  months  from  this  date. 
The  American  School  is  now  in  its  fourth  year.  It 
was  organized  upon  a  plan  as  unique  as  it  was  wise  ; 
it  has  collected  a  good  library;  it  has  done  excellent 
work;  finally,  it  has  been  offered  a  site  for  building 
whose  value  almost  equals  the  cost  of  the  building  itself. 
It  will  be  to  our  enduring  shame  if  we  do  not  at  once 
respond  to  the  generous  offer  of  the  Greek  Govern- 
ment, and  provide  for  our  School  a  permanent  and 
fitting  home  at  Athens. 

JOHN  WILLIAMS  WHITE, 

Chairman. 


X 


THE   AMERICAN   SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  projected  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  and  organized  under  the 
immediate  auspices  of  some  of  the  leading  American  colleges,  was 
opened  on  October  2,  1882.  It  occupies  a  house  on  the  cOS6?  'A/xa- 
A.ta?,  in  a  convenient  and  healthy  quarter  of  Athens.  A  large  room 
is  set  apart  for  the  use  of  the  students,  is  lighted  in  the  evening,  and 
is  warmed  in  cold  weather.  In  it  is  kept  the  library  of  the  School, 
which  includes  a  complete  set  of  the  Greek  classics,  and  the  most 
necessary  books  of  reference  for  philological,  archaeological,  and 
architectural  study  in  Greece.  The  library  contains  at  the  present 
time  about  1,500  volumes,  exclusive  of  sets  of  periodicals. 

The  advantages  of  the  School  are  offered  free  of  expense  for  tuition 
to  graduates  of  colleges  co-operating  in  its  support,  and  to  other 
American  students  deemed  by  the  Committee  of  sufficient  promise  to 
warrant  the  extension  to  them  of  the  privilege  of  membership. 

The  School  is  unable  to  provide  its  students  with  board  or  lodging, 
or  with  any  allowance  for  other  expenses.  It  is  hoped  that  the  Ar- 
chaeological Institute  may  in  time  be  supplied  with  the  means  of 
establishing  scholarships.  In  the  mean  time,  students  must  rely  upon 
their  own  resources,  or  upon  scholarships  which  may  be  granted  them 
by  the  colleges  to  which  they  belong.  The  amount  needed  for  the 
expenses  of  an  eight  months'  residence  in  Athens  differs  little  from 
that  required  in  other  European  capitals,  and  depends  chiefly  on  the 
economy  of  the  individual. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  present  temporary  organization  of  the 
School,  which  distinguishes  it  from  the  older  German  and  French 
schools  at  Athens,  is  the  yearly  change  of  Director.  That  the  Director 
should,  through  all  the  future  history  of  the  School,  continue  to  be 


26  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


sent  out  under  an  annual  appointment  is  an  arrangement  which  would 
be  as  undesirable  as  it  would  be  impossible.  But  such  an  arrange- 
ment is  not  contemplated.  When  established  by  a  permanent  endow- 
ment, the  School  will  be  under  the  control  of  a  permanent  director, 
a  scholar  who  by  continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate  that 
body  of  local  and  special  knowledge  without  which  the  highest  func- 
tions of  such  a  school  cannot  be  obtained.  In  the  mean  time  the 
School  is  enabled  by  its  present  organization  to  meet  a  want  of  great 
importance.  It  cannot  hope  immediately  to  accomplish  such  original 
work  in  archaeological  investigation  as  will  put  it  on  a  level  with  the 
German  and  French  schools.  These  draw  their  students  from  bodies 
of  picked  men,  specially  trained  for  the  place.  The  American 
School  seeks  at  the  first  rather  to  arouse  in  American  colleges  a 
lively  interest  in  classical  archaeology,  than  to  accomplish  distin- 
guished achievements.  The  lack  of  this  interest  heretofore  is  con- 
spicuous. Without  it,  the  School  at  Athens,  however  well  endowed, 
cannot  accomplish  the  best  results.  It  is  beyond  dispute  that  the 
presence  in  various  colleges  of  professors  who  have  been  resident 
a  year  at  Athens  under  favorable  circumstances,  as  directors  or  as 
students  of  the  School,  will  do  much  to  increase  American  appreciation 
of  antiquity. 


The  address  of  Professor  J.  W.  White,  Chairman  of  the  Commit- 
tee, is  Cambridge,  Mass. ;  of  Mr.  T.  W.  Ludlow,  Secretary,  Yonkers, 
N.  Y. ;  of  Mr.  F.  J.  de  Peyster,  Treasurer,  7  East  42d  Street,  New 
York. 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


27 


REGULATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


I.  The  object  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  is  to 
furnish,  without  charge  for  tuition,  to  graduates  of  American  Colleges 
and  to  other  qualified  students,  an  opportunity  to  study  Classical 
Literature,  Art,  and  Antiquities  in  Athens,  under  suitable  guidance ; 
to  prosecute  and  to  aid  original  research  in  these  subjects  ;  and  to 
co-operate  with  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  so  far  as  it 
may  be  able,  in  conducting  the  exploration  and  excavation  of  Classic 
sites. 

II.  The  School  is  in  charge  of  a  Managing  Committee,  and  under 
the  superintendence  of  a  Director.  The  Director  of  the  School  and 
the  President  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  are  ex  officio  members 
of  the  Managing  Committee.  This  Committee,  which  was  originally 
appointed  by  the  Archaeological  Institute,  has  power  to  add  to  its 
membership,  to  administer  the  finances  of  the  School,  and  to  make 
such  regulations  for  its  government  as  it  may  deem  proper. 

III.  The  Managing  Committee  meets  semi-annually,  in  New  York 
on  the  third  Friday  in  November,  and  in  Boston  on  the  third  Friday  in 
May.   Special  meetings  may  be  called  at  any  time  by  the  Chairman. 

IV.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  is  the  official  representative 
of  the  interests  of  the  School  in  America.  He  presents  a  Report 
annually  to  the  Archaeological  Institute  concerning  the  affairs  of  the 
School. 

V.  The  Director  is  chosen  by  the  Committee  for  a  period  of  one 
or  two  years.  The  Committee  provides  him  with  a  house  in  Athens, 
containing  apartments  for  himself  and  his  family,  and  suitable  rooms 
for  the  meetings  of  the  members  of  the  School,  its  collections,  and  its 
library. 

VI.  The  Director  superintends  personally  the  work  of  each  mem- 
ber of  the  School,  advising  him  in  what  direction  to  turn  his  studies, 
and  assisting  him  in  their  prosecution.  He  conducts  no  regular 
courses  of  instruction,  but  holds  meetings  of  the  members  of  the 


28 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


School  at  stated  times  for  consultation  and  discussion.  He  makes  a 
full  report  annually  to  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  work  accom- 
plished by  the  School. 

VII.  The  school  year  extends  from  the  ist  of  October  to  the  ist 
of  June.  Members  are  required  to  prosecute  their  studies  during  the 
whole  of  this  time  in  Greek  lands  under  the  supervision  of  the  Direc- 
tor. The  studies  of  the  remaining  four  months  necessary  to  complete 
a  full  year  (the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given)  may  be 
carried  on  in  Greece  or  elsewhere,  as  the  student  prefers. 

VIII.  Bachelors  of  Arts  of  co-operating  Colleges,  and  all  Bachelors 
of  Arts  who  have  studied  at  one  of  these  Colleges  as  candidates  for  a 
higher  degree,  are  admitted  to  membership  in  the  School  on  present- 
ing to  the  Committee  a  certificate  from  the  instructors  in  Classics  of 
the  College  at  which  they  have  last  studied,  stating  that  they  are  com- 
petent to  pursue  an  independent  course  of  study  at  Athens  under  the 
advice  of  the  Director.  All  other  persons  desiring  to  become  members 
of  the  School  must  make  application  to  the  Committee.  The  Com- 
mittee reserves  the  right  to  modify  these  conditions  of  membership. 

IX.  Each  member  of  the  School  must  pursue  some  definite  subject 
of  study  or  research  in  Classical  Literature,  Art,  or  Antiquities,  and 
must  present  at  least  one  thesis,  embodying  the  results  of  some  impor- 
tant part  of  his  year's  work.  These  theses,  if  approved  by  the  Direc- 
tor, are  sent  to  the  Managing  Committee,  by  which  each  thesis  is 
referred  to  a  sub-committee  of  three  members,  of  whom  two  are 
appointed  by  the  Chairman,  and  the  third  is  always  the  Director 
under  whose  supervision  the  thesis  was  prepared.  If  recommended 
for  publication  by  this  sub-committee,  the  thesis  may  be  issued  in  the 
papers  of  the  School. 

X.  When  any  member  of  the  School  has  completed  one  or  more 
full  years  of  study,  the  results  of  which  have  been  approved  by  the 
Director,  he  receives  a  certificate  stating  the  work  accomplished  by 
him,  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  School,  the  President  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute,  and  the  other  members  of  the  Managing 
Committee. 

XI.  American  students  resident  or  travelling  in  Greece  who  are 
not  members  of  the  School  may  apply  for  the  assistance  and  advice 
of  the  Director  in  the  prosecution  of  their  studies,  and  will  be  allowed 
at  his  discretion  to  use  the  library  belonging  to  the  School. 


FOURTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


29 


REGULATIONS  CONCERNING  THE  PUBLICATIONS  OF 
THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


1.  There  shall  be  published  annually,  after  the  meeting  of  the 
Managing  Committee  in  November,  a  Bulletin  which  shall  contain 
the  reports  for  the  previous  year  of  the  Director  of  the  School  and  of 
the  Secretary  of  the  Committee,  with  any  other  matter  relating  to  the 
School  not  included  in  those  reports. 

2.  There  shall  be  published  also  annually  a  volume  of  Papers  of 
the  School,  to  be  made  up  from  the  work  of  the  Director  and  the 
students  during  the  preceding  school  year.  This  volume  shall  be 
conformed  in  general  style  to  the  Papers  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute. 

3.  The  publications  of  the  School  shall  be  in  charge  of  a  perma- 
nent editor,  to  be  elected  by  the  Managing  Committee,  and  shall  be 
edited  by  him  with  the  assistance  of  the  Director  under  whom  the 
papers  have  been  written,  and  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Committee. 

4.  The  expense  of  the  publications  shall  be  met  from  the  funds  of 
the  School  to  an  amount  not  exceeding  $1,000  per  annum. 

5.  The  publications  shall  be  issued  to  the  public  at  a  price  to  be 
fixed  by  the  Publication  Committee.  They  shall  be  sent  free  to  the 
libraries  of  the  co-operating  Colleges,  and  to  such  learned  bodies  as 
the  Committee  may  select.  They  may  be  exchanged,  for  the  benefit 
of  the  School,  with  other  like  publications. 

6.  Copies  of  the  publications  may  also  be  placed  with  leading 
booksellers  for  sale  at  a  proper  discount. 

7.  The  proceeds  of  subscriptions  and  sales  shall  be  appropriated 
toward  the  costs  of  publication. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  SCHOOL, 


The  following  is  a  list  of  the  publications  of  the  American  School 
of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens.  The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee 
may  be  had  gratis  by  application  to  the  Secretary.  The  other  publica- 
tions are  for  sale  by  Messrs.  Cupples,  Upham,  &  Co.,  283  Washington 
Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

First  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee.    1881-82.  pp.13. 
Second  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee.    1882-83.    pp.  15. 
Third  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee.    1883-84.    pp.  20. 
Fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee.    1884-85.    pp.  30. 

Bulletin  I.  Report  of  William  W.  Goodwin,  Director  of  the  School 
in  1882-83.    pp.  33.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  II.  Memoir  of  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Director  of  the  School 
in  1883-84,  with  Resolutions  of  the  Committee  and  a  Report  for 
1883-84.    pp.  34.    Price  25  cents. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  SCHOOL. 

Volume  I.  1882-83.  Edited  by  William  W.  Goodwin  and  Thomas 
W.  Ludlow.  8vo.  Flexible  covers,  pp.  viii  and  262.  Illustrated. 
Price  $2.00.  Containing, 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R.  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier. 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salamis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 

Also, 

Preliminary  Report  of  an  Archaeological  Journey  made  in  Asia  Minor 
during  the  Summer  of  1884.  By  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett.  pp.  45.  Price 
25  cents. 


^rtjmotogttal  Institute  of  %\mxim. 


FIFTH   AND   SIXTH   ANNUAL  REPORTS 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1885-87. 


CAMBRIDGE: 
JOHN    WILSON    AND  SON. 
©nfotrsitg  press. 
1887. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


Portaging  (JTomnrittee. 

1885-86. 

John  Williams  White  {Chairman),  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Frederic  D.  Allen  (ex  officio),  Harvard  University,  Athens,  Greece. 
Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York,  N.  Y. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 
Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 
William  W.  Goodwin  (Chairman  of  Co?nmittee  on  Publications), 

Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
William  G.  Hale,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 
Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary),  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 

Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Columbia  College,  124  East  55th  St.,  New 
York,  N.  Y. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton  (ex  officio),  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Francis  W.  Palfrey,  255  Beacon  St.,  Boston,  Mass. 
Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer), ,'7  East  42d  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn. 
William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  L 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Fitzgerald  Tisdale,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
William  S.  Tyler,  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 
James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 
William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York,  N.  Y. 


JUaitagtttg  Committee. 

1886-87. 

John  Williams  White  (Chairman),  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 
Mass. 

H.  M.  Baird,  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

I.  T.  Beckwith,  Trinity  College,  Hartford,  Conn. 

Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York,  N.  Y. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Athens,  Greece. 

Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

O.  M.  Fernald,  Williams  College,  Williamstown,  Mass. 

A.  F.  Fleet,  University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Mo. 

Miss  Alice  Freeman,  Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Mass. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 

William  W.  Goodwin  (C/iairmau  of  Cotmnittee  on  Publications), 

Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
William  G.  Hale,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 
Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary) ,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Columbia  College,  124  East  55th  St.,  New 

York,  N.  Y. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton  {ex  officio),  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Francis  W.  Palfrey,  255  Beacon  St.,  Boston,  Mass. 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


5 


William  Pepper,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer),  7  East  420!  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn. 
William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 
Fitzgerald  Tisdale,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
William  S.  Tyler,  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 
James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 
William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

lEsecuttoe  Committee. 

1886-87. 

John  Williams  White  (Chairman), 

William  W.  Goodwin. 

Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary). 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer). 

William  R.  Ware. 


ptreetor*. 

William  Watson  Goodwin,  Ph.  D.,  LL.D.,  Eliot  Professor  of  Greek 
Literature  in  Harvard  University.  1882-83. 

Lewis  R.  Packard,  Ph.  D.,  Hillhouse  Professor  of  Greek  in  Yale  Uni- 
versity. 1883-84. 

James  Cooke  Van  Benschoten,  LL.D.,  Seney  Professor  of  the  Greek 
Language  and  Literature  in  Wesleyan  University.  1884-85. 

Frederic  De  Forest  Allen,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Classical  Philology 
in  Harvard  University.  1885-86. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University  of 
Michigan.  1886-87. 


6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


(^operating  College*. 
1886-87. 


AMHERST  COLLEGE. 
BROWN  UNIVERSITY. 

COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK. 
COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 
COLUMBIA  COLLEGE. 
CORNELL  UNIVERSITY. 
DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 
HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 
JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 


TRINITY  COLLEGE. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW 
YORK. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 
WESLEYAN  UNIVERSITY. 
WELLESLEY  COLLEGE. 
WILLIAMS  COLLEGE. 
YALE  UNIVERSITY. 


^tttberits. 


LOUIS  BEVIER  (1882-83).* 
WALTER  RAY  BRIDGMAN  (1883-84). 
N.  E.  CROSBY  (1886-87). 
JOHN  M.  CROW  (1882-83). 
WILLIAM  L.  CUSHING  (1885-87). 
THOMAS  H.  ECKFELDT  (1884-85). 
HAROLD  NORTH  FOWLER  (1882-83). 
HENRY  T.  HILDRETH  (1885-86). 
JOSEPH  McKEEN  LEWIS  (1885-87). 
WALTER  MILLER  (1885-86). 
WILLIAM  J.  McMURTRY  (1886-87). 


Miss  ANNIE  S.  PECK  (1885-86). 

WILLIAM  J.  SEELYE  (1886-87). 

PAUL  SHOREY  (1882-83). 

J.  R.  S.  STERRETT  (1882-83). 

F.  H.  TAYLOR  (1882-83). 

S.  B.  P.  TROWBRIDGE  (1886-87). 

JAMES  R.  WHEELER  (1882-83). 

ALEXANDER  M.  WILCOX  (1883-84). 

FRANK  E.  WOODRUFF  (1882-83)* 

THEODORE  L.  WRIGHT  (1886-87). 


Not  in  attendance  during  the  entire  year. 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


7 


trustee*  of  tfje  $cl)ool. 

James  Russell  Lowell  {President). 

Samuel  D.  Warren  {Treasurer). 

William  W.  Goodwin  (Secretary). 

Martin  Brimmer. 

Henry  Drisler. 

Basil  M.  Gildersleeve. 

Henry  G.  Marquand. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 

Henry  C.  Potter. 

William  M.  Sloane. 

John  Williams  White. 

Theodore  D.  Woolsey. 

(fecuttoe  Committee  of  ttje  trustee*. 

James  Russell  Lowell. 
Samuel  D.  Warren. 
William  W.  Goodwin. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton. 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS 


OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Archceo  logical  Institute  of  America  :  — 

Gentlemen, —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
the  Reports  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  Ameri- 
can School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens  for  the 
years  1885-86  and  1886-87,  namely,  from  October  1, 
1885,  to  October  1,  1887.  The  Report  for  1885-86, 
which  would  regularly  have  been  submitted  to  you 
in  the  autumn  of  1886,  was  unfortunately  delayed 
by  hindrances  that  were  unavoidable,  and  was  finally 
postponed  in  order  to  appear  in  connection  with  the 
Report  for  1886-87. 

The  fourth  year  of  the  School  was  opened  by  the 
Director,  Professor  Frederic  D.  Allen,  at  Athens,  on 
October  8,  1885,  in  the  house  previously  occupied  by 
the  School.  Five  regular  members  were  present 
during  the  year:  — 


IO  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

William  Lee  Cushing,  A.  B.  (Yale  University,  1872),  A.M. 
(Yale  University,  1882). 

Henry  T.  Hildreth,  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1885), 
holder  of  a  Parker  Fellowship  in  Harvard  University. 

Joseph  McKeen  Lewis,  A.  B.  (Yale  University,  1883), 
holder  of  the  Soldiers'  Memorial  Fellowship  in  Yale  University. 

Walter  Miller,  A.  M.  (University  of  Michigan,  1884). 

Miss  Annie  S.  Peck,  A.  B.  (University  of  Michigan,  1878), 
A.  M.  (University  of  Michigan,  1881). 

The  Director  met  the  students  frequently.  During 
the  winter,  meetings  were  held  three  or  four  times  each 
week.  At  some  of  these  the  Director  gave  informal 
lectures  on  the  Greek  dialects;  others  were  devoted  to 
the  study  of  inscriptions,  and  still  others  to  the  cur- 
sory reading  of  Greek  authors.  These  meetings  were 
omitted  after  the  middle  of  March,  in  order  that  the 
students  might  have  command  of  their  time  for  carry- 
ing out  their  own  plans  of  study  and  travel. 

In  his  Report  to  the  Managing  Committee  the 
Director  bore  witness  to  the  zeal  and  diligence  of 
all  the  students.  All  were  deeply  interested  in  the 
remains  of  Hellenic  antiquities,  and  all  gave  much 
time  to  general  reading  in  the  directions  of  the  his- 
tory of  art,  art  remains,  and  topography.  Early  in 
the  winter  most  of  them  chose  a  subject  for  special 
study. 

Mr.  Cushing,  expecting  to  remain  in  the  School 
another  year,  reserved  the  completion  of  written  work 
for  that  year.    His  studies  during  1885-86  lay  specially 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  I  I 


in  the  direction  of  architecture.  Mr.  Hildreth  made 
the  topography  and  antiquities  of  the  demes  of 
Northern  Attica  his  special  subject  for  investigation, 
and  collected  materials  for  an  essay.  Mr.  Lewis 
worked  unremittingly  on  the  Attic  inscriptions,  and 
began  to  prepare  a  thesis  on  the  phonology  of  the 
Attic  vowels  and  diphthongs  of  the  classical  period 
as  ascertained  from  inscriptions.  Mr.  Miller  made 
a  study  of  Attic  sepulchral  reliefs,  and  has  presented 
a  paper  on  the  interpretation  of  these  monuments. 
This  paper,  in  its  first  form,  was  read  before  the 
School  in  January.  Miss  Peck  began  the  study  of 
the  temple  remains  at  Eleusis. 

The  students  made  excursions  in  Attica  during 
the  autumn  and  winter,  and  in  the  spring  undertook 
longer  journeys.  The  hospitality  of  the  School,  in- 
cluding the  use  of  the  library,  was  extended  to  many 
persons  besides  its  regular  members,  especially  to 
Americans  and  Englishmen  sojourning  in  Athens. 
Among  these  may  be  named  Miss  Dawes,  a  pupil  of 
Girton  College  and  a  graduate  of  London  University, 
and  Dr.  E.  S.  Hawes  of  Boston.  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett, 
who  was  spending  the  year  in  Athens,  although  not 
connected  officially  with  the  School,  gave  the  benefit 
of  his  learning  and  experience  to  its  members.  Pro- 
fessor Thomas  D.  Seymour  of  Yale  University  was 
the  guest  of  the  Director  of  the  School  during  the  last 
two  months  of  the  year. 

In  the  spring  of  1886,  the  School  undertook  for  the 


12 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


first  time  the  excavation  of  an  ancient  site.  The  pro- 
posal was  made  to  the  Managing  Committee  by  the 
Director  in  February,  and  was  immediately  approved. 
The  site  selected  was  that  of  the  theatre  at  Thoricus 
on  the  southeast  coast  of  Attica,  within  easy  reach  of 
Athens.  With  the  discovery  of  the  theatre  at  Epi- 
daurus  the  question  of  the  structure  of  the  orchestra 
in  Greek  theatres  was  again  under  discussion,  and  it 
became  a  matter  of  more  than  merely  archaeological 
interest  to  discover  as  many  unromanized  theatres  as 
possible.  It  seemed  possible  to  the  Director  that  this 
little  provincial  theatre  might  have  escaped  serious 
changes  of  arrangement,  —  that  at  any  rate  it  would 
be  interesting  to  examine  it.  His  plan  was  approved 
by  Dr.  Dorpfeld  and  by  Mr.  Penrose,  and  his  applica- 
tion to  the  Ministry  for  leave  to  excavate  received  a 
favorable  answer.  Mr.  P.  Kavvadias,  the  Director- 
General  of  Antiquities,  gave  him  all  the  assistance  in 
his  power.  Work  was  begun  on  April  13,  and  was 
continued,  with  interruptions,  to  the  end  of  the  year. 
All  the  members  of  the  School  took  great  interest  in 
the  enterprise,  but  the  excavations  were  chiefly  under 
the  superintendence  of  Mr.  Miller.  They  were  resumed 
and  completed  in  the  autumn,  during  the  year  of  the 
directorship  of  Professor  D'Ooge,  under  the  charge  of 
Mr.  Cushing.  Mr.  Miller  and  Mr.  Cushing  will  each 
contribute  a  paper  to  the  fourth  volume  of  Papers  of 
the  School,  shortly  to  appear,  giving  an  account  of 
the  progress  of  the  work,  and  a  statement  of  results. 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


13 


The  fifth  year  of  the  School  was  opened  by  the 
Director,  Professor  Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  October  1, 
1886,  in  the  house  previously  occupied.  Seven  reg- 
ular members  were  present  during  the  year,  two  of 
whom  had  been  members  also  in  1885-86:  — 

N.  E.  Crosby,  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1883),  A.  M.  (Co- 
lumbia College,  1885). 

William  Lee  dishing,  A.  B.  (Yale  University,  1872),  A.  M. 
(Yale  University,  1882). 

Joseph  McKeen  Lewis,  A.  B.  (Yale  University,  1883), 
holder  of  the  Soldiers'  Memorial  Fellowship  in  Yale 
University. 

William  J.  McMurtry,  A.  B.  (Olivet  College),  A.  M.  (Uni- 
versity of  Michigan,  1882). 

WTilliam  J.  Seelye,  A.  B.  (Amherst  College,  1879),  A.M. 
(Amherst  College,  1882). 

S.  B.  P.  Trowbridge,  A.  B.  (Trinity  College,  1883),  Ph.  B. 
(School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  1886). 

Theodore  L.  Wright,  A.  B.  (Beloit  College,  1880),  A.M. 
(Harvard  University,  1884). 

The  general  work  of  the  School  during  the  year, 
under  the  guidance  of  the  Director,  was  as  follows. 
Twice  each  week  during  October  and  November  the 
students  visited  and  discussed  ruins  in  and  about 
Athens.  During  the  first  three  months  of  the  year 
there  was  a  weekly  reading  of  parts  of  Pausanias, 
which  led  to  many  discussions,  and  suggested  themes 
for  further  study.  This  exercise  was  followed  for 
about  two  months  by  the  reading  and  interpretation 


14  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


of  inscriptions  contained  in  Hicks's  Manual  of  Greek 
Historical  Inscriptions.  Evening  readings  were  held 
once  each  week  during  three  months,  at  which  mem- 
bers of  the  School  read  and  expounded  a  set  portion 
of  the  Acharnians  and  of  the  Oedipus  at  Colonus. 
From  the  beginning  of  the  year  until  March  the 
School  held  a  weekly  session,  at  which  reports  were 
made.  These  reports  included  items  of  archaeological 
news,  reviews  of  new  books,  the  discussion  of  topics 
suggested  by  reading,  and  the  presentation  of  brief 
papers  on  set  themes.  Among  the  more  important 
subjects  presented  were  the  following :  — 

The  Literature  of  the  Curves  of  the  Parthenon  ;  A  Com- 
parison of  Kick's  and  Christ's  Analyses  of  the  Iliad  ;  The 
Representation  in  Sculpture  of  the  Personification  of  Cities 
and  States  ;  The  site  of  "  Hippios  Colonos";  Some  Modifica- 
tions of  the  Doric  possibly  due  to  the  Influence  of  the  Ionic 
Order  of  Architecture  ;  An  Inscription  from  the  Asclepieium 
at  Athens  ;  The  Decorations  of  the  Athena  Parthenos  of 
Phidias  ;  A  Review  of  Wagnon  on  "  The  Relation  of  Egyptian 
and  Greek  Sculpture";  An  Account  of  the  Excavations  of 
the  Necropolis  at  Myrina ;  Representations  of  Childhood  and 
Immature  Forms  in  Ancient  Art. 

This  list  exhibits  the  great  variety  of  topics  pre- 
sented for  discussion  at  the  weekly  sessions  of  the 
School.  Besides  these  private  sessions,  three  public 
sessions  were  held  during  the  year,  at  which  carefully 
prepared  papers  were  read  on  "  The  Site  of  the  Pnyx," 
"  The  Theatre  at  Thoricus,"  and  "  The  Appreciation  of 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


15 


Nature  exhibited  in  the  Tragedies  of  Euripides."  At 
the  last  session  accounts  also  were  given  of  the  ex- 
cavations at  Croton  by  Mr.  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke 
and  Dr.  A.  Emerson,  and  of  those  at  Sicyon  by  the 
Director. 

In  his  final  report  the  Director  announced  that  the 
following  theses  and  reports  would  be  submitted  to 
the  Managing  Committee  :  — 

The  Theatre  at  Thoricus,  by  Mr.  Cushing. 
The  Amphiaraum  at  Oropus,  by  Mr.  Seelye. 
The  Theatre  at  Sicyon,  by  Mr.  McMurtry. 
The  Appreciation  of  Nature  exhibited  in  some  of  the 
Greek  Poets,  by  Mr.  Wright. 

Mr.  Lewis  completed  his  paper  on  Attic  Vocalism, 
begun  in  the  preceding  year.  This  thesis  and  Mr. 
Cushing's  report  on  the  Theatre  at  Thoricus  will  be 
published  in  the  fourth  volume  of  Papers  of  the 
School,  now  in  press.  The  other  papers,  if  approved 
by  the  Committee,  with  a  paper  by  the  Director  on 
a  subject  not  yet  announced,  will  be  published  in 
the  fifth  volume. 

In  the  spring  the  members  of  the  School  made 
tours  in  different  parts  of  Greece.  In  March  a 
large  party  went  into  Peloponnesus  under  the  guid- 
ance of  the  Director  and  Dr.  Dorpfeld.  The  hospi- 
talities of  the  School  were  extended  to  Dr.  T.  D. 
Goodell  of  Hartford,  Mr.  M.  C.  Gile  of  Phillips  Acad- 
emy at  Andover,  and  Mr.  H.  T.  Hildreth,  who  returned 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


to  Athens  to  continue  his  investigation  of  the  denies 
of  Northern  Attica.  The  use  of  the  library  was  freely 
granted  to  the  members  of  the  British  School,  whose 
library  did  not  reach  Athens  until  the  end  of  the  year. 
Access  to  the  library  was  given  also  to  many  Ameri- 
cans who  came  to  Athens  merely  as  tourists.  They 
were  aided  by  the  Director  also  in  forming  plans 
for  study  and  travel,  and  were  thus  made  practically 
acquainted  with  the  advantages  which  the  School 
offers. 

In  a  preliminary  report  made  to  the  Managing 
Committee  at  the  meeting  held  on  November  19,  1886, 
the  Director  announced  that  Mr.  Kavvadias,  the 
Director-General  of  Antiquities,  offered  the  School  the 
privilege  of  excavating  the  theatre  of  ancient  Sicyon, 
the  site  of  the  modern  village  of  Vasilikon.  The 
Committee  had  previously  made  an  appropriation  for 
purposes  of  exploration,  and  gratefully  accepted  the 
permission  granted  them  by  Mr.  Kavvadias.  Sicyon, 
lying  northwest  of  Corinth  upon  a  height  about  two 
miles  from  the  Gulf,  was  one  of  the  most  ancient  cities 
of  Greece,  and  one  of  the  chief  seats  of  Greek  art; 
and  the  exploration  of  its  theatre  promised  important 
results.  The  Director  visited  the  site  on  February 
21,  in  company  with  Mr.  Penrose,  Dr.  Dorpfeld,  and 
Mr.  Kavvadias,  for  the  purpose  of  inspection.  Work 
was  begun  on  March  23,  under  the  immediate  charge 
of  Mr.  McMurtry,  and  was  continued,  with  occasional 
interruptions,  to  the  end  of  the  year.    An  interesting 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


17 


but  complicated  stage  structure  was  discovered,  show- 
ing clearly  that  the  original  arrangement  of  the  stage 
had  at  some  time  been  altered.  Several  rows  of  seats, 
and  a  water-course  encircling  the  orchestra,  apparently 
of  the  same  construction  as  that  surrounding  the 
orchestra  of  the  Theatre  of  Dionysus  at  Athens,  were 
brought  to  light,  as  well  as  pieces  of  statues,  a  frag- 
ment of  an  inscription,  and  bits  of  architectural  mem- 
bers of  what  appears  to  have  been  the  stage  building. 
The  Committee  awaits  the  account  of  Mr.  McMurtry, 
to  be  published  in  the  fifth  volume  of  Papers,  with 
interest.  The  excavations  will  be  continued  during 
1887-88  by  Professor  Merriam. 

Professor  D'Ooge  left  Athens  on  June  1,  having 
brought  a  prosperous  year  in  the  history  of  the  School 
to  a  successful  close.  He  will  publish  in  January,  as 
the  third  Bulletin  of  the  School,  a  full  account  of  his 
year's  work. 

I  record  with  sorrow  the  death  of  one  of  the  recent 
members  of  the  School,  J.  McKeen  Lewis,  eldest  child 
of  Charlton  T.  Lewis,  Esq.,  of  New  York.  Mr.  Lewis 
graduated  at  Yale  University  in  1883.  He  spent  the 
greater  part  of  the  year  after  his  graduation  in  study 
at  Munich.  On  his  return,  in  1884,  he  was  appointed 
to  the  Soldiers'  Memorial  Fellowship  at  Yale  Univer- 
sity, and  devoted  himself  mainly  to  the  study  of  Greek. 
After  one  term,  however,  a  Greek  tutorship  in  the 
Academical  Department  falling  temporarily  vacant, 
the  Faculty  called  on  him  to  teach  for  the  remainder 


i8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


of  the  college  year.  In  September,  1885,  he  went  to 
Athens,  while  still  holding  the  Fellowship,  and  remained 
there  as  a  student  in  the  School  for  the  following  year. 
He  spent  the  summer  of  1886  in  study  in  Berlin,  and  re- 
turned to  Athens  in  October  for  another  years  work. 
The  winter  proved  unfavorable  to  his  health,  and  he 
came  home  before  the  end  of  the  school  year.  He 
died  on  April  29,  about  ten  days  after  his  return. 

Although  he  was  only  in  his  twenty-fourth  year  at 
the  time  of  his  death,  Mr.  Lewis  had  already  given 
evidence  that  he  possessed  remarkable  powers  of 
mind.  He  distinguished  himself,  while  still  an  under- 
graduate, in  philological  studies.  He  had  strong  lin- 
guistic tastes,  but  his  fondness  for  literature  was  still 
stronger.  He  knew  the  Greek  poets,  and  had  read 
Plato.  During  the  last  three  years  of  his  life  he  de- 
voted himself  specially  to  the  Greek  orators,  making  a 
rhetorical  analysis  of  each  oration,  and  collecting  a 
vast  amount  of  material  for  comparison.  He  was  an 
earnest  student  and  worked  independently,  but  his 
teachers  testify  that  he  was  ready  to  accept  any 
suggestion,  and  was  very  docile.  Classical  studies  in 
America  have  sustained  a  serious  loss  in  his  death. 

The  last  Report  of  your  Committee  gave  a  brief 
account  of  the  distinguished  work  in  exploration  done, 
chiefly  under  the  auspices  of  the  School,  by  Dr.  J.  R. 
S.  Sterrett,  referring  particularly  to  the  extraordinary 
results  of  his  expedition  into  Asia  Minor  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1885.    Through  the  generosity  of  Miss  Catha- 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


19 


rine  L.  Wolfe,  of  New  York,  who  had  previously 
contributed  the  means  by  which  Dr.  Sterrett  was 
enabled  to  carry  on  his  researches  during  the  sum- 
mer of  1885,  he  was  enabled  to  remain  in  Europe 
until  the  autumn  of  1886,  while  engaged  in  the 
preparation  of  his  report.  Dr.  Sterrett's  reports  of 
his  researches  in  Asia  Minor  in  the  summers  of  1884 
and  1885  will  constitute  the  second  and  third  volumes 
of  the  Papers  of  the  School.  The  third  volume  will 
be  published,  it  is  hoped,  early  in  the  year  1888. 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  above,  that  the  Committee 
on  Publications  has  changed  its  intention  as  stated  in 
the  last  Report.  It  was  found  impracticable  to  issue 
the  second  volume  of  Papers  of  the  School  at  the 
time  and  in  the  manner  proposed.  According  to  the 
present  plan  of  the  Committee,  Dr.  Sterrett's  two 
reports  will  constitute  the  second  and  third  volumes 
of  Papers,  and  the  fourth  volume,  now  in  press,  will 
contain  Papers  written  during  the  first,  fourth,  and 
fifth  school  years.  The  titles  of  these  papers  are  as 
follows:  — 

1.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Preliminary  Report  by  Walter 
Miller. 

2.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Supplementary  Report  by 
William  L.  dishing. 

3.  On  Greek  Versification  in  Inscriptions,  by  Frederic  D. 
Allen. 

4.  The  Athenian  Pnyx,  by  John  M.  Crow  ;  with  a  Survey 
of  the  Pnyx  and  Notes  by  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke. 

5.  Notes  on  Attic  Vocalism,  by  J.  McKeen  Lewis. 


20 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


During  the  two  years  covered  by  the  present  Re- 
port, the  following  members  have  been  added  to  the 
Managing  Committee:  November  20,  1885,  Professor 
William  R.  Ware,  of  the  School  of  Mines,  Columbia 
College,  and  Professor  Augustus  C.  Merriam,  of  Co- 
lumbia College  ;  May  21,  1886,  Professor  O.  M. 
Fernald,  of  Williams  College,  Professor  I.  T.  Beck- 
with,  of  Trinity  College,  and  Professor  Fitzgerald 
Tisdale,  of  the  College  of  the  City  of  New  York ; 
November  19,  1886,  Miss  Alice  E.  Freeman,  President 
of  Wellesley  College,  and  Professor  H.  M.  Baird,  of 
the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York  ;  May  20, 
1887,  Dr.  William  Pepper,  Provost  of  the  University 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  Professor  A.  F.  Fleet,  of  the 
University  of  Missouri.  Each  of  the  contributing 
Colleges  is  represented  on  the  Managing  Committee 
by  at  least  one  member.  Lists  of  the  members  of 
the  Managing  Committee  in  1885-86  and  in  1886-87 
precede  this  Report. 

I  regret  to  announce  the  withdrawal  of  one  of  the 
supporting  Colleges,  the  University  of  Virginia,  which 
contributed  to  the  support  of  the  School  during  the 
first  two  years.  The  Committee  regrets  the  loss  of 
the  active  support  of  this  old  and  honored  Univer- 
sity, but  has  the  assurance  of  the  continuance  of  its 
friendly  interest.  Six  Colleges  have  accepted  the  in- 
vitation of  the  Committee,  and  are  now  represented 
among  its  members  :  Trinity  College,  the  University 
of  the  City  of  New  York,  the  University  of  Missouri, 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


2  I 


the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Wellesley  College,  and 
Williams  College.  The  active  support  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Missouri  begins  with  the  year  1887-88.  In  the 
autumn  of  1886  the  University  of  the  City  of  New 
York  contributed  the  sum  of  $1,000  to  the  fund  for  the 
permanent  endowment  of  the  School.  This  liberal 
contribution  was  acknowledged  by  the  Committee  by 
votes  of  thanks  addressed  to  the  Chancellor  and  other 
authorities  of  the  University,  and  to  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Howard  Crosby,  the  former  Chancellor,  who  has  won 
the  gratitude  of  the  friends  of  the  School  by  earnest 
and  successful  efforts,  on  many  different  occasions,  to 
promote  its  interests.  On  the  evening  of  November  19, 
1 886,  under  the  auspices  of  the  New  York  Society  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  undergraduates  of 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania  presented,  in  the  Acad- 
emy of  Music  of  New  York  City,  the  Acharnians  of 
Aristophanes  in  the  original  Greek.  This  perform- 
ance of  the  Acharnians,  which  had  previously  been 
presented  in  Philadelphia,  was  given  at  the  request  of 
representatives  of  fourteen  Colleges  and  Universities, 
addressed  to  the  authorities  of  the  University  of  Penn- 
sylvania. In  granting  their  request,  the  Provost  of  the 
University  expressed  the  wish  that  the  proceeds  of  the 
performance  should  be  added  to  the  fund  for  the  per- 
manent endowment  of  the  School  of  Classical  Studies 
at  Athens.  The  proceeds  amounted  to  $1,378.09. 
Your  Committee,  although  the  play  was  not  presented 
under  its  immediate  auspices,  felt  the  liveliest  interest 


22 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


in  its  performance,  which  proved  to  be  very  successful, 
and  instructed  the  Chairman,  in  conveying  to  the  Pro- 
vost its  grateful  thanks,  to  request  the  Provost  and 
the  Board  of  Regents  of  the  University  to  permit  the 
Committee  to  restore  the  name  of  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania  to  the  list  of  Colleges  uniting  in  support 
of  the  School.  By  subsequent  vote,  the  authorities 
both  of  the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York  and 
of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  were  requested  to 
permit  the  Managing  Committee  to  accept  the  large 
and  generous  contributions  made  by  these  Univer- 
sities to  the  fund  for  the  permanent  endowment  of 
the  School  as  full  payment  in  lieu  of  future  annual 
contributions. 

The  interest  in  the  School  among  the  undergradu- 
ates of  the  contributing  Colleges  is  great,  and  in  still 
another  instance  has  taken  practical  form.  In  March, 
1887,  the  musical  societies  of  Harvard  University, 
the  Glee  Club,  Pierian  Sodality,  and  Banjo  Club, 
united  in  mvino:  a  concert  in  Boston  in  behalf  of  the 
School.  The  concert  brought  together  a  brilliant 
audience.  The  music,  which  was  of  great  variety,  was 
rendered  with  excellent  effect.  The  proceeds  of  the 
concert,  amounting  to  $718,  were  contributed  to  the 
fund  for  the  permanent  endowment  of  the  School. 
The  concert  was  given  by  the  musical  societies  at  the 
suggestion  of  the  Harvard  Classical  Club,  whose  mem- 
bers willingly  undertook  the  labor  of  the  necessary 
arrangements.    Your  Committee  desires  publicly  to 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


23 


express  its  thanks  to  all  of  these  gentlemen  for  the  sub- 
stantial aid  which  they  have  rendered  to  the  School, 
and  for  the  successful  manner  in  which  they  have 
brought  its  interests  to  the  attention  of  an  audience 
competent  to  appreciate  its  claims. 

In  March,  1886,  by  authority  of  the  Committee,  I 
sent  to  400  teachers  of  the  classics  in  different  parts  of 
the  United  States  copies  of  the  First  Bulletin  of  the 
School,  which  were  furnished  by  the  courtesy  of  the 
Bureau  of  Education  at  Washington,  and  of  the  Fourth 
Report  of  the  Committee,  with  a  letter  stating  that  I 
should  be  glad  to  answer  the  inquiries  of  persons  who 
contemplated  going  to  Greece  for  purposes  of  study. 
The  list  of  the  teachers  to  whom  these  documents 
were  sent  was  prepared  with  especial  care,  and  many 
replies  were  received  from  ladies  and  gentlemen 
who  stated  their  intention  of  becoming  at  some  time 
members  of  the  School.  A  year  later  the  Com- 
mittee had  a  circular  prepared,  giving  a  list  of  the 
books  with  which  students  proposing  to  join  the 
School  would  need  to  have  some  acquaintance,  and 
information  as  to  travel  and  expenses.  This  circu- 
lar, which  has  been  widely  distributed,  is  appended 
to  this  Report. 

At  its  meeting  on  November  20,  1885,  the  Commit- 
tee by  unanimous  vote  invited  Professor  Augustus  C. 
Merriam,  of  Columbia  College,  to  be  the  Director  of 
the  School  during  its  sixth  year ;  and  the  invitation 
was  accepted.    Professor  Merriam  possesses  special 


24 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


qualifications  of  the  highest  order  for  the  responsible 
position  to  which  he  has  been  called. 

On  May  20,  1887,  I  presented  to  the  Committee 
my  resignation  of  the  chairmanship,  stating  the  rea- 
sons which,  much  to  my  regret,  made  it  imperatively 
necessary  for  me  to  resign  the  office  with  which  I  had 
been  honored  for  six  years.  On  the  recommendation 
of  a  special  committee,  Professor  Thomas  D.  Seymour, 
of  Yale  University,  was  unanimously  elected  as  my  suc- 
cessor. Professor  Seymour  brings  to  the  service  of  the 
School  extensive,  varied,  and  accurate  scholarship,  and 
an  intimate  personal  knowledge  of  Greece. 

With  the  permission  of  the  Committee  I  append  to 
this  Report  balanced  statements  of  the  expenses  and 
receipts  of  the  School  for  each  of  the  five  years  begin- 
ning October  1,  1882,  and  ending  September  30,  1887. 
The  income  of  the  School  during  these  five  years  was 
$16,032.67.  All  of  this  sum  except  $132.67  was  re- 
ceived as  subscriptions  from  the  supporting  Colleges. 
But  this  statement  of  receipts  does  not  include  $500 
contributed  to  the  library  of  the  School  in  1883-84 
(see  the  Third  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  p.  23), 
nor  the  salaries  which  were  granted  to  the  Directors 
each  year  by  the  Colleges  to  which  they  were  attached 
as  professors.  This  salary  amounted  annually  to  at 
least  $2,500.  The  total  expenditures  in  behalf  of  the 
School  during  the  time  named,  roughly  stated,  were 
$30,000. 

Of  the  $16,032.67  which  were  intrusted  to  the 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  2$ 


Committee  for  disbursement,  there  was  a  balance  of 
$1,396.95  in  the  hands  of  the  Treasurer  on  October  1, 
1887.  The  remainder  was  expended  as  follows.  The 
annual  appropriations  for  the  rent  of  the  house  occu- 
pied by  the  Director  and  his  family  amounted  to 
$4,998.68.  This  item  will  not  appear  in  the  accounts 
hereafter,  since  the  School  now  owns  its  own  house. 
A  grant  of  $500  was  made  in  1884  for  services  ren- 
dered to  the  School  during  the  illness  of  the  Director. 
The  sum  of  $3,403.24  was  expended  on  the  library. 
But  this  sum  was  increased  to  at  least  $4,000  by  gifts 
not  transmitted  to  the  Treasurer.  The  library  con- 
tains 1,500  volumes,  exclusive  of  periodicals.  The 
books  have  been  selected  with  great  care,  and  the 
library  proves  to  be  unusually  well  adapted  to  the 
needs  of  those  who  use  it.  It  necessarily  contains 
many  expensive  works.  The  house  occupied  by  the 
School  from  1882  to  1887  was  furnished  at  an  expense 
of  $1,422.41.  The  excavations  made  by  the  School 
at  Thoricus  and  Sicyon  cost  $768.84,  and  the  inci- 
dental expenses  at  Athens  have  amounted  to  $367.83. 
The  incidental  expenses  at  home,  exclusive  of  print- 
ing, amounted  to  $517.97;  and  the  printing  of  Bulle- 
tins, Reports,  etc.,  cost  $557.69.  The  total  cost  of 
the  publication  of  the  first  volume  of  the  Papers  of 
the  School,  of  which  two  editions  were  printed,  was 
$1,494.80;  but  this  was  reduced  by  the  subscription 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  by  sales,  and  by  reim- 
bursement for  copies  lost  at  sea  to  $1,115.69.  The 


26 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


sum  of  $983.37  was  expended,  on  account,  on  the 
second,  third,  and  fourth  volumes. 

The  last  Report  of  your  Committee  recorded  the 
generous  offer  of  the  Government  of  His  Majesty,  the 
King  of  the  Hellenes,  to  confer  upon  the  American 
School  at  Athens  the  site  for  a  building  near  the 
plot  of  ground  bestowed  upon  the  British  School. 

On  October  31,  1885,  the  President  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute  of  America  and  the  Chairman  of  the 
Committee  issued  the  following  circular:  — 

"  The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens, 
founded  under  the  auspices  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of 
America,  is  now  entering  upon  its  fourth  year,  and  the  Com- 
mittee in  charge  of  the  School  believe  that  the  time  has  come 
for  endeavoring  to  obtain  the  means  to  provide  for  it  perma- 
nent and  appropriate  quarters  of  its  own.  Up  to  the  present 
time,  it  has  occupied  a  hired  house  for  the  residence  of  its 
Director  and  for  the  accommodation  of  its  library,  and  has 
paid  an  annual  rental  of  $1,000. 

"  The  Greek  Government  has  offered  to  the  Committee  on 
the  School  an  admirable  site  for  building,  of  little  less  than 
two  acres  in  extent,  and  of  an  estimated  value  of  about 
$13,000.  On  account  of  lack  of  means  for  building,  the 
Committee  have  not  been  able  definitely  to  accept  this  liberal 
and  gratifying  offer.  A  similar  offer  of  an  adjoining  site  has 
been  made  to  and  accepted  by  the  Committee  in  charge  of 
the  British  School ;  the  means  for  building  have  been  secured 
by  them  ;  and,  plans  having  been  prepared  by  Mr.  F.  C 
Penrose,  the  work  of  building,  at  an  estimated  cost  of  over 
.£3,000,  is  already  far  advanced. 

"The  Committee  on  the  American  School  believe  that  it  is 
desirable,  for  the  interest  of  both  Schools,  that  their  respect- 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  2 J 


ive  buildings  should  be  in  close  proximity.  They  are  assured 
of  the  cordial  co-operation  of  the  Committee  on  the  British 
School  in  their  common  work,  and  it  is  their  confident  hope 
that  the  advantages  afforded  by  either  School  to  its  pupils 
will  be  freely  shared  by  the  pupils  of  both. 

"  If  the  estimate  for  the  building  of  the  British  School  be 
adopted  for  that  of  the  American,  the  sum  of  $20,000  will 
be  required.  The  annual  interest  upon  this  sum  is  not  greater 
than  the  amount  now  paid  for  rent.  A  suitable  building  of  its 
own  will  not  only  add  to  the  dignity  of  the  School,  but  will 
secure  it  against  the  chance  of  hereafter  having  to  change 
its  quarters,  with  the  inevitable  attendant  expenses,  and  risk 
of  injury  to  its  library  and  other  property. 

"  The  Committee  have  already  received,  through  the  gen- 
erous gifts  of  persons  interested  in  their  work,  the  sum  of 
$4,000  for  the  building  fund. 

"They  now  appeal  to  all  those  persons  concerned  in  the 
progress  of  classical  studies  in  America  to  assist  them  in 
their  endeavor  to  obtain  the  remainder  of  the  amount 
required. 

"  Subscriptions  may  be  sent  to  the  undersigned,  or  to  any 
member  of  the  Committee." 

The  Committee  unanimously  adopted  this  appeal 
at  the  meeting  held  on  November  20,  recording  it 
by  vote  as  the  official  action  of  the  Committee,  and 
requested  Professors  Norton  and  Ware  to  submit  to 
them,  at  their  next  regular  meeting,  plans  for  a  build- 
ing, and  an  estimate  of  its  cost. 

Committees  were  immediately  formed  in  Boston 
and  New  York,  with  Mr.  James  Russell  Lowell  and 
Mr.  Henry  G.  Marquand  respectively  as  chairmen, 
to  solicit  subscriptions.     It  was  announced  that  no 


2  8  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


subscription  would  be  binding  until  the  sum  of 
$25,000  had  been  guaranteed.  In  a  short  time  the 
Boston  committee  reported  $19,000,  including  $4,000 
subscribed  in  the  preceding  winter,  and  the  New 
York  committee  assured  the  remainder.  These  com- 
mittees appointed  Trustees,  a  list  of  whom  is  prefixed 
to  this  Report,  to  hold  the  property  of  the  School. 
The  Trustees  subsequently  secured  articles  of  incorpo- 
ration under  the  laws  of  Massachusetts.  Their  num- 
ber may  not  exceed  fifteen.  They  are  to  receive,  hold, 
invest,  and  disburse  all  funds  contributed  for  the 
benefit  of  the  School. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  March  9,  1886,  the  Execu- 
tive Committee  of  the  Trustees  passed  the  following 
votes :  — 

"  I.  That  the  Treasurer  be  authorized  to  pay  to  the  order 
of  the  Chairman  and  Treasurer  of  the  Committee  of  the 
School  of  Athens  such  sums  as  may  be  required,  not  exceed- 
ing $20,000  in  all,  for  the  erection  of  a  building  at  Athens 
for  the  School,  upon  land  the  title  to  which  shall  be  vested 
in  the  Corporation. 

"  2.  That  the  annual  income  of  such  sum  as  may  be  held 
or  received  by  the  Treasurer  after  the  completion  of  the 
expenditure  for  the  building  be  held  at  the  order  of  the 
Chairman  and  Treasurer  of  the  Committee  of  the  American 
School  at  Athens." 

The  Chairman  had  already,  on  February  16,  ad- 
dressed a  circular  letter  to  the  members  of  the  Com- 
mittee, announcing  that  sufficient  funds  had  been 
secured  to  warrant  the  Committee  in  proceeding  at 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  29 


once  with  the  erection  of  a  building  at  Athens  for 
the  use  of  the  School,  and  asking  for  the  appoint- 
ment of  an  Executive  Committee,  with  full  powers,  to 
determine  the  site,  to  secure  its  transfer  to  the  Trus- 
tees, to  settle  on  the  plans  for  the  building,  and  to 
take  such  other  steps  as  they  should  deem  necessary. 
The  appointment  of  this  Committee  was  unanimously 
agreed  to.  At  the  following  meeting,  on  May  21,  it 
was  made  a  permament  Executive  Committee,  with 
power  to  act  on  all  matters  relating  to  the  School 
in  the  interims  between  the  regular  semiannual  meet- 
ings of  the  Committee.  A  list  of  the  members  of  the 
Executive  Committee  precedes  this  Report. 

The  offer  of  the  Greek  Government  of  a  building 
site  had  originally  been  made  in  the  autumn  of  1884, 
through  Mr.  Tricoupes,  who  was  then  the  Prime 
Minister.  Your  Committee  were  not  able  to  accept  it, 
having  no  means  at  this  time  for  building ;  but  his 
Excellency  with  great  courtesy  agreed,  when  this  fact 
was  made  known  to  him,  to  hold  the  plot  of  ground 
that  had  been  promised  until  the  School  should  be  able 
to  occupy  it.  In  January,  1886,  the  Chairman  of  the 
Committee  requested  Professor  Allen,  the  Director  of 
the  School,  to  make  known  to  the  Greek  Government, 
through  the  proper  channel,  that  we  were  now  ready  to 
accept  its  generous  offer,  and  to  proceed  with  the  erec- 
tion of  a  building.  Just  at  this  time  Greece  was  in  a 
state  of  great  political  excitement,  and  war  was  appar- 
ently imminent.     The  Director  consulted  with  the 


30 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Minister  of  the  United  States  at  Athens,  the  Hon. 
J.  Williams  Walker  Fearn,  who  readily  consented  to 
address  the  Greek  Ministry  in  behalf  of  the  School, 
but  did  not  think  it  wise,  in  view  of  the  difficulties  with 
which  the  Ministry  was  contending,  to  do  this  at  once. 
In  February  he  spoke  of  the  matter  to  the  King,  who 
with  great  kindness  said  that  the  land  should  be  given 
us  whenever  we  wanted  it,  that  the  best  site  was  that 
next  to  the  building  of  the  British  School,  and  that  a 
new  street  (which  it  was  feared  might  be  run  between 
the  site  proposed  and  that  of  the  British  School) 
should  be  dispensed  with.  In  March  Mr.  Fearn  ad- 
dressed the  Prime  Minister,  Mr.  Deligiannes,  directly 
in  regard  to  the  site.  Mr.  Deligiannes  said  that  the 
matter  should  receive  his  attention  at  the  earliest  pos- 
sible moment.  Six  weeks  later  there  was  a  change  in 
the  government,  and  on  May  21  Mr.  Tricoupes.  again 
became  Prime  Minister.  Mr.  Fearn,  in  behalf  of  the 
School,  addressed  Mr.  Dragoumes,  the  new  Minister 
of  Foreign  Affairs,  himself  a  scholar  and  archaeologist, 
on  the  day  he  assumed  office.  He  expressed  great 
interest  in  the  matter,  and  shortly  afterwards  called  at 
the  American  Legation  to  say  that  he  had  spoken  to 
Mr.  Tricoupes,  who  had  begged  him  to  assure  Mr. 
Fearn  that  his  interest  was  unabated,  and  that  he 
hoped  very  soon  to  inform  him  that  the  land  on  the 
slope  of  Lycabettus  was  at  the  disposal  of  the  School. 
On  June  29  Mr.  Fearn  telegraphed  to  your  Chairman 
that  the  grant  had  been  made  by  royal  decree.  A 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  3 1 


plan,  showing  the  position  and  dimensions  of  the  plot 
of  ground,  followed  by  mail.  The  land  measures  50 
metres  east  and  west,  and  120  metres  north  and 
south  ;  that  is,  it  has  a  frontage  of  about  165  feet  and 
a  depth  of  nearly  400,  and  contains  about  an  acre  and 
a  half.  It  has  an  estimated  value  of  70,000  drachmae. 
There  are  streets  on  the  northern,  eastern,  and  south- 
ern sides.  A  copy  of  the  Official  Gazette  containing 
the  text  of  the  royal  decree  was  received  later  in  the 
summer. 

The  Department  of  State  at  Washington,  duly 
acknowledging  Mr.  Fearn's  communication  in  which 
he  informed  his  Government  of  the  gift  to  the  School, 
requested  Mr.  Fearn  to  assure  the  Government  of  His 
Majesty  of  the  interest  which  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  felt  in  the  establishment  of  the  School, 
and  to  thank  His  Majesty  for  the  gift.  Early  in  De- 
cember, by  action  of  the  Trustees,  power  of  attorney 
was  sent  to  Mr.  Fearn,  with  the  request  that  he 
would  continue  to  act  as  the  representative  of  the 
Trustees  in  the  final  transfer  of  the  property.  An 
instrument  was  duly  drawn,  whereby  a  donatio  inter 
vivos,  absolute  and  irrevocable,  of  the  land  was  made 
by  the  Monastery  of  the  Asomaton,  or  Petrake,  to  the 
Trustees  of  the  School,  and  this  was  signed  on  January 
29,  1887,  the  Superior  of  the  Monastery,  accompanied 
by  two  monks,  and  Mr.  Lappas,  representing  the 
Ministry  of  Grace  and  Public  Instruction,  accompa- 
nied by  the  Government  notary  and  witnesses,  coming 


32 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


to  the  American  Legation  for  the  purpose.  A  copy 
of  the  instrument  was  sent,  by  the  courtesy  of  Mr. 
Fearn,  to  the  chairman  of  your  Committee.  Juridi- 
cally, Mr.  Fearn  acted  throughout  simply  as  an  Ameri- 
can citizen  representing  the  School ;  and  should  there 
in  the  future  be  need  of  legal  action,  it  will  only  be 
necessary  for  the  Trustees  to  constitute  the  Director 
their  formal  representative. 

As  is  apparent  from  the  preceding  account,  the 
friends  of  the  School  owe  a  great  debt  of  gratitude  to 
Mr.  Fearn.  From  the  time  when  his  assistance  was 
first  requested,  he  has  exerted  himself  unweariedly  in 
its  behalf.  He  has  conducted  delicate  negotiations 
with  perfect  tact,  and  manifested  throughout  a  schol- 
arly appreciation  of  the  object  to  be  achieved,  and 
enthusiasm  for  its  accomplishment.  His  services  to 
the  School  have  been  of  special  value,  and  your 
Committee  desire  publicly  to  record  their  deep  sense 
of  their  obligation  to  him.  On  November  19,  1886, 
they  unanimously  passed  the  following  votes :  — 

"Resolved,  That  the  Minister  of  the  United  States  at 
Athens  be  requested  to  cause  to  be  conveyed  to  His  Majesty, 
the  King  of  the  Hellenes,  the  expression  of  the  profound 
gratitude  of  the  Committee  for  the  interest  manifested  by  His 
Majesty  in  the  welfare  of  the  American  School  at  Athens,  and 
for  his  munificent  gift  to  the  School  of  a  noble  site  for  its 
building. 

"Resolved,  That  the  Executive  Committee  convey  to 
the  Hon.  J.  Williams  Walker  Fearn,  Minister  of  the  United 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


33 


States  to  the  Government  of  His  Majesty,  the  King  of  the 
Hellenes,  the  thanks  of  the  Committee  for  the  lively  interest 
shown  by  him  in  the  School,  and  for  his  valuable  assistance 
in  securing  its  objects." 

Professor  Ware  submitted  to  the  Committee,  at  the 
meeting  held  on  May  21,  1886,  plans  for  a  building  and 
an  estimate  of  its  cost.  The  plans  were  accepted,  with 
the  thanks  of  the  Committee,  and  Mr.  S.  B.  P.  Trow- 
bridge, a  graduate  of  Trinity  College  and  of  the  School 
of  Mines  of  Columbia  College,  was  appointed  to  take 
charge  of  the  erection  of  the  building  under  Profes- 
sor Ware's  direction.  Mr.  Trowbridge  proceeded  to 
Athens,  and  ground  was  broken  in  the  autumn.  The 
corner-stone  of  the  new  building  was  laid  on  March 
12,  1887,  with  appropriate  ceremonies,  a  full  account 
of  which  will  be  given  in  the  forthcoming  Bulletin  of 
Professor  D'Ooge,  who  was  then  Director.  The 
building  will  be  ready  for  occupation  in  January, 
1888. 

The  Committee  are  under  great  obligations  to  Pro- 
fessor Ware.  He  has  prepared  the  plans  for  the  build- 
ing and  directed  its  construction  without  charge.  The 
sole  responsibility  for  a  trust  of  unusual  difficulty  has 
rested  upon  him.  He  has  successfully  overcome  all 
obstacles-  as  they  have  arisen,  and  has  substantially 
lessened  the  cost  of  the  building  by  enlisting  the  in- 
terest of  many  American  manufacturers  who  have 
supplied  material.  No  one  else  is  so  well  prepared 
to  speak  about  the  building,  and  at  my  request  he 

3 


34 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


has  prepared  the  following  account,  which  he  permits 
the  Committee  to  make  a  part  of  this  Report. 

On  the  southern  slope  of  Mount  Lycabettus,  about  fifteen 
minutes'  walk  from  the  centre  of  the  city,  is  an  open  reser- 
vation about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  square,  partly  laid  out  as 
public  grounds,  partly  occupied  by  public  buildings.  Here 
on  the  western  side  is  the  hospital  Evangelion,  and  higher 
up  the  hill  a  plot  of  ground  for  a  Normal  School,  the  build- 
ing for  which  has  not  yet  been  erected.  On  the  eastern 
side  is  the  old  monastery  of  the  Asomaton,  now  occupied  as 
officers'  barracks,  standing  picturesquely  in  the  midst  of  trees, 
one  of  the  few  groves  in  Attica,  the  successor  of  the  ancient 
sanctuary  and  gymnasium  of  Cynosarges,  which  occupied  this 
spot.  In  the  central  portion  is  a  small  park,  and  above  this 
and  the  open  grounds  of  the  hospital  is  the  plot  of  ground,  con- 
taining about  three  acres,  which  the  Greek  Government,  with 
a  liberality  which  has  characterized  all  its  relations  to  them, 
has  given  to  the  British  and  American  Schools.  The  lower 
part  of  this  space  is  occupied  by  a  sparse  grove  of  olive  trees, 
and  the  buildings  of  the  two  Schools  stand  near  one  another 
at  the  highest  part  of  the  field,  about  four  hundred  feet  above 
the  Aegean,  the  British  School  next  to  the  Normal  School, 
the  American  towards  the  east  next  to  the  groves  of  the 
Asomaton.  To  the  north  rises  the  steep  rock  of  Lycabettus, 
cutting  off  the  winter  winds;  on  the  east,  south,  and  west 
stretches  the  unrivalled  panorama  from  Pentelicus  and  Hy- 
mettus  to  Salamis.  "  The  view,"  wrote  the  American  Min- 
ister, "  is  one  of  unequalled  loveliness,  even  in  this  land  of 
beauty."  Happily,  the  open  ground  on  all  sides  promises  to 
leave  it  to  us  forever.  Moreover,  the  site  is  not  only  high,  but 
dry,  and,  being  what  is  practically  virgin  soil,  is  free  from  any 
suspicion  of  the  malaria  that  infects  the  older  and  lower  parts 
of  the  town.    Yet  it  has  an  abundant  supply  of  water,  for  the 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  35 


Aqueduct  of  Hadrian  flows  past  the  door.  All  the  sanitary 
conditions  seem  to  be  of  the  best. 

The  building  for  the  British  School  contains  the  Director's 
house,  and  a  large  room  for  the  library  of  the  School,  which 
occupies  nearly  half  of  the  second  story.  In  the  American 
building,  also,  the  library  is  up  stairs,  occupying  a  wing  thirty 
feet  square  which  runs  out  towards  the  east,  the  lower  story 
of  which  is  taken  up  with  a  number  of  rooms  for  students, 
while  in  the  basement,  half  of  w7hich  is  entirely  above  ground, 
are  rooms  for  photographic  work.  The  main  building,  which 
is  about  fifty  feet  square,  has  the  kitchen,  laundry,  and  ser- 
vants' rooms  in  the  basement,  half  a  dozen  chambers  and 
bedrooms  in  the  next  story,  and  in  the  story  above,  on  the 
same  floor  with  the  library,  the  Director's  study,  a  large 
drawing-room,  and  a  dining-room  with  a  pantry  adjoining. 
This  is  connected  with  the  kitchen,  two  stories  below,  by  a 
lift,  or  dumb-waiter,  and  by  a  staircase  which  leads  on  up  to 
the  roof,  where,  in  a  third  story,  are  a  couple  of  guest-chambers 
and  two  covered  verandas,  or  loggias,  one  to  the  north  and 
one  to  the  south,  for  summer  and  winter  use,  which  give  ac- 
cess to  the  level  house-top.  This  is  fitted  for  awnings,  and, 
being  only  one  story  above  the  dining-room  and  library,  is 
likely  to  prove  of  use  and  convenience  during  the  period  ot 
warm  weather.  On  the  second  story  is  also  a  covered  veranda, 
or  loggia,  looking  south  and  east,  opening  from  the  Director's 
study  and  from  the  drawing-room,  the  windows  of  which 
command  the  view  from  Hymettus  to  the  Megarean  hills. 

The  approach  to  the  building  is  by  a  new  street  laid  out 
between  the  grounds  of  the  School  and  the  monastery,  and 
occupying  the  site  of  one  of  the  ravines  which  abound  on  the 
lower  slopes  of  the  mountain.  The  front  door  is  on  the  north 
side,  protected  by  a  covered  driveway.  An  outer  vestibule 
gives  access  to  a  small  hall,  from  which  one  door  leads  to  the 
Director's  apartments  and  one  to  the  students'  quarters.  A 


36 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


marble  staircase  conducts  to  a  larger  hall,  on  the  second  story, 
from  which  direct  access  is  had  to  the  library  and  the  Director's 
study,  and,  less  immediately,  to  the  drawing-room  and  dining- 
room.  The  secondary  stairway  gives  access  to  these  rooms 
directly  from  the  chambers  below,  without  obliging  the  Di- 
rector and  his  family  to  use  the  main  stairway,  which  has  a 
somewhat  public  character. 

The  floors  and  roof  are  framed  in  iron,  and  this  is  said  to 
be  the  only  completely  fire-proof  building  in  Greece.  The 
doors,  windows,  flooring,  book-cases,  and  other  interior  wood- 
work, were  sent  out  from  this  country,  and  are  of  a  character 
to  do  the  utmost  credit  to  American  workmanship.  The 
makers  of  this  furnishing  have  manifested  a  lively  interest  in 
the  work,  and  have  given  us  everywhere  full  measure  and 
running  over  of  whatever  we  have  asked  of  them.  Moreover, 
they  have  greatly  diminished  the  cost  of  the  building  to  us  by 
direct  gifts.  Messrs.  J.  B.  and  J.  M.  Cornell  generously  gave  us 
the  entire  iron  staircase,  extending  from  cellar  to  roof ;  the 
Hopkins  and  Dickinson  Manufacturing  Company,  through  Mr. 
T.  H.  O'Connor,  all  the  hardware  for  the  entire  house  ;  the 
Sanitas  Company,  a  complete  set  of  plumbing  fittings  ;  Messrs. 
A.  H.  Davenport  and  Company,  the  library  mantelpiece; 
Messrs.  Norcross  Brothers,  that  for  the  dining-room  ;  and  the 
Belcher  Mosaic  Glass  Company,  two  decorative  panels  for  the 
vestibule  door.  Messrs.  W.  H.  Jackson  and  Company  also 
allowed  us  to  purchase  our  grates  and  fireplaces  at  wholesale 
prices,  besides  making  a  handsome  discount  from  that  cost ; 
and  the  Florio-Rubattino  and  Cunard  Steamship  Companies 
have  allowed  special  rates  for  freight,  which  have  materially 
diminished  that  grievous  item. 

The  School  is  greatly  indebted  to  Mr.  Trowbridge's  intelli- 
gence and  fidelity  for  the  satisfactory  progress  of  the  work 
upon  the  building  under  circumstances  which  have  called  for 
the  constant  exercise  of  his  tact  and  discretion. 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  37 


The  conduct  of  the  work  on  this  side  of  the  water  has  been 
in  the  hands  of  my  assistant,  Mr.  A.  D.  F.  Hamlin,  who  has 
made  all  the  detail  drawings  and  has  conducted  a  chief  part 
of  the  business  correspondence  in  my  behalf.  The  School  is 
under  obligations  to  him  also  for  the  personal  interest  and 
zeal  which  he  has  put  into  this  service. 

The  earnest  hope  expressed  in  the  last  Report  of  your 
Committee  has  thus  been  realized,  and  the  American 
School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens  has  now  a  home 
of  its  own,  a  worthy  and  enduring  monument  of  the 
interest  in  Greek  studies  which  is  felt  in  America,  and 
the  visible  evidence  of  our  desire  that  no  means  shall 
be  lacking  for  their  successful  promotion. 

The  response  made  to  the  appeal  for  the  means 
with  which  to  erect  and  furnish  a  building  was  im- 
mediate and  liberal.  The  books  of  the  Treasurer 
show  that  from  all  sources  the  sum  of  $26,553.22  has 
been  received  for  this  purpose.  Your  Committee, 
encouraged  by  this  generous  response,  proceeded  at 
once,  when  the  means  for  building  had  been  assured, 
to  the  consideration  of  the  graver  question  of  the 
permanent  endowment  of  the  School.  Without  such 
an  endowment  it  was  impossible  to  put  it  under  the 
charge  of  a  permanent  Director. 

The  supporters  of  the  School  have  intended  from 
the  beginning  that  it  should  ultimately  be  under  the 
direction  of  a  permanent  head,  as  are  the  other  Archae- 
ological Schools  at  Athens.  The  American  School 
has  suffered  from  the  unjust  criticisms  of  those  who 


38 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


have  failed  to  understand  the  necessities  that  encom- 
passed its  founders,  although  your  Committee  have 
stated  again  and  again  in  their  Reports  that  the  plan 
which  they  adopted,  both  for  the  maintenance  and  for 
the  direction  of  the  School,  was  only  temporary.  That 
the  adoption  of  this  plan  in  1 88 1  was  wise  lias  been 
proved  beyond  question.  The  great  usefulness  of  the 
School  in  the  promotion  of  classical  studies  has  been 
demonstrated,  and  its  claims  on  the  friends  of  culture 
and  education  in  America  have  been  substantially 
recognized. 

At  the  meeting  held  on  November  19,  1886,  the 
Committee  determined  that  an  organized  effort  should 
be  made  to  secure  for  the  School  a  permanent  endow- 
ment of  $100,000  within  the  next  two  years;  and  after 
long  and  earnest  deliberation  they  decided  to  proceed 
at  once  to  the  election  of  a  permanent  Director.  They 
unanimously  voted  to  invite  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein  of 
New  York,  Reader  in  Archaeology  and  Director  of  the 
Fitzwilliam  Museum  of  Art  at  the  University  of  Cam- 
bridge, England,  to  become  the  permanent  Director 
of  the  School  when  the  endowment  should  be  secured. 
Two  months  later  Dr.  Waldstein  accepted  the  invita- 
tion of  the  Committee  under  this  condition. 

No  choice  could  have  been  happier.  Dr.  Waldstein 
was  born  in  New  York  City,  and  studied  at  Columbia 
College.  He  subsequently  took  the  degree  of  Doctor 
of  Philosophy  at  the  University  of  Heidelberg,  and 
although  still  a  young  man  he  soon  achieved  an  emi- 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  39 


nent  place  among  scholars.  Although  long  resident  in 
England,  and  bound  by  many  close  ties  to  the  ancient 
University  that  early  recognized  his  signal  abilities,  he 
is  still  in  feeling,  as  by  birth,  an  American,  and  con- 
sents to  relinquish  his  distinguished  position  in  Eng- 
land in  order  to  assume  the  direction  of  the  American 
School. 

Your  Committee  earnestly  hope  to  be  able  to  invite 
Dr.  Waldstein  to  take  charge  of  the  School  in  the 
autumn  of  1888,  and  in  closing  this  Report  would 
appeal  to  the  friends  of  learning  for  immediate  help  in 
raising  the  permanent  endowment.  The  School  has 
been  in  existence  for  five  years.  Its  success  has 
equalled  the  most  sanguine  expectations  of  its  found- 
ers. It  has  furnished  guidance  and  instruction  to 
twenty-one  students.  It  has  had  the  sympathetic  sup- 
port of  twenty  Colleges.  It  has  won  confidence  at 
home  and  recognition  abroad.  It  has  a  suitable  house, 
with  accommodations  both  for  the  Director  and  for 
students.  It  has  at  its  command  the  services  of  a 
distinguished  scholar.  Under  these  circumstances  its 
friends  make  their  appeal  for  its  permanent  endow- 
ment with  hope  and  confidence. 

JOHN  WILLIAMS  WHITE, 

Chairman, 

Cambridge,  Mass., 

December  31,  18S7. 


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THE  AMERICAN   SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

JANUARY,  1888. 

The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  founded  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  and  organized  under  the 
auspices  of  some  of  the  leading  American  Colleges,  was  opened  Octo- 
ber 2,  1882.  During  the  first  five  years  of  its  existence  it  occupied  a 
hired  house  on  the  'OSo?  'A/x.aA.ta?  in  Athens,  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Olyrnpieion.  A  large  and  convenient  building  has  now  been  erected 
for  the  School  on  a  piece  of  land,  granted  by  the  generous  liberality  of 
the  Government  of  Greece,  on  the  southeastern  slope  of  Mount  Lyca- 
bettus,  adjoining  the  ground  already  occupied  by  the  English  School. 
This  permanent  home  of  the  School,  built  by  the  subscriptions  of  its 
friends  in  the  United  States,  will  be  ready  for  occupation  early  in  1888. 
During  the  first  months  of  1887-88,  the  School  has  been  accommo- 
dated in  temporary  quarters  in  the  city. 

The  new  building  contains  the  apartments  to  be  occupied  by  the 
Director  and  his  family,  and  a  large  room  which  will  be  used  as  a 
library  and  also  as  a  general  reading-room  and  place  of  meeting  for 
the  whole  School.  A  few  rooms  in  the  house  are  intended  for  the 
use  of  students.  These  will  be  assigned  by  the  Director,  under  such 
regulations  as  he  may  establish,  to  as  many  members  of  the  School  as 
they  will  accommodate.  Each  student  admitted  to  the  privilege  of  a 
room  in  the  house  will  be  expected  to  undertake  the  performance  of 
some  service  to  the  School,  to  be  determined  by  the  Director ;  such, 
for  example,  as  keeping  the  accounts  of  the  School,  taking  charge  of 
the  delivery  of  books  from  the  Library  and  their  return,  and  keeping 
up  the  catalogue  of  the  Library. 

The  Library  now  contains  about  1,500  volumes,  exclusive  of  sets  of 
periodicals.    It  includes  a  complete  set  of  the  Greek  classics,  and  the 


48 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


most  necessary  books  of  reference  for  philological,  archaeological,  and 
architectural  study  in  Greece. 

The  advantages  of  the  School  are  offered  free  of  expense  for  tuition 
to  graduates  of  the  Colleges  co-operating  in  its  support,  and  to  other 
American  students  who  are  deemed  by  the  Committee  of  sufficient 
promise  to  warrant  the  extension  to  them  of  the  privilege  of  member- 
ship. It  is  hoped  that  the  Archaeological  Institute  may  in  time  be 
supplied  with  the  means  of  establishing  scholarships,  which  will  aid 
some  members  in  defraying  their  expenses  at  the  School.  In  the 
mean  time,  students  must  rely  upon  their  own  resources,  or  upon 
scholarships  which  may  be  granted  them  by  the  Colleges  to  which  they 
belong.  The  amount  needed  for  the  expenses  of  an  eight  months' 
residence  in  Athens  differs  little  from  that  required  in  other  European 
capitals,  and  depends  chiefly  on  the  economy  of  the  individual. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  temporary  organization  of  the  School  dur- 
ing its  first  six  years,  which  has  distinguished  it  from  the  older  German 
and  French  schools  at  Athens,  has  been  the  yearly  change  of  Director. 
This  arrangement,  by  which  a  new  Director  has  been  sent  out  each 
year  by  one  of  the  co-operating  Colleges,  was  never  looked  upon  as 
permanent ;  and  it  has  now  been  decided  to  begin  the  next  year 
(1888-89)  with  a  new  organization.  A  Director  will  henceforth  be 
chosen  for  a  term  of  five  years,  while  an  Annual  Director  will  also  be 
sent  out  each  year  by  one  of  the  Colleges  to  assist  in  the  conduct  of 
the  School.  (See  Regulation  V.)  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein,  of  New 
York,  now  Director  of  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum  of  Art  at  the  University 
of  Cambridge,  England,  has  been  chosen  Director  of  the  School  for 
five  years  beginning  in  October,  1888  ;  and  he  has  accepted  the  ap- 
pointment on  the  condition  that  a  sufficient  permanent  fund  be  raised 
before  that  time  to  support  the  School  under  its  new  organization.  It 
is  therefore  earnestly  hoped  and  confidently  expected  that  the  School 
will  henceforth  be  under  the  control  of  a  permanent  Director,  who  by 
continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate  that  body  of  local  and 
special  knowledge  without  which  the  highest  purpose  of  such  a  school 
cannot  be  fulfilled.  In  the  mean  time  the  School  has  been  able,  even 
under  its  temporary  organization,  to  meet  a  most  pressing  want,  and  to 
be  of  some  service  to  classical  scholarship  in  America.  It  has  sought 
at  first,  and  it  must  continue  to  seek  for  the  present,  rather  to  arouse 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


49 


a  lively  interest  in  classical  archaeology  in  American  Colleges  than  to 
accomplish  distinguished  achievements.  The  lack  of  this  interest  has 
heretofore  been  conspicuous ;  but  without  it  the  School  at  Athens, 
however  well  endowed,  can  never  accomplish  the  best  results.  A 
decided  improvement  in  this  respect  is  already  apparent ;  and  it  is 
beyond  question  that  the  presence  in  many  American  Colleges  of  pro- 
fessors who  have  been  resident  a  year  at  Athens  under  favorable  cir- 
cumstances, as  annual  directors  or  as  students  of  the  School,  has  done 
much,  and  will  do  still  more,  to  stimulate  intelligent  interest  in  classic 
antiquity. 

The  address  of  the  Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  is 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  New  Haven,  Conn. ;  that  of  the  Secretary, 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 


REGULATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

JANUARY,  1888. 

I.  The  object  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  is  to 
furnish  an  opportunity  to  study  classical  Literature,  Art,  and  Antiqui- 
ties in  Athens,  under  suitable  guidance,  to  graduates  of  American 
Colleges  and  to  other  qualified  students  ;  to  prosecute  and  to  aid 
original  research  in  these  subjects ;  and  to  co-operate  with  the 
Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  so  far  as  it  may  be  able,  in 
conducting  the  exploration  and  excavation  of  classic  sites. 

II.  The  School  is  in  charge  of  a  Managing  Committee.  This  Com- 
mittee, which  was  originally  appointed  by  the  Archaeological  Institute, 
disburses  the  annual  income  of  the  School,  and  has  power  to  add  to 
its  membership  and  to  make  such  regulations  for  the  government  ot 
the  School  as  it  may  deem  proper.  The  President  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute  and  the  Director  anci  Annual  Director  of  the  School 
are  ex  officio  members  of  the  Committee. 

III.  The  Managing  Committee  meets  semi-annually,  in  New  York 
on  the  third  Friday  in  November,  and  in  Boston  on  the  third  Friday 

4 


5o 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


in  May.  Special  meetings  may  be  called  at  any  time  by  the 
Chairman. 

IV.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  is  the  official  representative 
of  the  interests  of  the  School  in  America.  He  presents  a  report 
annually  to  the  Archaeological  Institute  concerning  the  affairs  of  the 
School. 

V.  i.  The  School  is  under  the  superintendence  of  a  Director. 
The  Director  is  chosen  and  his  salary  is  fixed  by  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee. The  term  for  which  he  is  chosen  is  five  years.  The  Com- 
mittee provides  him  with  a  house  in  Athens,  containing  apartments 
for  himself  and  his  family,  and  suitable  rooms  for  the  meetings  of 
the  members  of  the  School,  its  collections,  and  its  library. 

2.  Each  year  the  Committee  appoints  from  the  instructors  of  the 
Colleges  uniting  in  the  support  of  the  School  an  Annual  Director, 
who  resides  in  Athens  during  the  ensuing  year  and  co-operates  in 
the  conduct  of  the  School.  In  case  of  the  illness  or  absence  of  the 
Director,  the  Annual  Director  acts  as  Director  for  the  time  being. 

VI.  The  Director  superintends  personally  the  work  of  each  mem- 
1  er  of  the  School,  advising  him  in  what  direction  to  turn  his  studies, 
and  assisting  him  in  their  prosecution.  He  conducts  no  regular 
courses  of  instruction,  but  holds  meetings  of  the  members  of  the 
School  at. stated  times  for  consultation  and  discussion.  He  makes  a 
full  report  annually  to  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  work  accom- 
plished by  the  School. 

VII.  The  school  year  extends  from  the  ist  of  October  to  the  ist 
of  June.  Members  are  required  to  prosecute  their  studies  during  the 
whole  of  this  time  in  Greek  lands  under  the  supervision  of  the  Direc- 
tor. The  studies  of  the  remaining  four  months  necessary  to  complete 
a  full  year  (the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given)  may  be 
carried  on  in  Greece  or  elsewhere,  as  the  student  prefers. 

VIII.  Bachelors  of  Arts  of  co-operating  Colleges,  and  all  Bachelors 
of  Arts  who  have  studied  at  one  of  these  Colleges  as  candidates  for  a 
higher  degree,  are  admitted  to  membership  in  the  School  on  present- 
ing to  the  Committee  a  certificate  from  the  instructors  in  Classics  of 
the  College  at  which  they  have  last  studied,  stating  that  they  are  com- 
petent to  pursue  an  independent  course  of  study  at  Athens  under  the 
advice  of  the  Director.   All  other  persons  desiring  to  become  members 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  51 


of  the  School  must  make  application  to  the  Committee.  Members 
of  the  School  are  subject  to  no  charge  for  tuition.  The  Committee 
reserves  the  right  to  modify  the  conditions  of  membership. 

IX.  Each  member  of  the  School  must  pursue  some  definite  subject 
of  study  or  research  in  classical  Literature,  Art,  or  Antiquities,  and 
must  present  a  thesis  or  report,  embodying  the  results  of  some  impor- 
tant part  of  his  year's  work.  These  theses,  if  approved  by  the  Direc- 
tor, are  sent  to  the  Managing  Committee,  by  which  each  thesis  is 
referred  to  a  sub-committee  of  three  members,  of  whom  two  are 
appointed  by  the  Chairman,  and  the  third  is  always  the  Director 
under  whose  supervision  the  thesis  was  prepared.  If  recommended 
for  publication  by  this  sub-committee,  the  thesis  or  report  may  be 
issued  in  the  Papers  of  the  School. 

X.  When  any  member  of  the  School  has  completed  one  or  more 
full  years  of  study,  the  results  of  which  have  been  approved  by  the 
Director,  he  receives  a  certificate  stating  the  work  accomplished  by 
him,  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  School,  the  President  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute,  and  the  Chairman  and  the  Secretary  of  the 
Managing  Committee. 

XI.  American  students  resident  or  travelling  in  Greece  who  are 
not  regular  members  of  the  School  may,  at  the  discretion  of  the 
Director,  be  enrolled  as  special  students  and  enjoy  the  privileges  of 
the  School. 


52 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1882-1888. 

The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee  may  be  had  gratis  on  application  to 
the  Secretary  of  the  Managing  Committee.  The  other  publications  are  for  sale 
by  Messrs.  Damrell,  Upham,  &  Co.,  283  Washington  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

First,  Second,  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Managing  Commit- 
tee, 1881-84.    pp.  30. 

Fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1884-85.    pp.  30. 

Fifth  and  Sixth  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee,  1885-87. 
pp.  56. 

Bulletin  I.  Report  of  William  W.  Goodwin,  Director  of  the  School 
in  1882-83.    pp.  33.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  II.  Memoir  of  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Director  of  the  School 
in  1883-84,  with  Resolutions  of  the  Committee  and  the  Report  for 
1883-84.    pp.  34.    Price  25  cents. 

Preliminary  Report  of  an  Archaeological  Journey  made  in  Asia 
Minor  during  the  Summer  of  1884.  By  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett.  pp.  45. 
Price  25  cents. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  SCHOOL. 

Volume  I.  1882-83.  Published  in  1885.  8vo.  pp.  viii.  and  262. 
Illustrated.    Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R.  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier. 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salamis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS.  53 


Volume  IV.    1885-86.    Published  in  1888.    8vo.    pp.277.  Illus" 
trated.    Price  $2.00. 
Contents : — 

1.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Preliminary  Report  by  Walter  Miller. 

2.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Supplementary  Report  by  William  L.  Cushing. 

3.  On  Greek  Versification  in  Inscriptions,  by  Frederic  D.  Allen. 

4.  The  Athenian  Pnyx,  by  John  M.  Crow  ;  with  a  Survey  of  the  Pnyx  and 
Notes  by  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke. 

5.  Notes  on  Attic  Vocalism,  by  J.  McKeen  Lewis. 

Volume  II.,  1883-84,  containing  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett's  Report  of 
his  Journey  in  Asia  Minor  in  1884,  with  Inscriptions,  and  two  new 
Maps  by  Professor  H.  Kiepert,  will  be  published,  it  is  hoped,  before 
the  end  of  1888. 

Volume  III.,  1884-85,  containing  Dr.  Sterrett's  Report  of  the  Wolfe 
Expedition  to  Asia  Minor  in  1885,  with  Inscriptions,  mostly  hitherto 
unpublished,  and  two  new  Maps  by  Professor  Kiepert,  will  be  published 
early  in  1888. 


CIRCULAR  OF  INFORMATION  FOR  STUDENTS  PRO- 
POSING TO  JOIN  THE  SCHOOL. 

JANUARY,  1888. 

Students  in  Athens  will  find  a  knowledge  of  German  and  French 
of  the  utmost  service  in  all  their  work. 

The  books  in  the  following  lists  of  which  the  titles  are  printed  in 
the  larger  type  are  recommended  to  students  as  an  introduction  to  the 
different  branches  of  Greek  Archaeology.  The  more  special  works, 
whose  titles  are  printed  in  smaller  type,  are  recommended  as  books 
of  reference,  and  for  students  whose  department  of  special  study  is 
already  determined. 

LIST  OF  BOOKS. 
GENERAL  WORKS. 

Pausanias. 

Collignon :  Manual  of  Greek  Archaeology  (translated  by  J.  H. 
Wright). 


54 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


S.  Reinach  :  Conseils  au  Voyageur  Archeologue  en  Grece. 
Taine  :  Philosophic  de  l'Art  en  Grece. 

Daremberg  et  Saglio  :  Dictionnaire  des  Antiquites  (article,  Attica 
Respublica). 

S.  Reinach :  Manuel  de  Philologie  Classique. 

Stark :  Systematik  und  Geschichte  der  Archaologie  der  Kunst. 

C.  T.  Newton  :  Essays  on  Art  and  Archaeology. 

Burnouf  :  Memoires  sur  l'Antiquite. 

A.  Boetticher :  Olympia. 

I.  Miiller  :  Handbuch  der  Klassischen  Altertums-Wissenschaft. 
Bockh  :  Die  Staatshaushaltung  der  Athener. 

ARCHITECTURE. 

Durm  :  Die  Baukunst  der  Griechen. 

Von  Reber  :  History  of  Ancient  Art  (translated  by  Clarke). 
Papers  of  the  American  School  at  Athens.    Vol.  I. 

Penrose  :  Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture. 
Michaelis :  Der  Parthenon. 
Fergusson :  The  Parthenon. 

Baumeister  :  Denkmaler  des  Klassischen  Altertums,/rtjj,/;«. 
A.  Miiller  :  Lehrbuch  der  Griechischen  Biihnen-alterthiinier. 
Boutmy  :  Philosophic  de  l'Architecture  en  Grece. 

SCULPTURE. 

A.  S.  Murray  :  History  of  Greek  Sculpture. 
Overbeck  :  Geschichte  der  Griechischen  Plastik. 

Waldstein:  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidias. 
Petersen  :  Die  Kunst  des  Pheidias. 
Collignon :  Phidias. 

Overbeck:  Die  Antiken  Schriftquellen  zur  Geschichte  der  Bildenden  Kiinste. 
Brunn  :  Geschichte  der  Griechischen  Kiinstler. 
Heuzey :  Catalogue  des  Terres  Cuites  du  Louvre. 

VASES. 

Dumont  et  Chaplain  :  Les  Ceramiques  de  la  Grece  Propre. 

COINS. 

Head  :  Historia  Numorum. 

P.  Gardner :  Types  of  Greek  Coins. 

Ruskin  :  Aratra  Pentelici. 


FIFTH  AND  SIXTH  ANNUAL  REPORTS. 


55 


EPIGRAPHY. 

Taylor  :  The  Alphabet.    Vol.  II. 

Kirchhoff :  Geschichte  des  Griechischen  Alphabets. 

Hicks  :  Greek  Historical  Inscriptions. 

S.  Reinach  :  Traite  d'Epigraphie  Grecque. 

Papers  of  the  American  School  at  Athens.    Vols.  L,  III.,  and  IV. 

Dittenberger  :  Sylloge  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Cauer:  Delectus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Meisterhans  :  Grammatik  der  Attischen  Inschriften. 

G.  Meyer:  Griechische  Grammatik. 

Roehl:  Inscriptiones  Graecae  Antiquissimae. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Atticarum. 

Corpus  Incriptionum  Graecarum. 

Loewy  :  Inschriften  Griechischer  Bildhauer. 

MYTHOLOGY. 

Seemann  :  Mythologie  der  Griechen  und  Romer. 
Collignon  :  Mythologie  Figuree  de  la  Grece. 
Decharme  :  Mythologie  de  la  Grece  Antique. 

Roscher:  Lexikon  der  Griechischen  und  Romischen  Mythologie. 
Burnouf :  La  Legende  Athenienne. 
Ruskin  :  Queen  of  the  Air. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Baedeker  :  Griechenland  (latest  edition) . 

Murray's  Handbook  for  Travellers  in  Greece. 

Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Atlas  von  Athen. 

Baumeister  :  Denkmaler  (articles,  Athen  and  Peiraieus) . 

Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Karten  von  Attika  (Erlauternder  Text). 

E.  Curtius:  Peloponnesos. 

Wachsrriuth:  Die  Stadt  Athen  im  Alterthum. 

Hertzberg :  Athen. 

Dyer:  Ancient  Athens. 

Burnouf :  La  Ville  et  l'Acropole  d'Athenes. 

PERIODICALS. 
Bulletin  de  Correspondance  Hellenique. 

Mittheilungen  des  Kais.  Archaol.  Instituts  :  Athenische  Abtheilung. 
American  Journal  of  Archaeology. 


56 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies. 
'£</>?7/xepis  'ApxaioXoyiKrj. 

UpaKTLKa  rrjs  iv  'AOrjvcus  'Ap^atoAoytK^s  'Eraipias. 

MODERN  GREEK. 
Vincent  and  Dickson  :  Handbook  to  Modem  Greek. 
Contopoulos  :  Modern  Greek  and  English  Lexicon. 


TRAVEL  AND  EXPENSES. 

Students  wishing  to  travel  from  the  United  States  to  Athens  with  the  greatest 
economy  of  time  and  money  are  advised  to  sail  from  New  York  to  Havre,  Ant- 
werp, Bremen,  or  Hamburg.    The  cost  of  the  sea  voyage  varies  from  $40  to 
$125.    From  the  port  of  landing  the  journey  to  Athens  may  be  made  for  about 
$100  (first  class)  or  $75  (second  class)  including  ordinary  living  expenses. 
Three  routes  are  available  for  the  voyage  to  Athens  upon  the  Mediterranean  : 
from  Marseilles,  by  the  Messageries  Maritimes  steamers,  or  by  the  Fraissinet  or 
Florio-Rubattino  line;  from  Brindisi,  by  Greek  or  Italian  steamers  or  the 
Austrian  Lloyd;  from  Trieste,  by  the  Austrian  Lloyd.    Before  securing  passage 
by  any  of  these  lines,  care  should  be  taken  to  ascertain  that  the  Greek  Govern- 
ment has  not  established  a  quarantine  against  the  port  of  departure.  Quaran, 
tined  ports  are  to  be  avoided  if  possible,  as  the  delay  on  landing  from  them  is 
tedious  and  costly. 

It  is  not  advisable  to  attempt  to  sail  directly  from  New  York  to  the  Peiraeus 
during  the  summer  months,  on  account  of  the  danger  of  quarantine.  The  voyage 
by  this  route  (by  the  Florio  steamers),  which  is  to  be  recommended  at  other 
seasons,  requires  about  three  weeks,  and  costs  $150  (first  class). 

At  the  large  hotels  in  Athens  board  and  lodging  can  be  obtained  for  $14  per 
week;  at  small  hotels  and  in  private  families,  for  $7  per  week  and  upward.  A 
limited  number  of  students  may  have  rooms,  without  board,  in  the  new  School 
building,  which  will  be  completed  early  in  1888.  The  figures  here  given  repre- 
sent maximum  estimates,  and  careful  economy  may  reduce  actual  expenses  below 
them.  The  student  should  go  well  supplied  with  clothing  and  similar  necessities 
for  his  stay,  as  all  such  articles  are  expensive  in  Athens  ;  and  in  providing  these 
he  must  not  count  too  much  on  a  warm  climate  during  the  winter.  He  should 
encumber  himself  with  as  few  books  as  possible  in  travelling  ;  the  School  library, 
which  now  contains  about  fifteen  hundred  volumes,  provides  all  the  books  that 
are  most  essential  for  study  in  Greece. 

Members  of  the  School  are  required  to  study  in  Athens,  or  in  such  Greek 
Jands  as  the  Director  of  the  School  may  approve,  between  October  1  and  June  1. 


^rtjmolojjtral  Institute  of  ^merka. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1887-88. 
rattjj  tfje  Eepatte  of  tje  Annual  ©trectorg, 

PROFESSOR  MARTIN  L.  D'OOGE,  Ph.D.,  AND  PROFESSOR 
AUGUSTUS  C.  MERRIAM,  Ph.D. 


CAMBRIDGE: 
JOHN    WILSON    AND  SON. 
2a lifters tt#  $ress. 
1889. 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 


PAGE 


Officers,  etc.,  of  the  School  at  Athens   3 

Seventh  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee   7 

Report  of  Professor  D'Ooge   25 

Report  of    Professor  Merriam  (including  a  Detailed 
Statement  of  what  has  been  hitherto  known  of  Icaria 

and  the  icarians)   39 

Financial  Statements  .   102 

Regulations,  Publications,  etc.   105 

Circular  of  Information  for  Students  who  propose  to 

ENTER  THE  SCHOOL   Ill 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Plate 

I.  The  New  School  Building  at  Athens  ....  Frontispiece 

II.  Icaria.    The  Church,  from  the  South   60 

HI.       "        The  Excavations,  looking  Eastward  ....  75 

IV.          "               "                  "               LOOKING  OVER  THE  PyTHION  .  79 

V.                               «          looking  toward  the  North- 
west   79 

Map  of  the  Northeastern  Part  of  Attica   cc 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 

JHanajjmg  Committee, 

1887-88. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  (Chairman),  Yale  University,  New  Haven, 
Conn. 

H.  M.  Baird,  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

I.  T.  Beckwith,  Trinity  College,  Hartford,  Conn. 

Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York,  N.  Y. 

Miss  A.  C.  Chapin,  Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Mass. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St..  New  York,  N.  Y. 

O.  M.  Fernald,  Williams  College,  Williamstown,  Mass. 

A.  F.  Fleet,  University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Mo. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 

William  W.  Goodwin  (Chairman  of  Committee  on  Publications), 

Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
Willtam  G.  Hale,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 
Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary),  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Columbia  College,  Athens,  Greece. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton  (ex  officio),  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 

Mass. 

Francis  W.  Palfrey,  255  Beacon  St.,  Boston,  Mass. 
William  Pepper,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  {Treasurer),  7  East  42c!  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 

Fitz  Gerald  Tisdall,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

William  S.  Tyler,  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 

William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York,  N.Y. 

John  Williams  White,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 


lEmuh'be  Committee. 

1887-88. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  {Chairman). 

William  W.  Goodwin. 

Thomas  W.  Ludlow  {Secretary). 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  {Treasurer). 

William  R.  Ware. 

John  Williams  White. 


©trectors. 

William  Watson  Goodwin,  Ph.  D.,  LL.D.,  Eliot  Professor  of  Greek 
Literature  in  Harvard  University.  1882-83. 

Lewis  R.  Packard,  Ph.  D.,  Hillhouse  Professor  of  Greek  in  Yale  Uni- 
versity. 1883-84. 

James  Cooke  Van  Benschoten,  LL.D.,  Seney  Professor  of  the  Greek 
Language  and  Literature  in  Wesleyan  University.  1884-85. 

Frederic  De  Forest  Allen,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Classical  Philology 
in  Harvard  University,  1885-86. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University  of 
Michigan.  1886-87. 

Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in  Columbia  Col- 
lege. 1887-88. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


5 


Cooperating  (JTolIffjcs. 

1887-88. 


AMHERST  COLLEGE. 

BROWN  UNIVERSITY. 

COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK. 

COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 

COLUMBIA  COLLEGE. 

CORNELL  UNIVERSITY. 

DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 

HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 

JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 


TRINITY  COLLEGE. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW 
YORK. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  MISSOURI. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 
WESLEYAN  UNIVERSITY. 
WELLESLEY  COLLEGE. 
WILLIAMS  COLLEGE. 


YALE  UNIVERSITY. 


Stuoents. 


LOUIS  BEVIER  (1882-83).* 

WALTER  RAY  BRIDGMAN  (1883-84). 

CARL  DARLING  BUCK  (1887-  ). 

N.  E.  CROSBY  (1886-S7). 

JOHN  M.  CROW  (1882-83). 

WILLIAM  LEE  CUSHING  (1885-87). 

MORTIMER  LAMSON  LA  RLE  (1887-88). 

THOMAS  H.  ECKFELDT  (1884-85). 

A.  F.  FLEET  (1887-88). 

HAROLD  NORTH  FOWLER  (1882-83). 

HENRY  T.  HILDRETH  (1885-86). 

GEORGE  BENJAMIN HUSSEY(ti&7-W); 

JOSEPH  McKEEN  LEWIS  (1885-87). 

WALTER  MILLER  (1885-86). 


WILLIAM  J.  McMURTRY  (1886-87). 
Miss  ANNIE  S.  PECK  (1885-86). 
WILLIAM  J.  SEELYE  (1886-87). 
PAUL  SHOREY  (1882-83). 
J.  R.  S.  STERRETT  (1882-83). 
F.  H.  TAYLOR  (1882-83). 
DANIEL  QUINN(m7-  ). 
OLIVER  J.  THA  TCHER  (1887-88). 
S.  B.  P.  TROWBRIDGE  (1886-88). 
JAMES  R.  WHEELER  (1882-83). 
ALEXANDER  M.  WILCOX  (1883-84). 
FRANK  E.  WOODRUFF  (1882-83).* 
THEODORE  L.  WRIGHT  (1886-87). 


*  Not  iri  attendance  during  the  entire  year. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


trustees  of  tfje  Scfjool 

James  Russell  Lowell  {President). 

Samuel  D.  Warren  {Treasurer). 

William  W.  Goodwin  {Secretary). 

Martin  Brimmer. 

Henry  Drisler. 

Basil  M,  Gildersleeve. 

Henry  G.  Marquand. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 

Henry  C.  Potter. 

William  M.  Sloane. 

John  Williams  White. 

Theodore  D.  Woolsey. 


lExecttttoe  Committee  of  tfje  ^Trustees. 

James  Russell  Lowell. 
Samuel  D.  Warren. 
William  W.  Goodwin. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Archceological Institute  of  America: 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
the  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  Ameri- 
can School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  for  the 
year  from  October  i,  1887,  to  October  1,  1888;  and 
also  the  Report  of  Professor  D'Ooge,  Annual  Director 
for  the  year  1886-87,  and  that  of  Professor  Merriam, 
Annual  Director  for  the  year  1887-88. 

The  sixth  year  of  the  School  was  opened  by  the 
Director,  Professor  Augustus  C.  Merriam,  on  October 
2,  1887.  Professor  Merriam  found  on  his  arrival  at 
Athens  that  the  new  School  building  was  not  ready 
for  use,  while  the  books  and  furniture  had  been  re- 
moved from  the  building  which  had  been  the  home  of 
the  School  for  five  years.  He  secured  rooms,  in  a  con- 
venient situation,  for  the  library  of  the  School  and  its 
work.    Those  in  charge  of  the  new  building  hoped 


8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


that  it  might  be  ready  for  occupation  by  January  i, 
1888  ;  but  its  completion  was  delayed  for  three  months 
longer.  In  February  the  library  was  moved  to  the 
new  home  of  the  School,  and  in  April  the  students' 
rooms  were  furnished,  and  were  occupied  for  the  rest 
of  the  School  year. 

The  following  were  enrolled  as  regular  members  of 
the  School :  — 

Professor  A.  F.  Fleet,  of  the  University  of  Missouri. 

Carl  Darling  Buck,  A.  B.  and  Soldiers'  Memorial  Fellow 
of  Yale  College. 

Mortimer  Lamson  Earle,  A.  B.,  A.  M.,  and  Fellow  of  Co- 
lumbia College. 

George  Benjamin  Hussey,  A.  B.  Columbia  College,  A.  M., 
Ph.  D.,  and  Fellow  of  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

Rev.  David  Ouinn,  A.  B.  Mt.  St.  Mary's  College. 

Oliver  Joseph  Thatcher,  A.  B.  Wilmington  College,  Fellow 
of  Union  Theological  Seminary. 

S.  B.  P.  Trowbridge,  A.  B.  Trinity  College,  Ph.  B.  School 
of  Mines,  Columbia  College. 

Of  these,  Mr.  Trowbridge  had  been  a  member  of  the  School 
also  during  the  year  1886-87. 

Professor  Mather  of  Amherst,  Professor  Louis  Dyer  and 
Mr.  H.  B.  Carpenter  of  Boston,  and  many  others,  were  wel- 
comed to  the  meetings  of  the  School  and  to  its  Library. 

Professor  Merriam's  Report  gives  a  somewhat  de- 
tailed account  of  the  work  done  under  his  direction. 
Three  sessions  were  held  each  week.  The  first  was 
devoted  to  Epigraphy;  the  second  was  devoted  to  re- 
ports embodying  the  results  of  investigation ;  the  third 
was  literary. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


9 


As  in  the  previous  years,  the  different  members  of 
the  School  pursued  very  different  lines  of  special  re- 
search ;  but  each  received  advantage  from  the  labors 
of  each  of  the  others,  and  all  were  united  in  the  study 
of  the  matters  of  general  interest  to  all  classical  stu- 
dents. The  expeditions  of  the  year  into  the  country 
of  Greece  seem  to  have  been  unusually  numerous 
and  profitable.  Each  year,  travel  in  Greece  becomes 
easier,  while  as  yet  the  other  conditions  of  life  in  the 
interior  are  but  little  changed. 

The  excavations  which  had  been  begun  at  Sicyon 
under  Professor  D'Ooge's  direction  were  continued  by 
Professor  Merriam,  and  placed  in  charge  of  Mr.  Earle. 
The  objects  found,  and  the  results  of  the  work,  were 
not  numerous,  but  of  considerable  importance.  The 
most  interesting  discovery  was  a  statue,  —  one  of  the 
few  known  remains  of  art  from  Sicyon.  The  orches- 
tra of  the  theatre  was  wholly  cleared,  but  the  soil  was 
not  removed  from  the  great  cavea.  To  clear  the  debris 
from  the  seats  would  be  highly  satisfactory,  but  would 
be  comparatively  expensive  for  the  results  promised. 
That  excavation  can  be  completed  at  a  later  time. 
Mr.  Earle  has  prepared  a  careful  account  of  the 
work  at  Sicyon  for  publication  in  the  Papers  of  the 
School. 

Professor  Merriam 's  attention  had  been  directed  by 
Professor  Ernst  Curtius  to  Milchhofer's  discovery  of 
a  ruined  church  embodying  the  remains  of  a  choragic 
monument  at  Dionyso,  and  his  identification  of  this 


IO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


site  with  the  ancient  Icaria.  Soon  after  reaching 
Athens,  Professor  Merriam  visited  the  spot,  and  ap- 
plied for  permission  to  dig  there.  The  official  per- 
mission was  delayed  for  some  weeks  by  the  absence 
from  the  country  of  the  owner  of.  the  property.  Work 
was  begun  there  on  the  thirtieth  day  of  January, 
under  the  care  of  Mr.  Buck,  and  within  five  days, 
besides  architectural  fragments  and  parts  of  statues, 
inscriptions  were  brought  to  light  which  confirmed 
Milchhofer's  brilliant  conjecture.  These  established 
the  site  and  proved  the  ancient  importance  of  Icaria. 
These  excavations  were  continued  for  several  weeks. 
Seldom  has  work  of  this  kind  been  so  satisfactory, 
and  accomplished  so  much  at  so  slight  expense.  An 
account  of  these  excavations  is  given  by  Professor 
Merriam  in  his  accompanying  Report.  Mr.  Buck  is 
preparing  papers  on  the  inscriptions  and  sculptures 
which  were  discovered  there. 

The  Ephor-General  of  Antiquities,  Mr.  Kabbadias, 
and  the  owner  of  the  property,  Mr.  Heliopulos,  unite 
in  assuring  us  that  we  shall  have  the  same  rights  of 
publication  of  the  objects  found  at  Icaria  as  were 
granted  to  the  German  Government  for  the  objects 
found  at  Olympia. 

A  reference  to  the  Financial  Statement  for  the  year 
will  show  that  like  sums  were  expended  for  the  ex- 
cavations at  Sicyon  and  at  Icaria,  —  less  than  three 
hundred  dollars  at  either  place.  To  say  nothing  of 
the  actual  contribution  to  knowledge  which  has  been 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


made,  these  excavations  have  been  highly  stimulating 
and  useful  to  the  members  of  the  School.  They  have 
provided  unique  material  for  investigation. 

The  Managing  Committee  of  the  School  at  its  May 
meeting  congratulated  the  Director,  Professor  Mer- 
riam,  "  upon  the  extraordinary  interest  of  the  work 
accomplished  by  the  School  during  the  past  year,  — 
work  which  has  served  to  illustrate  one  of  the  most 
important  myths  and  characteristic  traditions  of  At- 
tica, to  throw  light  upon  the  history  of  the  drama,  and 
to  add  to  the  precious  stores  of  archaic  art" 

Professor  Merriam  left  Athens  on  June  ist.  Two 
of  the  members  of  the  School  remained  in  Greece  for 
some  weeks  longer. 

At  the  November  meeting  in  1887  tne  Committee 
received  with  regret  the  resignation  of  Miss  Alice 
Freeman,  who  had  represented  Wellesley  College  in 
its  councils.  Miss  Angie  Clara  Chapin,  Professor  of 
Greek  in  Wellesley  College,  was  invited  to  succeed 
her  as  member  of  the  Managing  Committee. 

At  the  May  meeting  of  1888  the  resignation  was 
presented  of  Professor  William  Seymour  Tyler,  who 
had  once  before  offered  his  resignation,  but  had  with- 
drawn it  at  the  unanimous  desire  of  the  Committee. 
The  Chairman  was  instructed  to  express  to  Profes- 
sor Tyler  —  the  Nestor  of  American  philologists  in 
active  service  —  the  reluctance  of  the  Committee  to 
accept  his  resignation,  and  their  high  appreciation 
of  his  successful  efforts  in  behalf  of  the  School. 


12  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Professor  Richard  H.  Mather  was  elected  to  suc- 
ceed Professor  Tyler  as  member  of  the  Managing- 
Committee. 

The  Committee,  through  the  President  of  Vassar 
College,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Taylor,  extended  an  invitation 
to  that  College  to  join  the  other  Colleges  which  are 
associated  in  the  maintenance  of  the  American  School 
at  Athens.  The  invitation  was  accepted,  and  Miss 
Abby  Leach  was  elected  to  represent  Vassar  College 
as  member  of  the  Committee. 

In  the  last  Report  of  this  Committee  the  confident 
hope  was  expressed  that  henceforth  the  School  would 
be  "  under  the  control  of  a  permanent  Director,  who 
by  continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate 
that  body  of  local  and  special  knowledge  without 
which  the  highest  purpose  of  such  a  School  cannot 
be  fulfilled."  The  Managing  Committee  at  its  last 
meeting,  had  invited  Dr.  Waldstein  to  assume  charge 
of  the  work  of  the  School  at  Athens  at  once.  But 
the  conditions  on  which  he  had  accepted  the  Direc- 
torship had  not  been  met;  the  fund  for  the  perma- 
nent endowment  of  the  School  had  not  been  secured. 
He  was  naturally  unwilling  to  resign  for  our  sake 
the  important  and  honorable  positions  which  he  held 
in  England,  until  the  financial  basis  of  the  School 
was  firmly  established.  We,  on  our  part,  were  un- 
willing to  incur  the  personal  obligation  of  urging 
him  to  accept  the  Direction  of  the  School  under 
existing  circumstances. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


13 


But  we  desired  to  have  the  advantage  of  Dr.  Wald- 
stein's  counsel  in  the  conduct  of  the  School.  He  met 
the  Executive  Committee  at  the  rooms  of  the  Treas- 
urer of  Harvard  College,  in  Boston,  on  August  9, 
1888,  and  after  a  careful  consideration  of  the  situa- 
tion the  following  arrangement  was  made  :  Dr.  Wald- 
stein  will  direct  the  studies  of  the  members  of  the 
School  during  the  coming  year  so  far  as  he  can  while 
remaining  in  Cambridge,  and  will  give  his  advice  in 
matters  pertaining  to  the  School.  He  will  go  to 
Athens  in  December,  and  will  remain  there  until 
about  January  20,  actively  directing  the  work  of 
the  School.  He  expects  to  go  to  Athens  again  in 
the  spring.  He  invites  Mr.  Buck,  the  member  of  the 
School  who  conducted  so  happily  the  excavations  at 
Icaria  last  winter,  to  study  with  him  at  the  Fitzwilliam 
Museum  during  October  and  November,  in  prepara- 
tion for  the  publication  of  the  discoveries  at  Icaria. 
He  hopes  to  invite  the  members  of  the  School  to 
work  under  his  direction  at  Cambridge,  or  in  the 
British  Museum,  during  June. 

This  arrangement  is  a  temporary  compromise,  and 
as  such  is  not  wholly  satisfactory  to  either  party.  We 
hope  that  a  permanent  arrangement  can  be  made  be- 
fore the  opening  of  the  School  year  of  1889-90.  We 
have  lost  our  opportunity  of  securing  the  undivided 
services  of  Dr.  Waldstein  for  the  year  1888-89,  by 
our  failure  to  secure  the  permanent  endowment  of 
the    School.     The   conditions   on    which    he  had 


14 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


previously  accepted  the  Directorship  had  not  been 
carried  out. 

The  Managing  Committee  at  its  May  meeting  in 
Cambridge  invited  Professor  William  Gardner  Hale,  of 
Cornell  University,  to  act  as  Annual  Director  of  the 
School  for  the  Academic  year  1888-89;  but  he  reluc- 
tantly declined  the  invitation,  on  the  ground  that 
its  acceptance  would  involve  the  surrender  of  long- 
cherished  and  carefully  formed  plans  for  work  abroad 
during  this  year. 

The  Executive  Committee,  to  whom  this  matter 
was  intrusted,  then  elected  Professor  Frank  Bigelow 
Tarbell,  Ph.  D.,  Annual  Director  for  the  coming  year, 
and  the  invitation  was  accepted.  Professor  Tarbell 
has  shown  unusually  broad  and  accurate  scholarship, 
and  skill  in  guiding  the  studies  of  philologists,  during 
eleven  years  of  service  as  teacher  of  Greek  in  Yale 
College*  He  visited  Greece  in  1880.  For  several 
years  he  has  been  particularly  interested  in  Greek 
archaeology,  and  he  spent  the  year  1887-88  in  study 
abroad,  pursuing  investigations  which  make  his  advice 
and  instruction  especially  valuable  to  the  students  of 
the  School.  We  count  ourselves  exceedingly  fortu- 
nate in  securing  the  services  of  so  accomplished  a 
scholar  as  Annual  Director,  at  so  late  a  date,  when 
no  member  of  the  Committee  was  able  to  go. 

The  number  of  members  of  the  School  during  the 
year  1887-88  was  within  one  of  the  largest  until  now. 
Perhaps  we  could  not  expect  that  more  than  six  or 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


15 


seven  young  Americans  would  present  themselves 
for  work  at  Athens,  under  the  present  circumstances. 
Neither  the  German  Institute  nor  the  French  School 
expects  to  keep  more  students  in  residence,  and  the 
number  of  members  of  the  British  School  has  been 
distinctly  smaller.  No  one  should  judge  of  the  in- 
fluence and  importance  of  the  work  of  the  School  by 
the  number  of  students  in  residence.  Almost  without 
exception,  the  former  members  of  the  School  are 
actively  engaged  in  teaching  Greek,  —  occupying  im- 
portant positions  from  Maine  to  Texas,  from  Massa- 
chusetts to  Kansas.  Every  member  of  their  classes 
feels  the  effect  of  their  work  in  the  School  at  Athens. 
Thus  the  influence  of  the  School  will  be  more  widely 
and  deeply  exerted  from  year  to  year. 

Several  years  ago  this  Committee  called  attention 
to  the  desirability  and  importance  of  the  foundation  of 
college  or  university  scholarships  which  should  allow 
the  holder  to  study  in  Greece.  The  expense  of  life 
and  study  in  Greece  has  been  materially  reduced  by 
the  opening  of  the  School  building;  but  many  of  the 
young  men  of  our  colleges  who  would  gladly  devote 
themselves  to  Greek  as  their  life-work  are  hindered 
by  lack  of  means  from  availing  themselves  of  the  op- 
portunities afforded  by  the  American  School.  Most 
scholarships  or  fellowships  are  limited  to  residents  at 
a  special  college  or  university.  The  Soldiers'  Memo- 
rial Fellowship  at  Yale  College,  however  (which  is 
given  by  preference  to  those  "  who  have  shown  special 


i6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


proficiency  in  Greek  "),  by  the  provisions  of  the  gift, 
allows  "  the  Fellow  to  spend  a  part  or  the  whole  of 
the  time  of  his  incumbency  in  Athens,  in  connection 
with  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies."  The 
stimulus  thus  offered  is  clearly  marked.  Holders  of 
this  Fellowship  have  been  among  the  members  of  the 
School  during  four  of  the  last  five  years,  and  at  least 
two  young  men  of  high  promise  are  now  studying 
with  the  expectation  of  going  to  Athens  as  incum- 
bents of  that  Fellowship. 

No  large  additions  were  made  to  the  library  dur- 
ing the  year;  but  the  most  needed  books  were  pur- 
chased —  about  one  hundred  volumes  in  all  —  and 
the  subscriptions  to  archaeological  publications  were 
continued.  The  books  now  in  the  library  have  been 
selected  with  the  utmost  care,  and  by  the  most  com- 
petent judges.  A  well-known  foreign  scholar  has 
pronounced  the  library  of  the  American  School  to  be 
excellent  for  working  purposes.  It  now  contains  a 
set  of  ancient  classics,  generally  in  the  best  editions, 
and  often  in  several  editions ;  the  most  important 
archaeological  periodicals  and  reports ;  and  the  best 
books  in  all  languages  on  ancient  art  and  ancient 
life.  Each  month  brings  new  requirements,  however, 
and  many  of  the  new  works  necessary  for  archaeologi- 
cal study  are  very  expensive.  The  proximity  of  the 
British  School  is  an  advantage  in  this  matter.  For 
some  time  to  come  the  two  schools  will  be  glad  not  to 
duplicate  certain  expensive  works.    The  members  of 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


17 


the  British  School  are  welcomed  to  the  library  of 
the  American  School,  and  students  from  America 
enjoy  like  privileges  in  the  library  of  the  British 
School. 

From  the  first,  the  Managing  Committee  and  the 
Directors  have  recognized  the  necessity  of  a  good 
library  for  the  use  of  the  students.  One  of  the  great 
advantages  which  the  School  affords  for  archaeological 
study  is  the  well-selected  and  well-arranged  library, 
easily  accessible,  in  a  comfortable  room,  that  the  stu- 
dent shall  be  able  to  consult  the  leading  authorities 
on  his  subject  without  waste  of  time;  that  he  may 
"  stand  upon  the  shoulders  "  of  those  who  have  pre- 
ceded him,  and  may  not  be  obliged  to  re-thresh  old 
straw;  that  he  may  be  able  each  day  and  evening  to 
read  the  views  of  scholars  upon  what  he  is  about 
to  see,  and  may  verify  their  statements  with  regard 
to  what  he  has  just  seen.  While  the  country  and  its 
living  associations,  the  temples  and  other  monuments, 
and  the  museums,  provide  the  chief  material  for  the 
work  of  the  student  at  Athens,  the  library  furnishes 
a  large  part  of  his  tools.  The  student  must  have  at 
hand  the  publications  of  important  museums,  in  order 
that  the  objects  in  them  may  be  compared  with  what 
is  to  be  seen  in  Greece  to-day.  "  Verification  of  refer- 
ences "  is  one  of  a  scholars  first  duties.  More  and 
more  important  to  our  students  will  be  the  works 
which  illustrate  the  art  and  life  of  other  nations,  for 

comparison  of  resemblances  and  differences. 

2 


i8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Enough  new  material  is  continually  brought  from 
the  soil  of  Greece  to  stimulate  the  student  to  inde- 
pendent research,  and  to  keep  him  from  relying  too 
implicitly  on  published  authorities.  Many  old  theories 
have  been  overthrown  by  the  excavations  of  the  last 
few  years.  Never  have  greater  archaeological  treasures 
been  gathered  than  in  the  last  two  decades.  Missing 
links  have  been  supplied,  not  only  for  the  history  of 
art,  but  for  the  political  history  of  Greece ;  and  many 
illustrations  of  public  and  private  life  have  been 
brought  to  light.  No  one  need  fear  that  the  Ameri- 
can student  in  Greece  will  be  tempted  to  make  an 
exaggerated  use  of  the  School  library. 

During  this  year  the  Committee  on  Publications 
has  completed  the  work  of  carrying  through  the  press 
Volumes  II.,  III.,  and  IV.  of  the  Papers  of  the  School. 

As  has  been  stated  in  previous  Reports,  Volumes 
II.  and  III.  contain  the  account  and  the  results  of  two 
epigraphical  journeys  in  Asia  Minor  of  J.  R.  Sitlington 
Sterrett,  Ph.D.,  now  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Texas.  Vol.  II.  contains  398  inscriptions 
(mostly  Greek)  found  by  Dr.  Sterrett  on  an  expedition, 
undertaken  at  his  own  expense,  in  the  summer  of 
1884.  A  Preliminary  Report  of  this  archaeological 
journey  was  published  by  the  School  in  1885.  Vol.  III. 
contains  651  inscriptions,  found  by  Dr.  Sterrett  in  the 
summer  of  1885,  on  a  journey  of  which  the  expenses 
were  generously  defrayed  by  Miss  Catharine  Lorillard 
Wolfe,  of  whom  this  volume  is  a  worthy  memorial. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


19 


To  accompany  these  volumes,  Professor  Kiepert,  of 
Berlin,  kindly  prepared  four  beautifully  executed 
maps. 

Dr.  Sterrett  has  shown  himself  to  possess  unusual 
qualifications  as  a  scientific  traveller  and  explorer,  and 
gives  a  concise  and  consecutive  account  of  his  jour- 
neys. Only  between  the  lines  does  the  reader  see 
the  story  of  the  hardships  which  he  endured  and  the 
difficulties  which  he  overcame.  Few  understand  the 
ingenious  labor  and  difficulty  of  discovering  and  de- 
ciphering these  inscriptions ;  fewer  still  understand 
the  learning  and  careful  toil  necessary  to  prepare  them 
properly  for  the  press.  Dr.  Sterrett's  work  has  been  re- 
ceived with  words  of  high  praise  and  satisfaction.  One 
of  the  highest  living  authorities  on  the  subject,  M. 
Waddington,  writes :  "  European  scholars  have  hailed 
with  delight  the  entrance  of  America  into  the  old 
field  of  archaeological  research,  and  will  welcome  such 
additions  to  our  knowledge  of  Asia  Minor  as  are 
contained  in  the  account  of  the  Wolfe  Expedition." 

The  contents  of  Vol.  IV.  were  enumerated  in  the 
last  Report  of  this  Committee.  The  principal  paper 
of  the  volume  —  an  essay  of  170  pages  by  Professor 
Allen  on  versification  in  Greek  inscriptions  —  lays 
the  first  substantial  foundation  for  the  discussion  of 
ancient  prosody,  and  especially  of  the  heroic  metre  of 
Homer. 

Professor  Goodwin  resigned  his  position  as  Chair- 
man of  the  Committee  on  Publications  in  November, 


20 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


1887,  but  continued  to  supervise  the  printing  of  the 
volumes  which  were  already  in  the  printer's  hands. 
He  has  received  the  warmest  thanks  of  the  Com- 
mittee for  his  unselfish  performance  of  laborious  and 
responsible  duties. 

Professor  Merriam,  of  Columbia  College,  was  elected 
by  the  Managing  Committee  to  succeed  Professor 
Goodwin  as  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Pub- 
lications. 

The  Committee  voted  to  make  the  "  American  Jour- 
nal of  Archaeology"  an  official  organ  in  this  country 
of  the  School  at  Athens.  Informal  reports  of  the 
work  of  the  School  will  be  sent  to  this  Journal,  and 
the  Director  and  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee 
on  Publications  will  send  to  it  such  papers  as  they 
may  think  appropriate  for  publication  there. 

The  new  building  on  the  slope  of  Mount  Lycabettus 
is  at  last  occupied  by  the  School.  Circumstances  over 
which  no  one  connected  with  the  School  had  any 
control  delayed  the  completion  of  the  work,  and  the 
expense  was  somewhat  greater  than  had  been  planned. 
But  the  building  is  beautiful,  and  admirably  fitted  for 
its  purpose,  and  has  been  carefully  and  economically 
erected.  No  one  doubts  that  it  is  well  worth  all  that 
it  has  cost.  An  honored  friend  of  the  School,  the 
Hon.  Martin  Brimmer,  writes  from  Athens :  "  The 
School  building  is  well  placed,  and  does  Professor 
Ware  great  credit  in  its  design  and  arrangement. 
The  library  is  really  a  charming  room." 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


21 


In  addition  to  the  gifts  for  the  building  which 
were  enumerated  in  the  last  Report,  I  take  pleasure 
in  saying  that  Mr.  William  J.  McPherson,  of  Boston, 
has  made  and  presented  to  the  School,  for  the  stair- 
case, a  window  of  leaded  glass  —  mostly  white,  clear, 
or  with  broken  surfaces.  It  is  very  brilliant,  and 
adds  much  to  the  architectural  effect,  whether  seen 
from  without  or  within. 

Considerable  work  remains  to  be  done  about  the 
building,  especially  in  grading  the  land.  But  most  of 
this  is  not  imperatively  necessary  at  once,  and  part  of 
it  can  best  be  done  after  the  Greek  authorities  have 
completed  some  improvements  on  the  adjoining  street. 

The  furniture,  which  was  suited  in  quality  and 
quantity  to  the  former  home  of  the  School  in  the 
apartment  on  the'OSos  'A/xaXia?,  seemed  almost  shabby 
and  entirely  insufficient  for  the  large  and  elegant  new 
building.  Some  of  the  rooms  were  furnished  by  the 
proceeds  of  a  course  of  Professor  Lancianis  lectures  in 
New  York,  in  1887.  Some  rooms  are  still  but  scantily 
furnished,  and  others  remain  quite  unfurnished. 

The  Committee  has  nothing  new  to  report  with 
regard  to  the  fund  for  the  permanent  endowment  of 
the  School.  Only  a  little  more  than  one  third  of  the 
needed  sum  has  been  subscribed.  But  earnest  and 
able  friends  of  the  School  have  taken  the  matter  in 
hand,  and  strong  confidence  is  felt  that  the  fund  will 
be  raised.  It  is  needed  at  once,  in  order  that  the 
School  may  have  the  services  of  a  permanent  Direc- 


22 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


tor,  to  make  secure  the  high  position  which  has  been 
gained. 

The  history  of  the  School  up  to  this  time  has  been 
rather  remarkable.  Its  most  sanguine  friends  did  not 
anticipate  that  more  could  be  achieved  than  has  been 
accomplished.  For  six  years  the  advantages  of  the 
School  have  been  offered  freely  to  American  students. 
Four  volumes  of  Papers  have  been  published,  and 
accepted  by  the  world  of  scholars  as  valuable  additions 
to  our  sum  of  philological  knowledge.  An  excellent 
working  library  has  been  gathered,  together  with  the 
scientific  and  photographic  instruments  most  needed 
in  exploration.  The  School  has  conducted  excavations 
at  Thoricus,  Sicyon,  and  Icaria,  —  at  each  place  devel- 
oping some  interesting  or  important  facts.  A  beauti- 
ful, large,  and  commodious  building  has  been  erected, 
on  a  charming  site  (part  of  a  large  reservation  for  pub- 
lic grounds  and  buildings),  immediately  adjoining  the 
home  of  the  British  School  on  the  one  side,  and  the 
large  grounds  of  the  Monastery  of  the  Asomata  on 
the  other,  —  so  situated  on  high  ground  that  the  beau- 
tiful view  can  never  be  cut  off,  and  where  the  School 
is  assured  pleasant  and  honorable  company. 

Much  has  been  attained.  But  the  position  of  the 
School  is  in  some  respects  more  critical  than  before. 
At  first,  the  unavoidable  deficiencies  of  temporary 
organization  were  excused  as  natural  at  the  outset  of 
such  a  work.  But  the  School  has  now  won  a  place  by 
the  side  of  the  other  National  Schools  at  Athens,  and 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


23 


is  of  necessity  compared  with  them.  If  this  compari- 
son is  to  be  sustained,  continuity  of  work  is  necessary, 
—  a  permanent  Director  is  indispensable.  Though 
several  of  our  students  have  remained  in  Athens  for  a 
second  year  of  study,  as  yet  no  Director  has  remained 
for  a  second  year  of  service.  This  has  been  due  to 
the  necessities  of  the  temporary  organization,  by  which 
the  Director  of  the  School  has  been  chosen  from  the 
instructors  of  the  colleges  united  in  its  maintenance. 
All  have  felt  the  disadvantages  of  this  plan  ;  none 
have  appreciated  its  difficulties  and  defects  so  thor- 
oughly as  those  who  have  themselves  served  as 
Directors.  The  situation  has  grown  more  serious 
each  year.  The  time  seems  to  have  come  when  the 
permanent  Director  is  a  necessity.  We  cannot  look 
forward  to  a  long  continuance  of  the  present  arrange- 
ment.   We  must  advance,  or  fail. 

The  members  of  the  Managing  Committee  are 
unanimous,  however,  and  decided  in  the  opinion  that 
the  system  of  Annual  Directors  possesses  many  ad- 
vantages. For  the  sake  of  the  young  men  of  America 
who  are  to  pursue  their  studies  in  Athens,  as  well  as 
to  the  end  of  keeping  our  colleges  and  the  School  in 
close  and  vital  connection,  the  Committee  earnestly 
hopes  to  continue  the  practice  of  sending  from  our 
colleges  each  year  an  instructor,  as  Annual  Director, 
to  co-operate  with  the  Director  in  the  conduct  of  the 
School.  Thus  we  may  secure  in  part  the  advantage 
which  the  German  Institute  at  Athens  enjoys  from 


24 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  constant  presence  of  two  or  more  distinguished 
scholars.  The  young  men  go  to  Athens  from  our 
colleges  with  diverse  tastes  and  plans.  The  work  of 
the  two  Directors  can  be  complementary.  Some  of 
the  students  of  the  School  have  desired  to  devote 
themselves  to  the  study  of  epigraphy;  others  to  archi- 
tecture, to  topography,  to  sculpture,  to  the  modern 
lanomaofe  of  Greece.  More  have  chosen  to  secure 
the  general  advantages  of  an  investigation  of  certain 
matters  in  epigraphy,  topography,  and  the  rest,  —  not 
forgetting  the  literature  of  the  ancient  Greeks,  in 
connection  with  the  country,  the  climate,,  and  the 
monuments. 

We  have  been  reminded  often  that  the  chief  aim 
of  the  School,  for  the  present,  is  not  the  education 
of  trained  specialists  (although  to  accomplish  this  in 
time  is  in  our  hopes  and  expectation),  so  much  as 
the  animation  of  classical  studies  in  America  by  the 
vivifying  study  of  the  remains  of  ancient  life  in  Greece, 
and  to  bring  home  to  our  country  as  a  living  force  the 
artistic  sense  and  culture  of  old  Greece. 

The  work  of  the  School  at  Athens  was  never  more 
successful  and  honorable  than  now.  If  its  financial 
support  were  assured,  no  cloud  could  be  seen  on  its 
horizon. 

THOMAS  D.  SEYMOUR, 

Chairman. 

New  Haven,  Conn.,  Jan.  I,  1889. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


25 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of 
Classical  Studies  at  Athens  :  — 

Gentlemen  ;  —  I  beg  leave  to  report  the  work  and 
condition  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies 
at  Athens  for  the  year  1886-87,  during  which  the  di- 
rectorship of  the  School  was  intrusted  to  my  hands. 

I  arrived  at  Athens  on  September  2 2d,  1886.  The 
School  was  then  still  occupying  the  house  on  the 
'OSo?  'A/xaXtas  in  which  it  had  been  domiciled  from 
the  beginning. 

The  library  had  been  left  in  most  excellent  order 
by  my  predecessor,  Professor  Allen.  The  amount  of 
five  hundred  dollars  was  appropriated  by  the  Com- 
mittee for  the  purchase  of  books.  With  this  sum 
one  hundred  and  twenty-eight  volumes  were  added 
to  the  library,  which,  at  the  close  of  the  year,  num- 
bered about  fifteen  hundred  volumes,  exclusive  of 
pamphlets.  While  this  collection  is  as  yet  far  from 
being  complete  in  any  department,  it  is  already  an  ex- 
cellent working  library,  and  has  proved  of  incalculable 
benefit  to  all  the  students  of  the  School.  Several  gifts 
of  books  were  received  from  friends  of  the  School, 
the  most  valuable  of  which  is  the  work  of  Furt- 
waengler  and  Loeschcke  on  "  Mykenische  Vasen," 
presented  by  the  German  Imperial  Archaeological 
Institute.    In  the  new  building,  the  library  will  have 


26 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  advantage  of  being  supplemented,  to  some  extent, 
by  that  of  its  neighbor,  the  British  School,  since  there 
exists  a  mutual,  though  informal,  agreement  that  each 
School  shall  be  guided  in  the  purchase  at  least  of 
costly  works  by  the  other's  possession  or  lack,  and 
that  reciprocal  privileges  in  the  use  of  the  library 
shall  be  enjoyed.  American  tourists  were  permitted 
to  use  the  library,  subject  to  the  restrictions  made 
by  the  Committee,  and  were  thereby  greatly  aided 
in  forming  plans  of  study,  and  in  intelligent  sight- 
seeing. 

Seven  students  enrolled  themselves  as  regular  mem- 
bers of  the  School,  two  of  whom,  Messrs.  Cushing  and 
Lewis,  had  been  members  also  the  preceding  year, — 
N.  E.  Crosby,  A.  M.,  Columbia  College,  1885  ;  Wil- 
liam Lee  Cushing,  A.  M.,  Yale  University,  1882  ; 
Joseph  McKeen  Lewis,  A.  B.,  Yale  University,  1883; 
William  J.  McMurtry,  A.  M.,  University  of  Michigan, 
1882;  William  J.  Seelye,  A.  M.,  Amherst  College, 
1882;  S.  B.  P.  Trowbridge,  Ph.  B.,  School  of  Mines, 
Columbia  College,  1886;  Theodore  L.  Wright,  A.  M., 
Harvard  University,  1884. 

The  School  had  the  pleasure  of  extending  its  hospi- 
tality to  a  number  of  tourists  and  temporary  residents, 
some  of  whom  participated  in  its  work  and  excursions. 
Of  these  may  be  named  especially:  Dr.  T.  D.  Goodell, 
of  the  Hartford  High  School ;  Mr.  M.  C.  Gile,  of 
Phillips  Academy  at  Andover;  Mr.  H.  T.  Hildreth, 
a  member  of  the  School  for  1885-86,  who  returned  to 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


27 


Athens  in  order  to  continue  his  researches  in  the 
history  of  the  Demes  of  Attica;  Miss  Abby  Leach, 
Professor  of  Greek  in  Vassar  College ;  and  Miss 
Rosamund  Venning,  of  England. 

Nearly  all  who  connected  themselves  with  the 
School  had  been  engaged  in  teaching,  or  were  pre- 
paring themselves  for  this  vocation.  It  is  probable 
that  for  many  years  to  come  the  larger  number  of  our 
students  will  consist  of  this  class,  rather  than  of  those 
who  expect  to  make  profound  researches  in  some 
special  department  of  archaeological  studies  and  to  be- 
come original  investigators.  This  consideration  should 
not  lessen,  but  rather  heighten,  our  estimate  of  the 
benefits  of  such  a  school  to  classical  learning  in  our 
country.  Greek  literature  and  history  will  have  a 
new  meaning,  and  Greek  art  a  fresh  beauty,  to  him 
who  has  been  so  fortunate  as  to  spend  even  a  few 
months  amid  the  inspiring  associations  of  Greece, 
with  the  aids  and  direction  afforded  by  our  School  at 
Athens.  The  teacher  that  has  enjoyed  these  advan- 
tages cannot  fail  to  make  Greek  one  of  the  most  in- 
spiring and  living  of  all  studies.  I,  for  one,  cannot 
doubt  that  this  School  is  destined  to  give  classical 
studies  in  our  country  a  new  and  more  vigorous 
life. 

The  character  and  aims  of  the  student  must  to  a 
large  extent  determine  the  nature  of  the  work  of  the 
School.  It  is  not  desirable  to  compel  its  members  to 
pursue  any  exclusive  course  of  study,  if  thereby  there 


28 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


is  any  danger  of  defeating  the  very  purpose  for  which 
most  of  them  have  come.  At  the  same  time  it  is  de- 
sirable to  insist  upon  some  definite  aim  which  shall 
concentrate  and  unify  the  student's  work.  It  is  also 
of  the  first  importance  that  a  premium  be  placed  upon 
the  work  of  original  investigation,  and  that  our  School 
should  contribute  something  to  the  advancement  of 
archaeological  explorations  and  discoveries.  Accord- 
ingly, the  work  of  the  School  may  be  classified  as 
(i)  General  Study  and  Research;  and  (2)  Original 
Exploration. 

The  first  regular  session  of  the  School  was  held 
October  13th,  at  which  plans  of  study  were  formed. 
These  plans  embraced  the  following  exercises:  — 

One  afternoon  each  week  during  October  and 
November  was  devoted  to  the  inspection  and  study 
of  the  various  ruins  and  monuments  in  and  about 
Athens.  These  archaeological  excursions  were  subse- 
quently supplemented  by  tours  in  the  interior,  among 
which  the  following  may  be  singled  out  as  the  most 
instructive :  — 

The  first  excursion  made  by  the  School  outside  of 
Athens  was  to  the  theatre  at  Thoricus,  which  had 
been  for  the  most  part  excavated  under  the  direction 
of  Professor  Allen.  Thence  a  visit  was  paid  to  the 
mines  at  Laurium  and  to  the  temple  of  Athena  at 
Sunium,  —  matchless  for  beauty  of  situation. 

The  next  tour  was  made  in  December,  on  foot, 
across  Attica  to  Oropus.    Here  the  Greek  Archaeo- 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


29 


logical  Society  was  engaged  in  excavating  the  ruins 
of  the  Amphiaraum  and  of  the  adjacent  theatre  and 
Stoa.  The  distinguished  and  veteran  architect  and 
explorer,  Mr.  F.  C.  Penrose,  who  was  for  that  year  the 
director  of  the  British  School,  made  one  of  our  party, 
and  added  much  to  the  profit  and  enjoyment  of  the 
trip.  We  were  made  the  guests  of  Mr.  Leonardos, 
who  was  in  charge  of  the  explorations.  Mr.  Seelye 
became  especially  interested  in  these  discoveries,  and 
is  preparing  a  report  upon  them  to  present  to  the 
Committee  for  their  approval.  Of  great  interest  is 
the  little  theatre  exhumed  here,  showing  in  situ  a 
proscenium  facade  of  pillars  and  architrave,  and 
forming  by  its  shape  and  arrangement  an  important 
contribution  to  the  study  of  the  antiquities  of  the 
Greek  stage. 

From  Oropus  the  party  sailed  down  the  Euripus  to 
Rhamnus,  where  we  inspected  the  remains  of  the 
temples  of  Nemesis,  of  the  ancient  walls  of  defence, 
and  of  the  theatre.  Well-directed  excavations  at 
Rhamnus  would  doubtless  bring  to  light  many  other 
interesting  ruins. 

Subsequently,  through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Penrose 
the  members  of  our  School  were  enabled  to  trace 
the  ruins  of  five  successive  temples  built  in  honor 
of  Demeter  at  Eleusis,  and  intelligently  to  study  other 
remains  connected  with  the  celebration  of  the  an- 
cient mysteries. 

Later  in  the  season  the  School  made  an  excur- 


3o 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


sion  to  Mycenae,  Argos,  Tiryns,  and  Epidaurus.  At 
Mycenae  and  Tiryns  we  were  so  fortunate  as  to  have 
for  our  cicerone  Dr.  Wilhelm  Dorpfeld,  the  brilliant 
architect  of  the  German  Archaeological  Institute,  and 
now  its  competent  chief.  Epidaurus,  with  its  mag- 
nificent theatre,  the  cavea  and  seats  of  which  are 
almost  intact,  and  with  its  ruins  of  temples  and  por- 
ticos, of  baths  and  the  tholos  or  treasury,  its  half-con- 
cealed foundations  of  unknown  structures  that  are  still 
unexhumed,  bring  to  mind  most  vividly  the  old  Hel- 
lenic life  and  its  many  points  of  contact  with  our  own. 
A  suitable  account  of  the  recent  discoveries  made  in 
this  mountain-locked  valley  would  be  extremely  in- 
teresting to  all  students  of  antiquities. 

Pedestrian  tours  through  Peloponnesus  and  to 
Delphi  and  Thebes  were  made  in  April  by  several 
members  of  the  School,  accompanied  by  other  tourists, 
and  excursions  to  Aegina,  Salamis,  Phyle,  Marathon, 
and  Vari  were  made  at  various  times  in  the  spring  of 
the  year.  The  personal  knowledge  thus  acquired  of 
the  topography  and  historical  monuments  of  Greece, 
of  the  characteristics  of  the  Greek  climate  and  land- 
scape, and  of  ancient  Hellenic  customs  and  manners, 
as  reflected  and  perpetuated  in  the  life  of  the  modern 
Greeks,  is  an  invaluable  source  of  illustration  to  the 
student  of  classical  literature. 

But  all  these  excursions  were  only  supplementary 
to  the  more  serious  and  regular  work  of  the  School. 
From  October  to  January,  inclusive,  weekly  readings 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


31 


from  Pausanias  were  held,  which  led  to  many  discus- 
sions and  suggested  themes  for  further  study.  This 
exercise  was  supplemented  by  the  reading  of  Hicks's 
"Manual  of  Historical  Inscriptions"  for  about  two 
months.  During  three  months,  once  each  week, 
evening  readings  were  conducted,  at  which  every 
member  of  the  School  read  and  expounded  a  set 
portion  of  the  "  Acharnians "  of  Aristophanes  and 
of  the  "  Oedipus  Coloneus "  of  Sophocles.  These 
readings  were  attended  by  the  American  Minister, 
the  Hon.  Walker  Fearn,  and  other  friends  of  the 
School. 

Probably  the  most  profitable  exercise  of  the  School 
was  the  weekly  session  at  which  "  Reports  "  were  pre- 
sented, under  which  term  were  embraced  items  of 
archaeological  news,  reviews  of  new  books,  discussion 
of  topics  suggested  by  reading  or  by  new  discoveries, 
and  brief  papers  on  set  themes.  A  few  of  the  more 
important  topics  thus  presented  may  be  named  as 
indicating  the  varied  and  interesting  character  of 
the  subjects  that  came  under  discussion :  "  The  Lit- 
erature of  the  Curves  of  the  Parthenon  ; "  "  Compari- 
ison  of  Fick's  and  Christ's  Theories  of  the  Iliad;" 
"  The  Representation  in  Sculpture  of  Personifica- 
tion of  Cities;"  uThe  Site  of  '  Hippios  Colonos';" 
"  Some  Modifications  of  the  Doric  possibly  due  to 
the  Influence  of  the  Ionic  Order  of  Architecture ; " 
"An  Inscription  from  the  Asclepieum  at  Athens;" 
"  The    Decorations   of   the    Athena    Parthenos  of 


32 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Phidias "  Review  of  Wagnon  on  the  Relation  of 
Egyptian  and  Greek  Sculpture ; "  "  Account  of  the 
Excavations  of  the  Necropolis  at  Myrina ;  "  "  Repre- 
sentations of  Childhood  and  Immature  Forms  in 
Ancient  Art/' 

Towards  the  close  of  the  school  year  three  public 
sessions  were  held,  which  were  largely  attended  by 
all  American  residents  in  Athens  and  by  the  mem- 
bers of  the  British  School.  At  the  first  session  Mr. 
McMurtry  read  a  carefully  prepared  paper  on  the 
present  state  of  the  question  regarding  the  site  of  the 
Pnyx,  declaring  himself  in  favor  of  the  traditional 
site  as  the  original.  It  happened  that  at  this  very 
time  the  Germans  had  been  excavating  in  the  space 
south  of  the  so-called  Theseum  and  west  of  the 
Areopagus,  in  the  hope  of  discovering  the  site  of  the 
ancient  Agora,  which  Dr.  Dorpfeld  believed  to  be  situ- 
ated at  this  point.  Nothing  was  found  to  support  this 
theory ;  but  the  excavations  revealed  an  unexpected 
depth  of  alluvial  soil  and  several  strata  of  deposit, 
with  sherds,  which  could  only  have  come  into  this 
valley  from  the  adjacent  slope  of  the  Pnyx  hill,  and 
which,  if  superimposed  upon  the  surface  of  that  hill, 
would  give  to  its  declivity  the  opposite  slope  from 
that  which  it  has  at  present,  —  that  is,  it  would 
cause  it  to  incline  toward  instead  of  away  from 
the  supposed  Bema,  after  the  manner  of  a  theatre. 
As  the  present  slope  of  the  Pnyx  has  been  one  of 
the  chief  difficulties  in  the  way  of  accepting  this 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


spot  as  the  original  site,  this  result  of  the  German 
excavations  seems  to  confirm  the  original  tradition, 
and  virtually  to  settle  this  much-disputed  question. 
Mr.  McMurtry's  conclusions  were,  however,  entirely 
independent  of  this  result  of  the  German  exploration. 
At  this  session  Mr.  Joseph  T.  Clarke  and  Dr.  Alfred 
Emerson  gave  a  brief  account  of  their  explorations 
at  Croton,  Italy.  Mr.  W.  L.  Cushing  presented  at 
the  second  session  his  Report  on  the  Theatre  at 
Thoricus,  which  has  since  appeared  in  the  fourth 
volume  of  the  Papers  of  the  School,  and  the  Director 
gave  a  preliminary  Report  on  the  excavations  recently 
begun  at  Sicyon.  The  third  public  session  was  oc- 
cupied with  the  reading  of  a  paper  on  "  The  Appre- 
ciation of  Nature  exhibited  in  the  Greek  Dramatic 
Poets,"  by  Mr.  T.  L.  Wright. 

The  excavation  of  the  theatre  at  Thoricus,  begun 
last  year  under  the  supervision  of  Professor  Allen, 
was  resumed  and  completed,  so  far  as  was  deemed 
desirable,  under  the  immediate  charge  of  Mr.  Cushing. 
The  foundations  of  a  building  which  appears  to  have 
been  a  small  temple,  and  the  complete  outlines  of  the 
cavea,  were  laid  bare.  No  trace  of  any  stage-structure 
was  found.  The  Committee  generously  placed  at  my 
disposal  the  sum  of  four  hundred  dollars  for  new 
explorations.  After  some  consultation,  and  a  prelimi- 
nary survey  in  company  with  Mr.  Kabbadias,  the 
General  Superintendent  of  Antiquities,  Dr.  Dorpfeld, 
and  Mr.  Penrose,  excavations  were  begun  in  March 

3 


34 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


at  Sicyon,  —  the  home  of  one  of  the  most  flourishing 
and  earliest  schools  of  Greek  art,  and  the  birthplace 
of  Lysippus.  What  especially  turned  my  attention  to 
Sicyon,  however,  was  the  great  theatre,  the  dim  out- 
line of  whose  immense  cavea,  with  its  half-hidden 
arched  passage-ways  at  either  side,  presented  a  tempt- 
ing object  for  exploration.  This  undertaking  received 
a  special  interest  from  the  thesis  maintained  by  Dr. 
Dorpfeld,  that  prior  to  the  time  of  Lycurgus  the 
Greek  theatre  had  no  stage,  and  that  the  orchestra 
was  a  complete  circle.  These  excavations  were  under 
the  immediate  charge  of  Mr.  William  J.  McMurtry, 
who  is  expected  to  present  a  complete  report  of  the 
discoveries  made  under  his  supervision.  A  brief  state- 
ment of  the  results  must  suffice  here.  The  lowest 
rows  of  the  seats  in  the  cavea  were  laid  bare  half  of 
the  way  around.  These  seats  are  similar  in  shape  to 
those  found  at  Epidaurus,  the  lowest  row  having  arms; 
but  they  are  of  coarser  material  and  workmanship. 
A  channel  or  watercourse  was  brought  to  light,  en- 
circling the  orchestra,  and  covered  or  bridged  over  in 
front  of  every  transverse  stairway  of  the  cavea,  pre- 
cisely as  in  the  Dionysiac  Theatre  at  Athens.  A 
complicated  foundation-structure  of  the  stage  was 
discovered,  the  details  of  which  can  be  understood 
only  from  drawings.  The  proscenium  seems  to  be  of 
later  (Roman)  origin  ;  but  an  earlier  (Greek)  construc- 
tion can  be  plainly  made  out.  Directly  north  of  the 
stage,  the  stylobate  of  what  appears  to  have  been  a 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


35 


Stoa  was  found,  at  the  western  extremity  of  which  were 
exhumed  the  remains  of  a  fountain  with  a  small  semi- 
circular Exhedra  of  Roman  workmanship.  Fragments 
of  statuary,  two  inscriptions,  bits  of  terra-cotta  orna- 
mentation, and  of  architectural  members  that  probably 
belonged  to  the  stage  edifice,  make  up  the  total  that 
was  discovered  last  year. 

It  is  manifest  that  the  work  of  original  exploration 
must  continue  to  occupy  a  prominent  place  in  the 
aims  of  our  School.  The  influence  of  such  work 
upon  its  students,  even  when  not  themselves  en- 
gaged in  it,  is  most  inspiring.  Only  by  undertaking 
original  explorations  can  the  School  hope  to  fulfil 
its  complete  mission,  which  includes  the  study  of 
archaeology  as  a  science,  and  the  training  of  scho- 
lars who  shall  give  to  our  country  a  worthy  name  in 
this  department  of  research  by  the  side  of  the  most 
enlightened  nations  of  Europe. 

The  School  could  not  possibly  have  enjoyed  the 
advantages  with  which  it  has  been  favored  without 
the  cordial  support  constantly  given  by  the  Greek 
Government  and  its  officials.  This  interest  has  been 
shown  in  so  many  ways  that  I  cannot  enumerate  them 
all.  Every  possible  facility  has  been  afforded  the 
members  of  the  School  for  study  and  investigation 
in  free  access  to  the  museums,  in  liberty  to  copy  or 
reproduce  any  objects  of  special  interest,  in  grants  of 
permission  to  excavate,  in  free  use  of  the  libraries  of 
the  Senate  and  of  the  University,  and  in  introductions 


36 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


to  officials  in  the  interior,  which  greatly  facilitated 
travel  and  study. 

Valuable  also,  as  well  as  pleasant,  were  the  cour- 
tesies extended  to  the  School  by  the  Directors  and 
members  of  the  other  National  Schools  of  Archaeol- 
ogy planted  at  Athens.  The  use  of  the  library  of  the 
German  Institute  was  freely  given  to  us,  and  we  were 
always  made  welcome  at  the  fortnightly  sessions  by 
Professor  Petersen,  who  was  then  Chief  Secretary. 
The  School  was  kindly  invited  by  Mr.  Penrose  to 
attend  a  brief  course  of  lectures  on  Athenian  archi- 
tecture, and  to  hear  his  views  upon  the  recent  dis- 
coveries on  the  Acropolis.  We  have  every  reason  to 
expect  that  in  the  near  future  the  members  of  the 
British  and  of  the  American  School  may  share  fully, 
in  friendly  rivalry,  each  other's  special  advantages,  and 
make  themselves  mutual  debtors  and  creditors. 

Among  the  many  social  courtesies  extended  to  the 
School,  none  were  more  generously  bestowed  than 
those  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  Schliemann,  who  have 
always  manifested  the  most  lively  interest  in  its  pros- 
perity. Nor  should  I  forget  to  mention  the  numerous 
kindnesses  shown  in  many  ways  by  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
M.  D.  Kalopothakes,  who,  as  near  neighbors,  were 
constantly  helpful  in  the  sometimes  perplexing  details 
of  domestic  economy  and  in  the  care  of  the  Schools 
effects. 

The  need  of  a  permanent  home  for  the  School, 
with  suitable  appointments,  had  been   keenly  felt ; 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


37 


and  it  was  a  happy  day  when,  on  March  12, 
1887,  the  corner-stone  of  our  new  building,  on  the 
southern  slope  of  Mount  Lycabettus,  was  laid,  with 
simple  but  appropriate  ceremonies.  It  is  not  necessary 
in  this  connection  to  do  more  than  refer  to  the  munifi- 
cent donation  on  the  part  of  the  Greek  Government 
of  a  plot  of  ground  on  which  to  erect  our  building. 
.All  who  have  visited  this  spot  will  indorse  the  state- 
ment of  Mr.  Fearn,  that  it  commands  a  "  view  of 
unequalled  loveliness,  even  in  this  land  of  beauty." 
The  occasion  of  the  laying  of  the  corner-stone  was 
honored  by  the  presence  of  Mr.  Dragoumis,  Minister 
of  Foreign  Affairs,  who  represented  the  Greek  Gov- 
ernment, and  of  Sir  Horace  .Rumbold,  the  British  Am- 
bassador, while  our  own  Government  was  of  course 
represented  by  Mr.  Fearn,  the  American  Minister, 
who  on  this,  as  on  all  occasions  by  which  the  welfare 
of  the  School  was  to  be  promoted,  has  manifested  the 
most  generous  interest  and  has  been  of  the  greatest 
service.  All  the  American  residents,  the  members 
of  the  Greek  Archaeological  Society,  the  Rector  of 
the  National  University  of  Athens,  the  members  of  the 
British  School,  the  Secretaries  and  members  of  the 
German  Institute,  besides  many  other  Greek  and 
English  friends,  gave  us  the  honor  of  their  presence. 
The  first  address  was  given  most  felicitously  by  Mr. 
Fearn,  to  which  Mr.  Dragoumis  responded  in  French. 
The  Director  next  set  forth  the  aims  and  prospects  of 
the  School.    Words  of  congratulation  followed  from 


33 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Walter  Leaf,  Esq.,  on  behalf  of  the  British  School, 
and  from  Professor  Petersen,  of  the  German  Institute. 

The  erection  of  the  building  was  placed  under  the 
immediate  supervision  of  Mr.  S.  B.  P.  Trowbridge, 
of  the  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  who  has 
brought  to  his  task  technical  skill  and  business  tact, 
and  has  given  it  his  unwearying  attention.  Owing  to 
unforeseen  delays  and  numerous  hindrances,  the  build- 
ing was  but  half  completed  by  the  first  of  June.  It 
promises  to  furnish  not  only  a  pleasant  home  to  the 
Director,  but  also  delightful  quarters  to  the  students, 
and  a  handsome  room  for  the  library. 

A  permanent  home  for  the  School  naturally  sug- 
gests a  permanent  Director.  The  disadvantages  of 
an  annually  changing  directorship  are  more  keenly 
felt  at  Athens  in  the  daily  conduct  of  the  work  of  the 
School,  and  in  the  proximity  of  the  other  National 
Schools,  than  they  possibly  could  be  in  this  country, 
where  the  limitations  which  this  arrangement  imposes 
are  not  realized.  But  there  ought  to  be  no  diffi- 
culty in  speedily  securing  the  fund,  already  partly 
raised,  necessary  for  the  endowment  of  a  permanent 
directorship.  On  the  other  hand,  there  are  certain 
advantages  which  come  from  the  periodical  change 
in  the  directorship,  and  these  are  most  readily  appre- 
ciated by  the  public  of  our  own  country.  Prominent 
amons:  these  is  the  increase  of  interest  in  the  work 
of  the  School  that  springs  from  the  annual  selection 
of  some  scholar  from  the  various  colleges  which 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


39 


co-operate  in  its  support.  By  this  arrangement  the 
School  remains  in  close  contact  with  the  centres  of 
classical  study  in  our  land,  and  is  sure  to  exercise  a 
constantly  growing  influence.  By  the  appointment 
of  an  annual  Director  from  these  colleges  this  great 
advantage  will  be  retained,  and  by  the  joint  labors 
of  the  two  Directors  the  complete  aim  of  the  School 
in  promoting  the  interests  of  classical  learning  in  our 
country  cannot  fail  to  become  fully  realized. 

MARTIN  L.  D'OOGE, 

Director  for  1886-87. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens  :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  fol- 
lowing Report  of  the  work  of  the  School  at  Athens 
under  my  direction  during  the  year  1887-88. 

I  arrived  in  Athens  on  October  2d,  and,  finding 
that  the  School  building  would  not  be  finished  for 
some  months,  I  set  about  securing  rooms  for  a  tem- 
porary library.  Mr.  Penrose,  Director  of  the  British 
School,  generously  offered  the  use  of  its  library 
room  ;  but  I  was  loath  to  impose  upon  this  hospi- 
tality for  so  long  a  period,  and  decided  to  settle 
nearer  the  centre  of  the  town,  where  we  were  all  com- 
pelled to  live  till  the  completion  of  the  house.  Two 
rooms  were  secured  in  the  large  building  known  as 


4Q 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  Spiti  Mela,  on  the  corner  of  Aeolus  and  Sophocles 
Streets,  near  the  site  of  the  old  Acharnian  Gate. 
The  books,  which  had  been  packed  by  Professor 
D'Ooge  and  sent  to  the  new  building  in  progress 
of  erection,  were  here  arranged  and  were  found  to 
be  in  good  condition.  These  rooms  formed  our 
working  home  for  four  months.  By  that  time  the 
library  of  the  new  building  was  so  far  completed  that 
I  decided  to  move  the  books  thither  and  deposit  them 
in  their  permanent  place.  Thenceforward  this  was 
made  the  meeting-place  of  the  School ;  but  it  was 
not  until  April  that  the  building  was  ready  for  occu- 
pation. Then  much  of  the  plastering  was  still  damp, 
and  I  deemed  it  safer  not  to  expose  my  family  to  the 
risk  of  this  influence  by  moving  thither  myself.  The 
four  students'  rooms  were  dryer;  these  were  furnished, 
and  were  occupied  for  a  short  time. 

The  first  work  of  the  School  as  such  was  to 
make  a.  peripatetic  examination  of  the  monuments 
of  Athens  and  the  museums ;  and  then  the  regular 
sessions  in  the  library  began,  three  evenings  in  the 
week.  The  first  of  these  evenings  was  devoted  to 
epigraphy.  After  some  introductory  lectures  on  the 
subject,  the  inscriptions  relating  to  the  Parthenon, 
the  Artemis  Brauronia,  the  Erechtheum,  and  the  Pro- 
pylaea  were  read,  and  then  Dittenberger's  "  Sylloge  H 
was  taken  up  in  course,  and  a  large  part  of  it  com- 
pleted during  the  winter.  Special  attention  was  paid 
to  the  determination  of  date  by  the  characters  of  the 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


41 


inscription,  and  our  visits  to  the  monuments  were 
habitually  made  an  opportunity  to  test  the  canons 
of  the  books  and  to  observe  how  closely  the  chang- 
ing style  of  art  and  literature  was  followed  by  the 
changing  style  of  letter,  from  the  awkwardness  of  the 
archaic  to  the  chaste  simplicity  of  the  grand  style, 
the  penchant  for  the  florid  in  the  Alexandrian  period, 
and  the  mixture  in  the  Roman.  The  excavations 
upon  the  Acropolis  were  continually  bringing  to 
light  new  material,  which  was  generously  and  freely 
placed  at  our  disposal  by  Ephor-General  Kabbadias, 
and  proved  of  unusual  interest,  and  a  stimulus  to 
special  study. 

The  second  meeting  in  the  week  was  given  to 
Reports  embodying  the  results  of  investigations  made 
by  members  of  the  School  in  the  various  depart- 
ments to  which  they  were  individually  devoting 
themselves.  These  formed,  naturally,  the  most  in- 
teresting feature  of  our  week's  work.  The  variety  of 
the  subjects  treated  may  be  seen  from  the  following 
list,  which  embodies  the  most  important :  — 

"The  Ionic  Capital,"  "An  Archaic  Inscription  from  the 
Acropolis,"  "Icaria,"  "  Centaurs  in  Art  and  Literature," ."  Bal- 
loting, and  Ballots  in  the  Polytechnikon,"  "  The  Sphinx  on 
Coins,"  "  Recently  Discovered  Inscriptions  on  the  Acro- 
polis," "  Relations  of  the  Freedman  to  Former  Master  in 
Greece,"  "  Some  Peculiarities  of  Modern  Greek,"  "  Lycosura 
and  the  Despoenae,"  "  Recent  Discoveries  at  the  Amphia- 
raum  of  Oropus,"  "  Types  of  Apollo  and  Dionysus,"  "  Exist- 


42 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


ing  Remains  at  Marathon,"  "  Ostracism  and  the  Xanthippus- 
Potsherd  in  the  Acropolis  Museum,"  "  The  Measurement  of 
Statues,"  "  Modern  Greek  Rhythm,"  "  The  Aristion  Stele 
compared  with  the  Icarian,"  "  Comparison  of  Prices  Ancient 
and  Modern." 

Our  third  evening  was  literary.  In  the  selection 
of  the  authors  read,  local  features  were  kept  mainly 
in  view,  —  the  "Plutus"  of  Aristophanes  for  the  Aes- 
culapian  temple,  the  "  Oedipus  Coloneus  "  of  Sopho- 
cles for  Colonus,  Xenophon's  "  Hellenica "  for  the 
topography  and  history  of  Greece  in  general,  "Lysias 
against  Eratosthenes "  for  Phyle  and  Peiraeus,  the 
"  Persae  "  of  Aeschylus  for  Salamis.  Pausanias  was 
the  constant  companion  of  our  travels,  and  was 
read  very  largely  by  all  the  members  of  the  School. 
The  study  of  art  in  its  most  consummate  manifes- 
tations, in  the  monuments,  the  sculpture,  the  vases, 
the  coins,  —  of  which  Athens  possesses  such  perfect 
exemplars  in  and  out  of  its  museums,  —  formed  our 
daily  pursuit,  as  it  must  form  that  of  every  lover  of  the 
beautiful  who  makes  Athens  his  home.  Art  and  litera- 
ture supplement  each  other,  each  throws  light  upon 
the  other,  and  either  divorced  from  the  other  gives 
but  an  imperfect  view  of  ancient  life  and  develop- 
ment. To  feel  and  appreciate  the  literature  in  its  full 
beauty  and  significance,  one  must  see  the  land  and 
study  its  art  on  the  spot.  Nowhere  else  can  it 
produce  its  proper  impression.  And  this  I  feel  to 
be  the  great  opportunity  of  our  School. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


43 


In  the  study  of  the  monuments  we  were  greatly 
assisted  by  two  lectures  delivered  by  Mr.  Penrose 
before  his  departure,  and  during  the  winter  by  the 
peripatetic  lectures  of  Dr.  Dorpfeld,  Chief  Secretary  of 
the  German  Institute,  to  which  we  were  cordially  in- 
vited, and  which  were  invaluable  to  us  from  the  wide 
experience  and  long  acquaintance  with  the  objects, 
which  this  keen-sighted  and  accomplished  scholar  pos- 
sesses. From  Dr.  Wolters  also,  the  Second  Secretary 
of  the  German  Institute,  we  learned  much  and  re- 
ceived many  courtesies,  as  also  from  the  Ephors 
and  other  officers  of  the  Greek  Government. 

All  members  of  the  School  devoted  much  time  to 
modern  Greek,  and  acquired  considerable  facility  in 
the  spoken  tongue.  Professor  Fleet  and  Mr.  Ouinn 
made  this  a  specialty,  the  latter  attending  lectures  reg- 
ularly in  the  University;  Mr.  Buck  devoted  himself  to 
inscriptions,  Mr.  Earle  to  sculpture,  Mr.  Thatcher  to 
topography  and  Greek  literature,  Mr.  Hussey  to  art 
and  inscriptions.  Mr.  Trowbridge,  in  addition  to  his 
duties  as  architect  of  the  School  building,  gave 
material  assistance  in  drawing  plans  of  the  theatre 
•  at  Sicyon  and  of  the  excavations  in  Icaria,  and  in 
taking  photographs.  He  also  prepared  a  paper, 
which  has  been  published  in  the  "American  Journal 
of  Archaeology,"  under  the  title  of  "  Archaic  Ionic 
Capitals  found  on  the  Acropolis."  Mr.  Buck  like- 
wise prepared  and  published  in  the  same  Journal  an 
article  entitled  "  Inscriptions  found  on  the  Acropo- 


44 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


lis,"  in  which  some  new  light  is  thrown  on  the 
vexed  question  of  the  freedman  in  Greece.  Addi- 
tional papers  will  be  prepared  by  Mr.  Buck  on  the 
Excavations  at  Icaria;  by  Mr.  Earle  on  those  at 
Sicyon;  by  Mr.  Hussey,  "Notes  on  Greek  sculptured 
Crowns  and  on  Crown-Inscriptions ;  "  and  one  by 
Mr.  Quinn. 

Of  gentlemen  less  closely  connected  with  the 
School,  but  resident  in  Athens  for  some  time,  and 
from  whom  we  received  much  assistance  and  co- 
operation in  every  way,  may  be  mentioned  Prof. 
R.  H.  Mather,  of  Amherst  College,  Prof.  Louis 
Dyer,  late  of  Harvard,  and  Rev.  H.  B.  Carpenter,  of 
Boston.  The  library  of  the  School  is  indebted  to 
the  kindness  of  Mr.  D.  Bikelas  for  a  set  of  his  trans- 
lations of  Shakspeare  into  modern  Greek,  comprising 
"  Romeo  and  Juliet,"  "  Othello,"  "  King  Lear,"  "  Mac- 
beth," "  Hamlet,"  and  the  "  Merchant  of  Venice." 

The  regular  meetings  of  the  School  were  sus- 
pended  about  the  middle  of  March,  in  order  that 
opportunity  might  be  given  for  that  practical  study 
of  topography  beyond  the  limits  of  Attica  for  which 
long  preparation  had  been  made,  and  which  is  one 
of  the  important  features  of  the  School  year.  The 
chief  points  of  interest  in  Attica  itself  having  already 
been  visited,  all  the  members  of  the  School  made 
extensive  tours  through  Peloponnesus  and  upper 
Greece;  some  visited  Egypt,  and  the  Holy  Land  be- 
sides; some  the  Greek  islands;  and  some  Constanti- 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


45 


nople.  The  beautiful  land  of  Greece  thus  seen  in  the 
loveliest  season  of  the  year,  with  sky  and  air  all 
perfect,  when  fields,  hill-sides,  and  dells  are  clad  in 
their  profusion  of  brilliant  flowers,  where  classic  asso- 
ciations throng  about  one  at  every  step,  and  a  constant 
flood  of  light  is  clarifying  his  visions  of  the  past, — 
makes  an  epoch  in  one's  life  which  will  be  an  ever- 
present  source  of  delight,  and  of  comparison  and 
illustration  in  his  future  studies. 

On  my  leaving  Greece,  June  ist,  the  building  was 
put  in  charge  of  the  servant  of  the  School.  Mr.  Earle 
remained  during  a  part  of  June,  and  Mr.  Quinn  still 
longer. 

Feeling  that  the  work  of  the  School  is  not  complete 
without  an  attempt  to  add  something  to  the  sum  of 
human  knowledge  by  assisting  to  uncover  the  mon- 
uments of  the  past  which  await  the  explorer,  I 
began  early  in  the  year  to  make  preparations  for 
the  employment  of  the  sum  of  money  appropriated 
by  the  Committee  for  excavations.  This  resulted 
in  the  excavations  of  the  year  being  carried  on  at 
two  different  sites.  In  the  first  place,  at  Sicyon  in 
the  theatre,  continuing  the  work  of  last  year  begun 
by  Professor  D'Ooge.  This  work  was  resumed  on 
the  6th  of  December,  and  was  continued  some  four 
weeks,  when  it  was  interrupted  by  the  severity 
of  the  weather.  The  large  mass  of  earth  in  the 
orchestra  and  side  entrances  was  cleared  away,  and 
some  upon  the  scene  structure  ;  but  no  part  of  the 


46  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


cavea  was  touched.  The  chief  result  of  this  was  the 
discovery,  in  the  orchestra,  of  the  head,  and  afterward 

of  the  torso,  of  a  naked 
male  figure  of  a  pro- 
nounced feminine 
type.  It  belongs  to  a 
good  period  of  Greek 
art,  and  possesses 
such  considerable 
claims  to  beauty  that 
it  has  been  brought  to 
the  Central  Museum 
at  Athens,  together 
with  a  female  head 
found  in  the  posses- 
sion of  a  peasant  at 
Sicyon.  These  two 
objects  are  important 
as  forming  the  only 
examples  of  sculpture 
yet  known  to  come 
directly  from  that 
famous  centre  of 
Greek  art.  Mr.  Earle, 
who  conducted  these 
excavations,  discov- 
ered several  cemeter- 
ies on  the  slopes  of  the  height ;  but  most  of  the 
graves   seen  had  already  been  opened,  and  some 


k£nyon  cgx< 
Statue  from  Sicyon. 

(By  the  courtesy  of  C.  Scribner's  Sons.) 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


47 


others  yielded  nothing  of  the  best  period.  But  little 
time  was  devoted  to  this  work  ;  not  enough  for  a 
systematic  examination.  In  the  neighboring  village 
of  Moulki,  Mr.  Earle  found  an  inscription  of  the  fifth 
century  which  is  of  interest  in  the  little-known  devel- 
opment of  the  Sicyonian  alphabet,  though  it  consists 
of  proper  names  only. 

The  site  of  the  Attic  deme  of  Icaria,  the  birth- 
place of  Thespis  and  of  the  drama,  has  long  been  a 
subject  of  controversy.  It  had  been  tossed  about 
from  one  side  of  Attica  to  another  by  travellers  and 
geographers  till  it  had  begun  to  approach  that  du- 
bious condition  which  borders  closely  on  the  myth- 
ical. Some  of  the  vicissitudes  through  which  it  had 
passed  may  be  seen  from  the  following  summary: 

When  M.  de  la  Guilletiere  visited  Athens  in  1669, 
as  described  in  his"Athenes  ancienne  et  nouvelle " 
(1675),  he  mounted  to  the  top  of  Lycabettus  (which 
he  calls  Pentelicus),  and  while  looking  off  towards 
Thebes  and  Megara,  had  his  attention  called  by  one  of 
his  companions  to  a  mountain  at  a  league's  distance, 
which  the  ancients  called  Icaria.  The  distance  and 
the  direction  would  correspond  most  nearly  to  the 
Aegalian,  or  Corydallian,  range,  which  bounds  the 
Athenian  plain  on  the  west. 

Spon  and  Wheler  (1675-76)  do  not  attempt  any 
identification,  although  Spon  gives  a  list  of  the 
demes  of  Attica. 

Fourmont  travelled  in  Greece  in  1728-30,  and  is 
said  to  have  found  an  inscription  on  the  western  foot- 


48  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

hills  of  Hymettus,  southeast  of  Athens,  at  a  mon- 
astery named  Cara  (Karies,  Kareia).  It  was  the  epi- 
taph of  Diodorus,  son  of  Theodorus  the  Icarian ;  and 
the  similarity  of  the  modern  name  was  assumed  to 
fix  the  position  of  the  deme  of  Icaria,  although  the 
mountain  above  it  could  not  well  be  taken  to  repre- 
sent the  Mons  Icarius  of  Pliny  (Montes  Brilessus, 
Aegialeus,  Icarius,  Hymettus,  Lycabettus,  —  see  Nat. 
Hist.,  iv.  7,  ii,  24),  since  it  held  the  undisputed  name 
of  Hymettus  as  early  as  the  time  of  Guilletiere. 

Lami  gives  a  very  bad  map  of  Attica  in  his  edition 
of  the  complete  works  of  J.  Meursius  (Florence,  1 741), 
and  puts  down  Icaria  in  the  Parnes  region,  north- 
west of  Athens ;  though  Meursius  himself  in  his  Cat- 
alogue of  the  Demes,  161 6,  has  nothing  to  say  of  its  site. 

Stuart,  who  was  in  Athens  in  1751-54,  follows 
Fourmont.  Chandler,  1766,  Choiseul-Gouffier,  1776, 
the  French  "Atlas  de  Russie,"  etc.,  1785,  Sibthorp, 
1794,  are  silent. 

During  the  first  decade  of  our  century  Greece  was 
visited  by  Gell,  1801-6,  Dodwell,  1 801-6,  Leake, 
1802-6,  De  Pouqueville,  1805,  and  Hobhouse,  1809; 
but  their  works  were  published  several  years  after  their 
visits,  so  that  it  is  difficult  to  disentangle  the  chrono- 
logical thread.  Yet  Hobhouse  ("  Journey  through 
Albania  and  other  Provinces  of  Turkey,"  181 2)  places 
Icaria  near  Marathon.  Gell  separates  Icaria  from 
Mons  Icarius,  accepting  Stuart's  identification  for  the 
former,  and  assigning  the  latter  to  the  same  range 
as  Guilletiere,  —  between  the  pass  of  Daphni,  tra- 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


49 


versed  by  the  Sacred  Way  to  Eleusis,  and  that  of 
Dema,  which  leads  from  the  Acharnian  district  into 
the  northeast  extremity  of  the  Eleusinian  plain,  and 
is  now  traversed  by  the  railway. 

Dodwell  says  that  the  situation  of  Mons  Icarius  is 
unknown,  but  it  has  been  supposed  to  be  part  of 
Corydallus.  As  Statius  says  (Thebaid,  xi.  644)  that 
Icarius  was  killed  in  the  Marathonian  forest,  it  is 
probable  that  Mons  Icarius  was  near  Marathon,  and 
perhaps  a  subordinate  hill  of  the  eastern  side  of 
Pentelicon,  which  runs  from  that  plain. 

De  Pouqueville  fixes  Mons  Icarius  north  of  Daphni ; 
Corydallus  to  the  south  of  it. 

Muller  —  article  "  Attika,"  Ersch  and  Grubers  "En- 
cyclopadie,"  vi.  (1819)  p.  224  —  suggests  that  Icaria 
lay  near  Oenoe  and  Melaenae,  which  are  northwest 
of  the  Thriasian  plain. 

Kruse,  "Hellas,"  1826,  gives  the  name  Icarius  to 
the  western  side  of  the  range  south  of  the  pass  of 
Dema,  and  Corydallus  to  the  eastern  side,  and  leaves 
Icaria  at  Cara  by  Hymettus. 

Bockh  (C.  I.G.,  1828,  No.  646),  in  publishing  Four- 
mont's  inscription,  accepts  Cara  as  Icaria. 

Leake  was  the  first  to  treat  the  matter  with  any 
fulness,  in  his  "  Demes  of  Attica"  (first  edition,  1829, 
published  in  the  "  Transactions  "  of  the  Royal  Society 
of  Literature,  ii.  194) :  — ■ 

"  The  following,  there  is  reason  to  think)  were  four  demi  of 
the  southern  part  of  Diacria,  not  far  from  the  Marathonian 

4 


50 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


district:  Icaria,  Semachus,  Phegeus,  Plothae  [sic].  We  are 
told  by  Statins  that  Icarius,  who  gave  name  as  well  to  the 
demus  as  to  the  mountain  upon  which  it  stood,  was  slain  in 
the  Marathonian  forest.1  This  forest  still  covers  the  moun- 
tains Aforismo  and  Argah'ki.  .  .  .  Mount  Argaliki,  being  the 
most  detached  of  the  Brilessian  summits,  seems  best  to  answer 
to  the  mountain  Icarius." 

Argaliki  bounds  the  southern  side  of  the  plain  of 
Marathon,  and  is  separated  from  Aphorismo  on  the 
west  by  a  ravine  through  which  several  streams  from 
Pentelicus  pass  from  the  south  and  southwest  into 
the  southwest  corner  of  the  Marathonian  plain. 
Upon  one  of  these  streams  is  situated  the  now  ruined 
village  of  Rapedosa,  where  Leake,  in  his  second 
edition  of  the  "  Demes,"  1841,  fixes  Icaria.  At  some 
earlier  period  he  preferred  Aphorismo  for  Mons  Ica- 
rius, as  he  distinctly  says  in  his  "  Travels  in  Northern 

1  Qualis  Marathonide  silva 
Flebilis  Erigona  caesi  prope  funera  patris 
Questibus  absumptis  tristem  jam  solvere  nodum 
Ceperat  et  fortes  ramos  moritura  ligabat. 

(Thebaid,  xi.  644.) 

In  support  of  this  position,  he  might  have  added,  Script.  Myth.  Lat. 
Tres,  ii.  61,  "  eum  [Icarium]  in  Marathonide  regionis  monte  interfece- 
runt;"  and  Statius,  Silvae,  v.  3,  74:  — 

Nec  enim  Marathonia  Virgo 
Parcius  exstinctum  saevorum  crimine  agrestum 
Fleverit  Icarium ; 

and  Nonnus,  Dionysiaca,  xlvii.,  where  the  rejoicing  of  Nature  at  the  com- 
ing of  Dionysus  to  Icarius  is  thus  described :  — 

ano  xdovLoio  Koknov 
avTO<pvrjs  yXv/cepolo,  nfTraivopevov  roKerolo 
Qorpvs  eXaLTjcvros  €<fioivix6r)  Mapada>vo$. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


51 


Greece,"  ii.  429,  when  recounting  his  journey  from 
Athens  to  Marathon  by  way  of  Kephisia  and  Stamata, 
Jan.  28,  1806.  Ross  (S.  F.  W.  Hoffmann's  translation 
of  Finlay's  "  Topography  of  Oropia  and  Diacria "), 
at  some  time  before  1842,  objects  to  this  on  the 
ground  that  the  mountain  is  aptly  named  for  its 
duty  of  shutting  in  the  plain  of  Marathon  like  a 
great  wall ;  and  as  the  word  is  foreign  to  the  speech 
of  the  day,  it  must  be  the  ancient  appellation.  Ac- 
cordingly, he  would  prefer  some  other  mountain  be- 
tween Aphorismo  and  Pentelicus,  which  would  be 
Argaliki  or  its  neighboring  peaks  to  the  south. 

Preller,  in  the  "  Zeitschrift  fiir  die  Alterthums- 
wissenschaft,"  1836,  on  the  ground  that  Pliny  follows 
a  certain  system  in  naming  his  mountains,  mention- 
ing only  those  of  the  valley  of  the  Cephisus,  goes 
back  to  the  northeast  side  of  the  Thriasian  plain  by 
Dema.  With  him  coincides  Grotefend,  in  Pauly's 
"  Encyclopadie." 

Finlay,  "Topography  of  Oropia  and  Diacria,"  1838, 
follows  Leake's  earlier  view  of  Aphorismo.  F,  Aldcn- 
hoven,  "  Itineraire  descriptif  de  FAttique  et  du  Pelo- 
ponnese,"  1841,  assigns  Mons  Icarius  to  the  range 
north  of  Daphni,  Icaria  to  western  Hymettus.  Kie- 
pert's  map  of  1841  writes  "  Ikarion  "  on  Argaliki,  and 
"  Icaria  ?  "  in  the  valley  to  the  south. 

Osann  ("  Ueber  die  erste  Anpflanzung  und  Ver- 
breitung  des  Weinstocks  in  Attika  "  in  the  "  Verhand- 
lungen  der  sechsten  Versammlung  der  Schulm'anner 


52 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


und  Philologen,"  1843)  willingly  adopts  the  site  Cara, 
because  the  Scholiast  on  "  Germanici  Aratea  "  places 
the  death  of  Erigone  on  Hymettus ;  and  this  runs 
with  Osann's  theory  that  Dionysus,  or,  in  other  words, 
the  vine,  came  into  Attica  from  the  island  of  Icaria 
by  way  of  Thoricus. 

Next  to  Leake,  the  greatest  influence  has  been  ex- 
erted by  Ross,  "Die  Demen  von  Attika,"  1846,  p.  73. 
Though  formerly  believing,  with  Leake,  that  Icaria 
belonged  to  the  Marathonian  region,  he  is  now  con- 
vinced that  the  name  "  Icarion  "  should  be  attributed 
to  the  range  which  forms  the  boundary  between 
Attica  and  Megara,  west  of  the  Kerata,  and  Icaria  to 
the  valley  north  of  this,  near  Oenoe  and  Melaenae, 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  modern  Kundura.  His  reasons 
are  these :  In  the  passage  of  Statius  cited  by  Leake, 
Marathonian  is  no  more  than  Attic,  and  has  its  off- 
set in  another  passage  from  the  same  poet,  "  Thebaid  " 
xii.  619,  where  the  theoxenian  houses  of  Icarius  and 
Celeos  are  represented  as  neighbors  and  in  proximity 
to  Melaenae.  Besides  this,  the  legends  bring  Dionysus 
from  Thebes  into  Attica  by  way  of  Eleutherae,  on 
the  west,  not  the  east,  side  of  the  country.  But  the 
really  decisive  point  (in  his  view)  is  that  the  invention 
of  comedy  is  assigned  to  the  Megarian  Susarion;  and 
the  Parian  Marble  says  "with  a  chorus  of  Icarians ; " 
and  Thespis  also  was  an  Icarian.  Why  this  connec- 
tion, why  the  first  acceptance  and  development  of 
Megarian  comedy  in  Icaria,  if  this  deme  was  a  long 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  53 

days  journey  on  the  east  side  of  Attica,  and  not 
rather  just  beyond  the  Megarian  frontier? 

This  convinced  Kiepert,  who  deserted  Leake,  as 
may  be  seen  in  his  maps  of  185 1  and  1872. 

Hanriot,  "  Recherches  sur  la  Topographie  des 
Demes  de  l'Attique,"  1853,  maintains  that  an  excel- 
lent wine  district  is  indispensable  for  Icaria,  and  ac- 
cordingly finds  this  at  the  present  time  northwest  of 
Rhamnus,  by  Kapandriti,  and  Mons  Icarius  in  the 
neighboring  Zastani.  .Dionysios  Sourmeles,  'Attlkcl 
rj  irepl  AijfjLcov  'Attlkt}^  i  855,  is  convinced  that  Icarion 
is  the  range  now  called  Kaniaron,  south  of  Daphni. 
Bursian,  1862,  follows  Ross;  Curtius,  "History  of 
Greece,"  1867,  Leake;  Pape-Benseler's  Lexicon,  1875, 
Ross;  as  also  Bouche-Leclercq,  Atlas,  1883;  but 
"  Nouveau  Diet.  geog.  universelle,"  1884,  says  "north 
of  Daphni."  Bouche-Leclerq,  1888,  takes  a  nip  at 
both  bales  of  hay  at  once,  writing  "  Icarion  "  with 
Ross,  "  Icaria  "  with  Leake. 

Such  was  the  condition  of  the  question  when  Dr. 
Milchhofer,  on  the  9th  of  May,  1887,  in  returning 
from  Marathon  to  Kephisia,  took  the  unusual  route 
by  the  valley  of  Rapedosa,  thus  turning  the  range  of 
Aphorismo  by  the  south  and  west.  About  two  hours 
from  Vrana  he  came  upon  a  ruined  church,  with  walls 
still  standing  to  about  the  height  of  a  man's  head,  in 
which  he  found  this  inscription :  Ke^tcrto?  Tt/xap^[ou] 
I  'i/ca/neu?  I  ev£6fJL€vo<;  avkOrjKev  |  tw  Alovvctco.  For  the 
apse  of  the  church  the  builders  had  utilized  a  semi- 


54 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


circular  choragic  monument,  the  architrave  of  which 
lay  close  by,  bearing  an  inscription  read  by  Chandler 
(C.  I.  G.,  237).  These,  together  with  the  current  name 
of  the  place,  "  Dionyso,"  led  Dr.  Milchhofer  to  believe 
that  here  was  the  resting-place  for  the  vexed  Icaria; 
and  he  so  announced  in  a  letter  to  the  "  Berliner 
philologische  Wochenschrift,"  June  18,  1887. 

The  earliest  mention,  so  far  as  I  know,  in  our  au- 
thorities of  the  name  "  Dionyso,"  applied  to  this  re- 
gion, is  by  Stuart,1  where  he  is  giving  a  list  of  modern, 
corresponding  to  ancient,  names.  He  says,  "AIONT2 
(modern),  AIONTXIA  (ancient).  Between  Stamata 
and  Cephisia.  A  metochi  of  Cyriani,  on  the  foot  of 
Pentelicus  near  Stamata."  About  a  mile  and  a  half 
northwest  of  the  church  described  by  Milchhofer  are 
the  remains  of  a  large  building,  which  from  its  posi- 
tion would  answer  most  nearly  to  the  description  of 
Stuart,  and  which  I  was  told  had  been  the  "  Monas- 
tery of  Dionyso." 

Chandler  thus  describes  his  visit  to  the  church  itself 
on  the  5th  of  May,  1766,  while  on  his  way  from  Athens 
by  Kephisia  to  Marathon  : 2  — 

"We  dismounted  about  sunset  at  a  place  almost  deserted, 
called  Stamati ;  and  after  supper  lay  down  to  sleep  beneath  a 
spreading  vine  before  the  cottage  of  an  Albanian.  Early  in 
the  morning  I  proceeded,  with  a  guide,  to  examine  an  inscrip- 
tion of  which  a  peasant  had  given  me  information ;  quitting 
the  straight  road  to  Marathon,  between  which  place  and 
Athens  was  once  a  town  named  Pallene.  We  soon  entered 
1  Antiquities,  iii.  37.  2  Travels  in  Greece,  p.  160. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


55 


between  two  mountains,  —  Pentele  ranging  on  our  right ;  and 
on  the  left,  one  of  Diacria,  the  region  extending  across  from 
Mount  Parnes  to  Brauron.  Tarrying  to  water  our  horses  near 
some  houses  [which  have  now  disappeared],  I  was  presented 
by  an  Albanian  with  a  handful  of  white  roses  fresh  gathered. 
We  penetrated  into  a  lonely  recess,  and  came  to  a  small 
ruined  church  of  St.  Dionysius,  standing  on  the  marble  heap 
of  a  trophy,  or  monument,  erected  for  some  victory  obtained 
by  three  persons  named  ^Enias,  Xanthippus,  and  Xanthides. 
The  inscription  is  on  a  long  stone  lying  near.  The  two  moun- 
tains are  divided  by  a  wide  and  deep  watercourse,  the  bed  of  a 
river  or  torrent  anciently  named  Erasinus.  The  track  is  on 
the  margin,  rugged  and  narrow,  shaded  with  oleander,  flower- 
ing shrubs,  and  evergreens.  A  tree  had  fallen  across,  but  we 
passed  under  it,  and  entered  the  plain  of  Marathon  at  the 
corner  next  to  Athens." 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  church  is  called  "  St. 
Dionysius  "  by  Chandler,  and  is  set  down  as  such  on 
Finlay's  map  ("Topography  of  Oropia  and  Diacria"), 
taken  from  the  French  surveys.1  Hanriot,  however 
("  Des  Demes  "),  writes  it  "  Dionysos."  F.  Lenormant, 
in  his  "  Recherches  archeologiques  a  Eleusis  "  (1862), 
p.  243,  while  agreeing  with  Leake  as  to  the  site  of 
Icaria,  has  a  remark  which  came  close  to  an  antici- 
pation of  the  real  site :  — 

"  In  a  small  ravine,  descending  from  the  very  peak  of 
Pentelicus,  and  joining,  a  little  below  Rapendosa,  the  valley 
which  separates  Argaliki  from  the  agglomeration  to  which  the 
name  of  Brilessos  or  Pentelicus  properly  belongs,  —  a  ravine 

1  It  is  this  map,  somewhat  reduced,  that  has  been  reproduced  (p.  125) 
for  this  Report,  as  the  best  available  at  present  for  the  northeastern  part 
of  Attica. 


56 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


which  one  traverses  in  going  from  Rapendosa  to  Stamata,  — 
one  meets  with  the  ruins  of  a  small  monastery  of  the  Middle 
Ages,  to  which  the  peasants  of  the  mountain  give  still  to-day 
the  name  Dionyso.  This  monastery,  which  has  been  men- 
tioned by  none  of  the  learned  who  have  treated  of  the  geo- 
graphy of  Attica,  is  indicated  only  upon  the  beautiful  map  of 
the  French  Etat  Major.  The  name  which  it  has  preserved 
to  the  present  time  is  undoubtedly  en  rapport  with  ancient 
traditions,  which  accorded  a  visit  of  Dionysos  to  this 
district." 

The  discovery  made  by  Dr.  Milchhofer  raised  a 
strong  presumption  in  favor  of  his  identification  of 
the  site ;  but  the  proof  was  not  complete.  Professor 
Ernst  Curtius  informed  me  while  I  was  in  Berlin, 
early  in  July,  1887,  on  my  way  to  Athens,  of  the 
discovery,  and  expressed  a  wish  that  we  should  under- 
take excavations  at  Dionyso,  and  settle  the  question 
definitively  if  possible.  Soon  after  reaching  Athens  I 
visited  Dionyso  and  decided  to  undertake  the  work. 

The  route  from  Athens  is  forty-five  minutes  by  rail 
to  Kephisia,  where  the  railway  now  ends  From  this 
beautiful  village,  near  the  western  extremity  of  Pente- 
Hcus,  runs  a  tolerable  carriage-road  to  Dionyso,  which 
is  reached  after  a  drive  of  about  an  hour  and  a 
half  to  an  hour  and  three  quarters.  The  latter  is 
the  usual  time  in  walking.  You  pass  the  stately 
plane-tree  in  the  square  of  the  village,  and  in  five 
minutes  are  beyond  the  houses,  and  no  others  are 
found  by  the  way  till  you  reach  Dionyso.  Ten  mi- 
nutes from  the  square  you  are  beyond  the  limit  of 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


57 


the  olive-groves,  and  keep  a  northeasterly  direction, 
through  fields  covered  with  lentiscs,  arbutus,  and  other 
wild  shrubs,  nearing  the  northern  base  of  Pentelicus. 
At  the  end  of  a  half-hour  you  are  turning  nearly  to 
the  east,  and  by  the  time  an  hour  has  passed  in  walk- 
ing you  have  mounted  a  considerable  hill,  —  one  of 
the  northern  offshoots  of  Pentelicus.    From  this  point 
you  look  back  across  the  Acharnian  plain,  through  the 
pass  of  Dema,  and  in  the  afternoon  you  see  the  glit- 
ter of  the  sun's  rays  on  the  Bay  of  Eleusis,  behind 
which  rise  the  Kerata  and  the  fine  terraces  of  moun- 
tains beyond.   Directly  to  the  west  and  northwest  rises 
Parnes,  below  which  is  Decelea  and  the  adjacent 
towers  of  Tatoi,  the  royal  summer  residence.    To  the 
north  and  northeast  the  intervening  valley  rises  grad- 
ually into  the  hills  that  shut  in  the  coast  toward 
Euboea,  beyond  which  uplifts  the  truncated  pyramid 
of  Delph  (Dirphys),  covered  even  in  October  with 
its  brilliant  mantle  of  snow,  which  in  midwinter  it 
stretches  out,  to  embrace  its  fellows  to  the  southeast 
in  a  long,  continuous  sweep  of  Alpine  beauty  and 
grandeur,  —  a  sight  that  makes  one  forget  all  wear- 
iness of  body  in    the  exaltation   of   the  moment. 
Toward   the  east  a  quicker   rise  ends  speedily  in 
the  mountains  that  shut  in  the  plain  of  Marathon. 
On  the  south,  Pentelicus  is  close  at  hand,  but  not 
imposing. 

Descending  to  the  east,  in  ten  minutes  you  have 
passed  beyond  the  eastern  line  of  Pentelicus,  and  a 


58  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


valley  —  not  seen  on  many  of  our  maps,  nor  men- 
tioned by  many  travellers  —  has  opened  before  you, 
a  half  mile  to  a  mile  in  width,  gradually  sloping  up 
toward  the  southeast.     Pentelicus  is  on  your  right, 
its  highest  peak  just  before  you  up  the  valley,  and 
the  chain  of  Aphorismo  is  on  the  left.    Up  this  val- 
ley we  proceed,  now  observing  by  the  way  several 
fields  devoted  to  tillage,  but  on  every  side  seeing 
evidences  of  the  most  careful  and  elaborate  system  of 
terracing  (not  modern),  such  as  Leake  noticed  on  the 
northern  slope  of  Argaliki,  so  that  every  foot  of  soil 
should  be  made  available  for  tillage.    The  old  terrace 
walls  are  now  largely  overthrown  and  scattered,  but 
are  usually  marked  by  a  wide  line  of  scraggy  shrubs, 
which  the  modern  plough  avoids.    This  system  of 
terracing  extends  through  the  entire  valley  and  up 
the  mountain  sides  wherever  a  foothold  could  be  got 
with  advantage.    As  you  turn  into  the  valley,  you 
cross  a  stratum  of  Pentelic  marble,  which  the  rains 
have  swept  clean  of  soil  and  exposed  in  its  white- 
ness to  the  sun.     As  you  proceed  you  notice  the 
road  strewn  with  nuggets  of  Pentelic  marble  and 
quartz,  whose  richness  and  brilliancy  tempt  you  con- 
tinually to  stoop  and  examine,  and  fill  your  pockets 
with  the  treasures,  to  be  carefully  bestowed  in  your 
cabinet  on  your  return.    You  tread  on  Pentelic  mar- 
ble ;  the  terrace-walls  are  built  of  Pentelic  marble ; 
every  gully  displays  a  mine  of  Pentelic  marble;  and 
as  you  lift  your  eyes  midway  up  the  height  of  Pen- 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


59 


telicus,  its  fresh  quarries  dazzle  them  with  their 
flaming  whiteness. 

Fifteen  minutes,  and  you  enter  a  grove  of  pines 
lining  the  roadway  for  the  remainder  of  the  journey. 
Black  pines  they  are,  not  graceful  in  form  at  best, 
and  ugly  gashes  and  long  cuts  mar  them  still  more; 
but  they  are  doing  their  duty  like  good  Greeks,  — 
supplying  the  pitch  for  the  resinated  wines.  As  you 
walk  under  their  shade  you  are  greeted  by  their  de- 
licious odor,  and  overhead  the  soft  breeze  whispers 
through  them  a  true  Theocritean  song.  The  rich 
cones  hanging  within  your  reach  tempt  you  to  turn 
your  staff  into  a  thyrsus,  and  something  of  the  baccha- 
nalian spirit  stirs  in  your  blood ;  for  are  you  not  fol- 
lowing in  the  very  footsteps  of  the  god  ?  In  February 
myriads  of  crocuses,  lavender  and  yellow,  line  your 
path,  sometimes  peeping  up  through  the  light  snow, 
seemingly  all  the  brighter  for  the  contact.  Later, 
anemones  in  still  greater  profusion  usurp  their  place. 
You  hear  the  melodious  tinkling  of  bells,  and  soon 
see  the  swarthy  goats  straggling  through  the  shrubs, 
and  often  standing  on  tiptoe  to  reach  the  topmost 
leaves  of  the  arbute.  Their  herdsman  stands  by,  lean- 
ing gracefully  on  his  crook,  and  gives  you  his  cordial 
Kalemeras  as  you  pass. 

Fifteen  minutes  through  these  pines,  penetrating 
Chandler's  "  lonely  recess,"  near  which  you  pass  the 
solid  walls  of  an  old  family  burial-place,  with  evidences 
of  substantial  graves,  —  rifled  before  you  had  a  chance 


6o 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


to  open  them, — suddenly  you  emerge  into  the  open 
day,  and  find  yourself  no  longer  ascending,  or  tra- 
versing a  level.  You  have  passed  the  watershed.  A 
few  steps  bring  you  to  two  large  circular  threshing- 
floors  paved  with  stone,  and  you  see  before  you  a 
long,  low  building,  and  at  a  short  distance  to  the 
right  of  it  a  hill  running  south  toward  the  moun- 
tains. At  its  foot  stood  the  church.1  Below  this,  the 
ground  descends  in  terraces  for  a  few  hundred  feet, 
and  then  suddenly  pitches  into  a  deep  ravine  finely 
wooded.  Over  this,  straight  in  front,  the  eye  leaps 
across  several  low  ridges,  then  between  two  peaks,  and 
the  waters  of  the  Euboean  Strait  greet  you,  with  the 
mountains  of  Euboea  beyond,  deeply  snow-clad  in 
February.  Mount  the  hill  to  the  right  a  few  steps, 
and  you  look  down  through  the  gorge  which  leads  out 
from  the  vale  of  Rapedosa  to  Vrana  and  the  Mara- 
thonian  plain,  —  a  long  stretch  of  which  is  visible,  with 
a  glimpse  of  the  sea  beyond;  but  not  the  Mound  nor 
the  sickle  shore,  which  are  cut  off  by  Argaliki.  As- 
cend the  mountain  to  the  left,  and  in  half  an  hour 
you  have  all  the  southern  plain  of  Marathon  under 
your  eye. 

Since  leaving  Kephisia  you  have  not,  in  ordinary 
weather,  seen  a  drop  of  running  water.  But  just  to 
the  left  of  the  long  building  is  a  small  dell  through 
which  flows  a  perennial  stream  of  excellent  water, 
bordered  on  either  hand  by  a  large  number  of  the 

1  See  Plate  II. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  6 1 

most  picturesque  plane-trees.  The  reason  why  this 
spot  should  be  an  important  centre  in  the  vigorous 
days  of  old  is  not  far  to  seek :  with  the  rich  valley 
behind  it,  Pentelicus  rising  to  its  highest  on  the  south, 
and  sweeping  round  in  varied  outline  toward  the  east 
and  north  as  it  approaches  the  sea,  till  it  ends  in  the 
pyramid  of  Argaliki  at  the  plain  of  Marathon  ;  with 
the  chain  of  Aphorismo  mounting  quickly  above  it 
to  the  north,  and  with  its  bountiful  rivulets  beside  it 
and  below  it  in  the  beautiful  and  romantic  ravines, 
—  the  scenery  is  in  harmony  with  the  twofold  side 
of  the  worship  of  Dionysus,  the  gay  and  joyous, 
the  sad  and  mournful,  and  aptly  fitted  to  inspire  a 
Susaricn  and  a  Thespis  to  further  advances  on  the 
trodden  path. 

Though  this  region  is  some  twelve  hundred  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  sea,  and  at  present  no  attempt  is 
made  toward  the  culture  of  the  vine  (for  there  is  but  lit- 
tle cultivation  in  the  whole  valley),  the  painstaking  ter- 
racing seems  to  point  to  its  prevalence  there  in  better 
days.  The  introduction  of  the  vine  into  Greece  has 
been  a  fruitful  subject  of  discussion  and  controversy. 
Dionysus  has  so  many  characteristics  in  common 
with  the  Vedic  Soma  that  they  have  often  been  re- 
garded as  the  same  deity.  But  the  early  use  of  wine 
in  India  cannot  be  proved,  and  the  word  is  European.1 
Whatever  may  have  been  the  natural  home  of  the  vine, 
it  has  been  generally  assumed  that  it  found  its  way 

1  O.  Schrader,  Sprachvergleichung  und  Urgeschichte,  1883. 


62  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


into  Greece  through  the  agency  of  the  Thracians,  with 
their  Phrygian  affinities,  and  many  maintain  that  it  was 
brought  into  Attica  from  Boeotia.  The  introduction 
of  Dionysus  Eleuthereus,  whose  priest  sat  in  state  in 
the  central  seat  of  the  Dionysiac  theatre  at  i\thens,  is 
distinctly  referred  by  tradition  to  a  Boeotian  origin,1 
and  connected  with  tempering  of  wine  with  water,  or 
with  phallic  worship  (Alovvctos  6p66s).  According  to 
Pausanias  and  Philochorus,  it  was  in  the  reign  of  Am- 
phictyon,  the  third,  or  fourth,  king  of  Athens  that 
this  event  -took  place ;  but  Welcker,  A.  Mommsen, 
Lenormant,  Bergk,  transfer  it  to  the  period  of  Pi- 
sistratus,  who  established  the  greater  Dionysia  and 
introduced  such  reforms  in  the  worship  of  the  god 
as  should  give  it  a  civil  and  political  character  and 
bring  it  into  relation  with  the  cult  in  Thebes  and 
Naxos.  But  the  earliest  advent  of  the  god  in  Attica, 
and  the  only  one  about  which  a  myth  was  woven 
of  the  type  characteristic  of  the  coming  of  Dionysus 
elsewhere,  is  his  visit  to  Icarius.  It  is  true  that 
Apollodorus  says  that  this  happened  in  the  reign  of 
Pandion,  the  second,  or  fifth,  king  after  Amphictyon. 
But  Pausanias  acknowledges  that  it  is  earlier  than 
Amphictyon  and  its  Eleutherean  rival,  and  the  story 
bears  this  out.  Another  account  brings  Dionysus 
into  Attica  in  the  time  of  Amphictyon,  when  he  is 
entertained  by  Semachus,  to  whose  daughter  he  pre- 

1  Pausanias,  i.  2,  5  ;  20,  2  ;  38,  8;  Philochorus,  ap.  Athenaeus,  38  c; 
179  e. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


63 


sents  the  nebris  (Eusebius,  Chronica,  30);  or  he  was 
entertained  by  the  daughters  of  Semachus,  from 
whom  were  descended  his  priestesses.1  Here  we  have 
no  allusion  to  wine,  but  only  to  the  establishment  of 
Bacchic  rites.  Semachus  is  the  eponymous  hero  of 
the  deme  of  the  Semachidae,  belonging,  according 
to  Philochorus  in  Steph.  Byz.,  to  Epacria,  and  usually 
placed  at  Stamata.  Leake  relied  upon  the  similarity 
of  this  legend  to  that  of  Icarius  as  partial  proof  that 
Icaria  lay  in  its  vicinity.  Pliny  (Nat.  Hist.,  vii.  59) 
attributes  to  Eumolpus  the  introduction  of  the  cultiva- 
tion of  the  vine  and  trees.  This  may  be  based  on  a 
local  Eleusinian  legend.  The  authorities  which  speak 
of  the  direction  from  which  Dionysus  comes  to  Icarius 
are  the  Scholiast  of  Aristoph.  Eq.  697,  —  who  says  that 
he  was  fleeing  from  Pentheus,  —  and  Aristides2  and 
his  Scholiast,  who  refer  to  his  coming  from  Thebes.3 
On  the  other  hand,  the  close  connection  of  Epacria 
with  the  Ionian  Tetrapolis  of  Marathon  might  lead 
us,  in  accordance  with  the  theory  of  Curtius,  to  look 
eastward,  as  Osann,  Maury,  Lenormant  have  done,  to 
the  island  of  Icaria.  Curtius  has  well  said  that  many 
different  peoples  and  notable  families  settled  early 
in  Attica,  bringing  with  them  their  special  cults,  and 
maintaining  them  for  centuries  as  a  sacred  heir- 
loom. Among  these,  from  whatever  quarter  derived, 
was  the  Dionysiac  worship  in  the  Icarian  gens,  to 

1  Steph.  Byz.,  s.  v.  Semachidae.  2  Symmachus,  i.  485,  14. 

3  Cf.  Nonnus,  Dionysiaca,  xlvi.,  xlvii. 


64 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


which  the  origin  of  the  rural  Dionysia  is  universally 
attributed. 

Apollodorus  (iii.  14,  7)  and  Eratosthenes  (Eri- 
gone)  are  our  oldest  direct  witnesses  to  the  Icarian 
story.  Apollodorus  did  not  borrow  from  Eratos- 
thenes, because  he  uses  in  his  "  Bibliotheca "  wholly 
other  sources  than  Alexandrian,  going  back  very  often 
to  Pherecydes.  But  the  story  itself  finds  its  origin 
in  a  remote  period,  as  is  shown  by  the  nature  of  the 
festival  and  the  ceremonies  connected  with  it.  The 
woes  of  Erigone  were  made  a  frequent  subject  of 
tragedy.  We  have  an  "  Erigone  "  cited  among  the 
dramas  of  Phrynichus  (Schol.  Vespae,  1481),  of  Philo- 
cles,  of  Cleophon  (Suidas  s.  v.) ;  and  two  fragments 
of  a  play  of  Sophocles  of  that  name  have  been 
transmitted  to  us.  The  last  is  generally  claimed  to 
have  for  its  heroine  the  daughter  of  Aegisthus  and 
Clytaemnestra.  This  may  be  true,  but  it  confessedly 
rests  upon  conjecture  only.  To  these  may  be  added 
the  conjecture  of  Geel's  (De  Telepho  Euripideo,  p.  12), 
that  the  tragic  Nicomachus  treated  the  Icarian  story ; 
and  that  of  Meineke  (Analecta  Alexandrina,  p.  273), 
that  this  was  done  also  by  Parthenius  in  his  "  Hera- 
cles." The  Latin  poet  Attius  wrote  an  "  Erigone," 
and  Quintus  Cicero  tried  his  hand  at  one.1  The 
"  Erigone  "  of  Eratosthenes  was  in  elegiac  verse,  fol- 
lowing the  same  argument  as  given  us  by  Apollodorus, 

and  especially  dwelling  on  the  astronomical  features. 
» 

1  Cicero,  Ep.  ad  Quintum,  iii.  6  ;  iii.  9. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  RETORT. 


65 


Among  comedies  we  have  mention  of  one  by  Timo- 
cles  entitled  "  Demosatyri,"  which  is  probably  the  same 
as  the  "  Icarii  "  or  "  Satyri,"  of  whose  argument  we 
know  nothing. 

The  story  of  Icarius,  told  with  some  variations,  is 
substantially  this :  The  heroic  type  of  the  Athenian 
farmer,  devoted  to  his  trees  and  crops  and  to  his  only 
daughter  Erigone,  Icarius  is  visited  by  Dionysus,  who 
presents  him  with  a  cantharus  of  wine  and  a  shoot  of 
the  vine,  and  teaches  him  its  cultivation  and  the  secrets 
of  wine-making.  The  vine  is  carefully  tended  and 
reared;  but  a  he-goat  breaks  into  the  enclosure  and 
injures  it,  with  characteristic  voracity.  Icarius  in  anger 
slays  the  goat,  offers  him  in  sacrifice  to  the  god,  blows 
up  the  skin,  oils  it,  and  gives  it  to  his  companions  to 
dance  about,  thus  originating  the  sport  of  askoliasmos, 
—  a  usual  accompaniment  of  the  Dionysiac  festival. 
The  divine  gift  is  not  destroyed  by  the  goat;1  but 
Icarius  is  soon  enabled  to  follow  the  injunctions  of 
the  god  to  travel  about  the  country  with  a  wagon 
loaded  with  wine-skins,  proclaiming  the  joys  of  the 
vine,  with  practical  applications,  and  without  water. 
Some  countrymen  drank  themselves  into  a  stupor ; 
and  their  companions,  thinking  them  poisoned,  set 
upon  Icarius  and  slew  him.  Reason  returning  with 
the  daylight,  they  buried  his  body.    The  dog  Maera, 

1  Ktjv  /if  (pdyrjs  enl  pl£av,  opus  en  Kap7ro(pnp^a(o 
ocrcrov  e7ria7ret(rai  aui,  rpaye,  Bvofxeva. 

Euenus,  AnthoL,  ix.  75. 

5 


66 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


that  Erigone  had  tenderly  reared,  having  accom- 
panied Icarius  on  his  mission,  now  returned  home ; 
and  attracting  the  attention  of  its  mistress  by  its 
howlings  and  by  pulling  at  her  dress,  led  her  to  the 
spot,  and  the  deed  was  disclosed.  Erigone  in  her 
grief  hangs  herself  upon  a  tree  above  her  father's 
grave,  and  the  dog  dies  at  her  feet.  The  Athenian 
maidens  were  thereupon  seized  by  an  epidemic  of 
suicide  by  hanging;  and  the  Pythian  oracle  an- 
nounced to  the  people  that  Icarius  and  Erigone 
must  be  propitiated  by  an  annual  offering,  in  the 
autumn,  of  the  firstlings  of  the  crop,  and  by  the  fes- 
tival of  Oscillation  (aicopaL,  oscilla),  accompanied  by  a 
mournful  song,  like  the  Linos  (called  "  Aletis "),  the 
burden  of  which  was  perhaps  something  like  that  of 
Erigone's  lament  in  Nonnus,  xlvii.  193 :  "  Ye  dear 
hills,  tell  me  where  is  the  body  of  Icarius  ?  "  At  the 
prayer  of  Dionysus,  Zeus  immortalized  the  tragedy 
to  men  by  setting  the  victims  on  high  as  bright  con- 
stellations. Icarius  with  his  wagon  becomes  Bootes 
with  his  Wain  ;  Erigone,  the  Virgin  ;  Maera,  the 
Dog  Star ;  and  the  Cantharus  of  Dionysus  appears 
close  at  hand  as  the  Crater. 

We  do  not  know  if  this  astronomical  feature  is 
earlier  than  Eratosthenes,  but  it  has  given  rise  to  easy 
explanations.  Erigone  ('HpL-yovrj)  is  the  grape-vine, 
born  of  spring-time,  and  swinging  with  those  grace- 
ful festoons  in  summer  which  never  fail  to  charm  the 
eye  in  Southern  Italy,  dying,  to  all  appearance,  in  the 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


67 


autumn.  The  bright  star  e,  near  the  right  wrist  of 
Virgo,  was  called  provindemiator  (npoTpvyrjTijp,  Aratus, 
Phaenomena,  138),  as  rising  shortly  before  the  vintage. 
Icarius  is  Bootes,  as  vindemiator  (TpvyrjT-qs,  Schol. 
A  rat.  Phaen.,  91).  The  Dog  Star  rules  the  hottest 
season  of  summer,  when  the  grape  is  ripening,  — 
that  child  of  the  sun,  as  Goethe  called  it,  and  as  the 
old  artist  conceived  it  who  wrought  that  fine  head 
of  the  sun-god  now  in  the  Isis  room  of  the  Louvre, 
intertwining  grape-bunches  in  his  locks  on  either  side 
of  his  throat,  and  setting  vines  and  bunches  below  and 
on  the  side  of  the  frame. 

In  art  we  seem  to  have  the  gift  of  the  wine  and 
cup  by  Dionysus  to  Icarius  represented  on  a  black- 
figured  vase  of  early  style  in  the  Munich  Museum.1 
Dionysus,  vine-crowned,  with  pointed  beard,  stands 
on  the  left,  holding  out  a  large  cantharus  in  his 
right  hand  toward  a  man  facing  him,  who  extends 
his  right  hand  with  a  welcoming  gesture,  and  his 
left  toward  a  long-horned  goat  that  stands  between 
them.  On  each  side  are  two  men  in  attitude  of  won- 
derment. Other  cases,  with  varying  details,  are  men- 
tioned by  Birch.2  The  relief  on  the  proscenium  of 
the  Dionysiac  theatre  at  Athens  presents  two  scenes 
from  the  story  of  Dionysus,  —  one  his  birth  from  the 
thigh  of  Zeus,  the  other  a  sacrifice  offered  to  him  by 
Icarius  and  Erigone.    In  the  latter  the  god  stands  on 

1  Micali,  Monumenti  inediti,  tav.  44,  I. 

2  History  of  Pottery,  p.  239. 


68 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  right  of  the  altar,  clad  in  a  short  garment,  over 
which  is  cast  an  animals  skin,  and  he  is  shod  with 
the  cothurnus.  His  right  hand  is  extended,  above 
an  altar,  to  Icarius  on  the  opposite  side,  who  bears 
a  bunch  of  grapes  in  his  left  hand  and  drags  a  goat 
with  his  right.  Behind  him  is  Erigone  bringing  a 
dish  of  sacrificial  fruit.  Maera  crouches  in  the  back- 
ground near  the  altar,  above  which  runs  a  grape-vine 
with  clusters.  A  satyr  accompanies  the  god.  This 
relief  belongs  to  the  first  years  of  the  Roman  Empire, 
if  not  earlier. 

The  relief  —  of  which  many  replicas  exist,  notably 
in  the  Naples  Museum,  the  Louvre,  and  the  British 
Museum  —  which  represents  the  bearded  "  Sardana- 
palus  "  Bacchus,  with  his  drunken  train  welcomed  by 
a  man  and  a  woman  on  a  couch  behind  which  are 
hangings,  with  buildings  and  other  accessories,  has 
long  gone  by  the  name  of  "  Bacchus  received  by 
Icarius,"  —  an  attribution  supported  by  Jahn,  Visconti, 
Combe,  Hiibner,  and  others.  This  has  been  recently 
called  in  question  ( Archaologische  Zeitung,  1881); 
and  the  whole  subject  needs  fuller  treatment  than 
it  has  yet  had. 

The  story  of  Icarius  and  Erigone  has  reached  us 
in  pretty  full  detail  in  the  following  sources:  Apollo- 
dorus,  Bibliotheca,  iii.  14,  7;  Scholia  Homer,  Iliad, 
xxii.  29 ;  Nonnus,  Dionysiaca,  xlvii.  1-264  J  Servius 
ad  Virgilii  Georgica,  ii.  389;  Hyginus,  Fabulae,  130, 
Astronomia,  ii.  4 ;    Scriptores   Rerum  Mythicarum 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


Latini  Tres  (Bode,  1834),  i.  19,  ii.  61,  iii.  15,  6; 
Commentaria  in  Aratea  Phaenomena  Germanici 
Caesaris,  332. 

It  is  given  succinctly  or  alluded  to  in  these:  Lucian, 
Dialogi  Deorum,  18,  2,  Concilium  Deorum,  5,  de 
Saltatione,  39;  Scholia  Lucian  Dialogi  Deorum,  18, 
2  ;  Pausanias,  i.  2,  7  ;  Plutarch,  Collecta  Parallela,  9 ; 
Aelian,  Historia  Animalium,  vii.  28,  vi.  25  ;  Athenaeus, 
618  e;  Achilles  Tatius,  ii.  2;  Aristides,  Symmachi- 
cus,  A.  p.  485,  and  Scholia;  Philostratus,  Epistolae, 
39  ;  Gregorius  Nazianzenus,  Orationes,  iii.  p.  100  c, 
and  Scholia ;  Libanius,  Progymnasmata,  iv.  Vitis  vitu- 
perandis ;  Scholia  Aristophanes,  Equites,  697;  Scholia 
Euripides,  Phoenissae,  227;  Scholia  Homer,  Odyssey, 

v.  272;  Tzetzes,  Chiliades,  iv.  157;  Stephanus  Byzan- 
tinus,  'Ifca/na  ;  Hesychius,  Aiajpa,  'AX^ris  ;  Etymologi- 
cum  Magnum,  'AAtJtis;  Eustathius  ad  Homerum,  389, 
1535;  Scholia  Homer,  Iliad,  xviii.  483 ;  Nonnus,  Dio- 
nysiaca,  i.  32,  254,  xxvii.  283;  Himerius,  Eclogae, 
32,  4;  Maximus  Tyrius,  29,  5. 

Virgil,  Georgica,  i.  33;  ii.  389;  Servius  ad  Virgilii 
Georgica,  i.  33,  67,  218  ;  Tibullus,  iv.  1,  10;  Propertius, 

ii.  33,  24,  29;  Ovid,  Amores,  ii.  16,  4,  Metamorphoses, 

vi.  125,  x.  450,  Ibis,  609,  and  Scholia,  Fasti,  iv. 
939;  Germanici  Aratea  Phaenomena,  90;  Hyginus, 
Fabulae,  224,  243,  254,  Astronomia,  ii.  25,  35,  40; 
Statius,  Thebaid,  iv.  692,  777,  xi.  644,  xii.  618,  Silvae, 

iii.  1,  147,  iv.  4,  13,  v.  3,  74. 

The  worship  of  Dionysus  had  its  accompaniment 


7o 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


of  procession,  dance,  <song,  and  different  mummeries, 
with  disguisements  of  the  person  and  face  in  various 
ways,  and  must  have  had  in  the  deme  of  Icaria  a 
congenial  home,  with  men  ready  to  perform  the  patrial 
rites  transmitted  to  them,  and  capable  of  introducing 
new  elements,  with  all  the  quickness  and  genius  for 
acting  which  is  native  to  the  Greek.  Their  rural 
festival,  held  about  the  time  of  the  winter  solstice, 
came  to  be  known  beyond  the  limits  of  Attica  as  an 
occasion  where  acting  was  appreciated.  As  the  Greek 
athlete  would  travel  wherever  a  festival  offered  him 
opportunity  for  the  display  of  his  skill  and  prowess, 
so  we  may  imagine  Susarion  attracted  from  Tripodis- 
cus  in  Megara,  —  that  long  day's  journey  which  Ross 
felt  such  a  barrier  to  the  eastern  position  of  Icaria, 
—  that  he  might  display  to  a  welcoming  audience 
the  advances  which  Megarian  wit  had  made  toward 
comedy.  This  is  said  by  the  Parian  marble  (C.  I.  G., 
2374)  to  have  occurred  about  the  beginning  of  the 
second  quarter  of  the  sixth  century.  The  passage, 
according  to  Bergk,  Griechische  Literaturgesch.,  iv. 
43,  is  this:  d(f)  ov  kv  d/x[af]ai9  Kto/xto[Sia]  r)[yp~\£6r), 
\_o-Trj~\(jdv\rojv  X°pov~\  T***v  '^f<apLeajv,  evpovros  Sovcapico- 
vos  Kcu  ad\ov  ireOrj  irpcoTOv  la)(dho)\_v\  dpami)(o\jf\  kol 
olvov  [kciSos],  e\_rr) . . .]  We  may  add  other  testimony 
as  to  Susarion  :  irepl  KcofjicoSias  v.  2,  Kai  yap  ol  iv  ttj 

'AtTLKTJ   TTpWTQV   (TVCrTrjCTaiXeVOL   TO   ilTLTljSeVlxa  TtJs  KCOfUp- 

Sms  (rjcrav  $e  ol  ire  pi  Hovorapicava)  Kai  tol  Trp6o~coTra  elcrrj- 
yov  ara/cro)?  Kai  [jlqvos  r\v  ye\o)$  to  KaTacrKeva^ofJLevov. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


71 


Scholia  Dionysius  Thrax:  irpuyrov  /lev  ovv  ^ovcrapicov 
ris  ttJ?  ififxerpov  KcofuphCas  ap^qyo^  eyiveTo.  Diomedes, 
iii.  9:  Poetae  primi  comici  fuerunt  Susarion,  Mullus, 
Maenes.  Clemens  Alexandrinus  even  makes  Susarion 
an  Icarian  (Stromata,  i.  16,  p.  308):  kol  rpaycohiav  fxev 
Se<nn<;  6  'Adrjvcuos,  KcofxcoStau  Be  iLovcraploiv  6  'i/capteug. 

The  impulse  given  by  Susarion  seems  to  have 
quickened  the  soul  of  Thespis  to  further  progress  in 
the  different  line  of  tragedy.  The  sad  story  of  the 
father  of  his  gens,  the  rites  attendant  upon  the  festival, 
the  dithyrambic  choruses  in  vogue,  predisposed  him  to 
this  end,  and  gave  him  a  nucleus  to  which  he  added  the 
actor,  the  prologue,  and  speeches  between  the  choral 
songs,  and  he  employed  different  masks  to  enable 
him  to  take  the  part  of  several  persons  consecutively 
in  the  same  play.  This  proved  him  the  Columbus  of 
a  new  world,  —  a  mimic  world,  but  one  calculated  to 
excite  the  interest,  as  it  is  said  to  have  engaged  the 
hostility,  of  the  great  law-giver.  It  must  have  been 
a  few  years  only  after  Susarion's  advent  in  Icaria 
that,  as  Plutarch  tells  us  (Solon,  29),  the  novelty  of 
the  invention  was  attracting  many,  and  Solon  in 
his  old  age,  being  fond  of  amusement  and  music, 
also  went  to  see  Thespis  acting  his  own  play.  It  is  a 
legitimate  inference  from  the  language  of  Plutarch  that 
the  play  was  produced  at  some  distance  from  Athens, 
—  in  other  words,  in  Icaria;  for  we  can  hardly  imagine 
Solon,  a  true  Greek,  to  have  remained  away  from  a 
festival  of  importance,  with  novel  features,  celebrated 


72 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


close  at  his  own  door.  Later  than  this  event  fell  his 
censure  of  Pisistratus  for  the  latter's  bad  acting  in  the 
game  which  he  played  in  winning  his  first  tyranny. 
Later  still,  and  probably  in  the  third  tyranny  of 
Pisistratus,  and  no  doubt  through  the  influence  of 
Pisistratus  himself,  at  the  establishment  of  the  Great 
Dionysia,  if  not  before  at  the  Lenaea,  the  invention  of 
Thespis  was  introduced  into  the  city,  though  we  may 
assume  that  the  representations  were  still  maintained 
at  the  country  Dionysia  in  Icaria.  The  first  contest 
and  victory  of  Thespis  is  assigned  to  the  year  536  by 
Suidas  and  the  Parian  Marble.1  This  must  belong  to 
the  city  festival.  Suidas  cites  the  titles  of  four  plays 
of  Thespis,  which  Bergk  remarks2  were  probably  the 
pieces  with  which  he  contended  after  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Agon.  They  are,  "  Athla  of  Pelias,"  or 
"  Phorbas,"  the  "  Priests,"  the  "  Youths,"  "  Pentheus." 
Sophocles  wrote  against  the  choruses  of  Thespis 
(Suidas,  s.  v.  Sophocles),  and  the  dances  of  Thespis 
were  still  the  favorites  of  old  men  in  the  time  of 
Aristophanes  (Vespae,  1479). 

The  evidence  which  connects  the  invention  of 
tragedy  with  Icaria  is  various.  Athenaeus  says  (40  b\ 
"  From  indulgence  in  wine  came  the  invention  of  trag- 
edy and  comedy  in  the  Attic  Icaria  "  (euro  fxeOrjs  kcu  77 
tt]5  /ccu/xojSta?  Kal  f)  rrjs  TpaywSias  evpecns  iv  'l/capta* 

1  d(j)  ov  Seams  6  TroirjTrjs  [eVi'/ca]  TvpwTos,  6s  idlda^ev 
aX[Xou]r  riv[as,  Kal  €]re6r]  6  [r^pdyos  [ad\ov  ^]opou. 

2  Griechische  Literaturgesch.,  iii.  259. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


73 


ty)s  'Atti/o??).  Suidas  says  :  "  Thespis  of  Icaria,  a  city 
of  Attica,  some  call  the  first  tragic  poet."  "  In  Icaria 
they  first  danced  about  the  goat"  (Eratosthenes,  Frag.). 
"  In  Icaria  of  Attica  they  first  slew  the  goat  because 
it  stripped  the  vine  "  (Porphyry,  de  Abstinentia,  ii.  8). 
The  epigram  of  Dioscorides  (Anthologia,  vii.  410)  has 
the  caption :  "  To  Thespis,  the  inventor  of  tragedy, 
who  first  formed  the  chorus  and  arranged  all  the 
scene  in  archaic  fashion.  Changes  were  introduced 
by  Aeschylus  and  others."  The  epigram  runs,  "  This 
is  Thespis,  who  was  the  first  to  fashion  tragic  poesy, 
breaking  a  new  path  of  fresh  delight  for  his  fellow- 
villagers,  when  for  the  trittys  Bacchus  led  down  the 
chorus,  for  which  the  goat  was  the  prize,  and  the 
basket  of  Attic  figs.  Many  changes  will  come;  myriad 
time  will  invent  many  other  things ;  but  what  is  mine 
is  mine."  Dioscorides  is  also  the  author  of  another 
epigram  to  Thespis  (Anthol.,  vii.  41 1) :  "This  is  the 
invention  of  Thespis ;  but  the  sports  of  the  wild  wood 
and  these  revels,  still  quite  humble,  Aeschylus  exalted," 
etc.  Both  these  distinctly  mark  the  country  origin 
and  the  inventor.    Cf.  Horace,  Ars  Poetica,  275: 

"  Ignotum  tragicae  genus  invenisse  Camenae, 
Dicitur  et  plaustris  vexisse  poemata  Thespis, 
Quae  canerent  agerentque  peruncti  faecibus  ora." 

In  addition  to  the  authorities  already  cited,  Thespis 
is  mentioned  as  the  inventor  of  tragedy  by  the  Pseu- 
do-Platonic Minos,  which  was  probably  written  after 
the  death  of  Aristotle.    Chamaeleon,  the  pupil  of 


74 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Aristotle,  wrote  a  treatise  on  Thespis,  and  probably 
took  the  same  view.  Diogenes  Laertius,  iii.  56,  says 
that  Thespis  added  an  actor  to  the  chorus ;  and  if 
Aristotle  has  not  stated  this  among  the  collected 
notes  which  form  his  Poetics,  it  seems  implied  when 
he  (Poetics,  10)  ascribes  the  second  actor  to  Aeschylus, 
as  Themistius  distinctly  maintains  that  he  attributed 
the  prologue  and  "  rhesis  "  to  Thespis  (Or.  26,  p.  382). 
We  may  add  Plutarch,  Solon,  29;  Athenaeus,  22; 
Tzetzes,  Prolegomena  Scholia  in  Lycophron,  p.  256; 
Diogenes  Laertius,  i.  2,  11,  iii.  1,  56;  Apostolius,  13, 
42;  Horace,  Epistolae,  ii.  1,  163;  Plutarch,  de  Gloria 
Atheniensium,  7. 

Considering,  then,  the  interest  which  the  site  of 
Icaria  naturally  excited,  and  the  importance  which  it 
really  possessed  in  the  history  of  Attic  cult  and  in  the 
drama  of  the  world,  we  seemed  to  be  justified  in  put- 
ting the  clew  which  had  been  found  to  a  complete  and 
satisfactory  test.  Some  months'  delay  was  occasioned 
by  the  absence  of  the  owner  of  the  property,  Mr.  A. 
Heliopulos,  English  Vice-Consul  at  Ai'vali  in  Asia 
Minor;  but  upon  his  arrival  at  Athens  in  January,  per- 
mission to  excavate  was  readily  granted ;  and  the  sin- 
gle house  in  the  valley,  which  was  also  near  the  ruined 
church,  was  politely  placed  at  our  disposal,  and  every 
facility  granted  for  the  prosecution  of  the  work.  As 
soon  as  weather  permitted,  on  the  30th  of  January, 
Mr.  Buck  began  excavations,  which  were  continued, 
with  some  interruptions  from  snow  and  rains,  until 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  75 

March  19th.  Of  the  choragic  monument,  utilized  by 
the  builders  of  the  church  for  the  apse,  two  courses 
were  still  standing.  The  remaining  stones  were  found 
in  its  vicinity,  even  to  the  two  slabs  which  formed  its 
roof,  so  that  it  could  be  easily  reconstructed,  with  the 
exception  of  the  ornamentation  above  the  roof.  On 
the  north  side  of  the  church  was  found  a  decree  of 
"  the  Icarians  and  the  deme  of  the  Icarians,"  which 
proved  conclusively  that  this  was  the  long-contested 
site  ;  and  in  the  walls  of  the  church  and  in  its  vi- 
cinity other  decrees  came  to  light,  adding  confirmation. 
Indeed,  it  became  evident  that  the  deme-centre  of 
Icaria  had  been  discovered.  Furthermore,  as  was  to 
be  expected  from  the  home  of  Thespis,  evidence  soon 
accumulated  of  the  prevalence  there  of  an  active  and 
persistent  worship  of  Dionysus,  from  the  days  of  the 
Father  of  Tragedy  himself  for  several  centuries.  A 
part  of  a  colossal  head  or  mask  of  the  bearded  Diony- 
sus, of  the  finest  archaic  art,  was  found  beneath  the 
wall  of  the  church,  and  at  a  little  distance  toward  the 
north,  but  much  deeper  in  the  soil,  a  large  fragment 
of  the  beard  on  the  right  side,  and  one  of  the  large 
spiral  curls  above  the  forehead,  which  had  been  partly 
fashioned  separately  and  fitted  into  holes,  and  partly 
cut  out  of  the  marble.  Holes  above  this  row  of  curls 
show  where  a  garland  of  ivy  was  doubtless  attached, 
and  some  bronze  leaves  were  found  which  would  have 
been  of  proper  proportion  for  it.  A  colossal  archaic 
torso,  from  neck  to  waist,  was  discovered  under  the 


76 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


floor ;  the  feet  were  found  in  the  wall,  and  a  right  hand 
in  the  vicinity.  Between  the  thumb  and  first  finger 
of  this  hand  was  a  hole  into  which  a  large  cantharus 
was  found  to  fit,  after  the  manner  of  the  curl  above 
mentioned.  The  torso  was  habited  in  the  Ionic  chiton, 
and  mantle  that  left  the  right  arm  free.  The  statue 
was  seated,  with  right  foot  drawn  back  and  heel  some- 
what raised.  Holes  on  the  breast  served  to  hold  the 
fastening  for  long  curls,  and  long  hair  streamed  down 
the  back.  The  forearms  of  another  large  statue  seem 
never  to  have  been  more  than  roughly  finished. 
The  torso  of  a  Satyr  of  the  good  period,  another, 
probably  of  a  Pan  or  Silen,  a  tragic  masked  head, 
and  reliefs  with  a  procession  and  a  goat-sacrifice,  a 
beautiful  ivy  wreath  below  a  dedicatory  inscription  to 
Dionysus,  bronze  ivy-leaves,  and  a  bronze  intaglio  of 
a  habited  figure  holding  a  thyrsus  or  sceptre,  —  all 
point  to  the  same  worship.  An  inscription  of  the 
fifth  century  speaks  of  the  money  of  Dionysus,  and 
states  the  amount  in  hand. 

Nor  did  the  home  of  Thespis  lack  its  theatrical 
representations.  A  long  inscription  of  the  fifth  cen- 
tury amid  its  broken  lines  still  exhibits  the  care 
with  which  the  Icarians  regulated  "antidosis,"  or  ex- 
change of  property  by  the  choragus  in  case  of  griev- 
ance, as  well  as  various  other  details  relating  to  the 
production  of  plays.  Dedicatory  inscriptions  of  the 
fourth  century  mention  several  victories  gained  by 
the  choragi,  and  in  one  occurs  the  name  of  the  poet 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  J  J 

whose  play  was  victorious,  —  Nt/cocrrparo?  eSi'Sacr/c€z>. 
The  others  speak  of  tragedies ;  this,  probably  of  a 
comedy.  For  the  inscription  should  belong  to  the 
early  decades  of  the  fourth  century,  which  would  ac- 
cord well  with  the  Nicostratus,  who  is  said  by  Apol- 
lodorus1  and  Thomas  Magister 2  to  have  been  the 
youngest  son  of  Aristophanes.  Athenaeus  quotes 
frequently  from  his  plays,  and  calls  him  (587)  a 
poet  of  the  Middle  Comedy ;  while  Harpocration  cites 
a  play,  "  Ornitheutes,"  as  that  of  Nicostratus  of  the 
New  Comedy.  Dittenberger3  thinks,  in  consequence 
of  the  position  of  the  name  Nicostratus  after  Philemon 
and  Menander,  in  the  inscription  containing  a  list  of 
victorious  poets,  that  there  may  have  been  a  second 
Nicostratus  belonging  to  the  New  Comedy.  The 
famous  actor  mentioned  by  Xenophon,4  who  lived  be- 
fore 420  b.  c,  can  hardly  suit  our  inscription,  nor  the 
Didaskalos  of  the  chorus  of  bovs  of  the  victorious 
Oeneid  tribe,5  who  belongs  to  about  the  same  time. 
The  Nicostratus  occurring  in  the  inscription  published 
by  Kumanudes,6  though  probably  of  the  fourth  cen- 
tury, does  not  seem  to  be  a  poet  or  actor,  but  a 
patron  of  the  theatre,  and  may  be  a  foreigner.  The 
"  dramatic  poet  "  Nicostratus,  surnamed  Clytemnestra, 
of  whom  Diogenes  Laertius  speaks  (iv.  18),  must  be- 
long to  the  close  of  the  fourth  century,  by  his  connec- 

1  Schol.  Plat.  Apol.,  19  c.  2  Vit.  Aristoph.,  xii. 

3  Sylloge,  425.  4  Symposium,  vi.  3. 

5  C.  I.G.,  212;  C.I. A.,  i.  336. 

6  Ephemeris  Archaeologike,  1886,  p.  106. 


78 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


tion  with  Polemo  and  Crates.  It  has  often  been  said 
that  old  pieces  only  were  produced  at  the  country 
Dionysia;  but  Ribbeck1  has  remarked,  in  relation  to 
the  large  number  of  dramas  (160)  assigned  to  Choeri- 
lus,  that  he  probably  brought  out  some  of  the  shorter 
ones  in  the  demes ;  and  the  reading  Trpcorovs  of  the 
manuscripts  in  Aristophanes,  "  Clouds,"  523,  is  to  be 
retained  on  account  of  this  usage,  as  TeufTel  has  justly 
said.  Indeed,  we  may  infer  from  this  passage  that  it 
was  not  an  uncommon  thing  for  a  young  poet  to  make 
his  virgin  attempts  in  "  the  provinces."  Hence  we 
may  imagine  that  Nicostratus  has  done  this  in  Icaria, 
and  has  won  his  victory  against  some  antagonist. 

We  searched  diligently  for  a  theatre,  but  no  un- 
doubted traces  rewarded  our  efforts.  It  is  possible 
that  there  never  was  any  substantial  structure  of  the 
kind.  The  Icarians  may  have  seated  themselves  on 
the  slopes  of  the  hill  just  behind,  and  looked  down  up- 
on the  orchestra,  with  its  stage-structure  erected  for  the 
occasion.    No  signs  of  seats  on  the  slope  were  found. 

The  worship  of  Dionysus  was  not  the  only  one  of 
the  place.  First  was  discovered  the  torso  of  a  naked 
male  figure  of  the  style  of  the  sixth  century  and  of 
the  so-called  Apollo  type.  Next  a  bas-relief  of  the 
good  period,  representing  Apollo  seated  on  the  "  om- 
phalos," holding  the  lyre,  with  Artemis  and  Leto  be- 
hind him.  Later,  in  the  midst  of  some  walls,  appeared 
a  relief  in  which  again  Apollo  was  seated  on  the 

1  Anfange  und  Entwickelung  des  Dionysischen  Cultes  in  Attika. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


79 


omphalos,  with  Artemis  behind  him  and  an  adorant 
before  him.  An  inscription  declared  that  it  was  the 
dedication  of  a  certain  Pisicrates,  a  Pythaistes.  The 
worship  of  Apollo  Pythius  at  Athens  is  said  to  have 
been  derived  from  Marathon,  and  its  prevalence  in  a 
neighboring  Diacrian  deme  was  natural.  Directly,  a 
marble  threshold  was  discovered  in  one  of  the  walls, 
on  which  was  inscribed  in  characters  of  the  fourth 
century,  'iKapiuv  to  HvOlov,  and  the  remains  of  a  tem- 
ple of  considerable  size  were  subsequently  disclosed. 

Two  other  buildings,  whose  purpose  was  not  so  con- 
veniently indicated,  rewarded  further  excavation,  as 
well  as  several  large  bases,  marble  chairs  (single  and 
double),  pedestals  for  offerings,  etc.  One  of  the  door- 
sills  of  the  church  was  found  to  have  been  an  archaic 
sepulchral  stele,  brought  from  some  neighboring  tomb 
and  placed  with  the  sculptured  side  down.  It  proved 
to  represent  a  warrior,  which  at  first  sight  appeared  to 
be  an  almost  exact  replica  of  the  famous  Aristion 
stele ;  but  upon  a  close  comparison  several  differences 
were  noticeable.  The  head  and  some  fragments  alone 
were  missing. 

Besides  the  excavations  at  the  church,  others  also 
were  made  about  half  a  mile  to  the  northwest  down 
the  valley,  where  a  prostrate  column  was  lying.  Its 
base  was  found,  and  many  fragments  of  a  huge  vase- 
like cap  of  great  beauty,  together  with  the  heads  and 
necks  of  three  griffins.  Its  purpose  appears  to  have 
been  sepulchral,  and  graves  exist  in  close  proximity. 


80  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

Objects  obtained  by  excavation  on  private  property, 
like  this,  belong  in  part  to  the  State  and  in  part  to  the 
owner  of  the  land,  who  has  the  right  to  retain  them 
in  his  own  possession  if  he  pleases  to  hold  himself 
responsible  to  the  Government  for  their  safe-keeping. 
Mr.  Heliopulus  decided  to  retain  those  found  by  us 
on  the  spot,  and  assigned  one  room  of  the  house  there 
for  their  protection,  and  appointed  a  guard  to  look 
after  them.  He  has  since  removed  them  to  Stamata, 
the  residence  of  his  overseer. 


ICARIANS  IN  OUR  LITERARY  SOURCES. 

Next  to  Thespis,  the  greatest  Icarian  known  to  us 
is  Magnes,  the  comic  poet,  whose  many  victories  are 
celebrated  by  Aristophanes  in  the  well-known  passage 
of  the  "Knights"  (519),  and  who  is  mentioned  by  many 
writers.  Suidas  says  that  he  produced  nine  plays  and 
won  two  victories ;  but  the  author  of  the  treatise  Uepl 
Kw/AwSta?  gives  him  eleven  victories,  —  which  is  more 
in  harmony  with  the  language  of  Aristophanes.  The 
earliest  of  these  appears  in  the  inscription  of  the  di- 
dascalia,1  where  Xenoclides  was  his  choragus ;  and  as 
this  is  connected  with  the  victory  of  Aeschylus,  whose 
choragus  was  Pericles,  and  is  believed  to  refer  to 
the  production  of  the  "  Septem,"  the  date  is  fixed  by 
Koehler  and  Dittenberger  at  467  b.  c,  —  probably 
the  year  in  which  choruses  were  first  assigned  by  the 

1  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  971 ;  Dittenberger,  Sylloge,  405. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


Si 


State  to  comedy.  The  career  of  Magnes  for  a  long 
period  was  a  prosperous  one,  as  Aristophanes  speaks 
of  him  as  not  long  dead  at  the  production  of  the 
"  Knights  "  in  424  b.  c.  He  had  lived  to  see  times 
change,  and  his  own  popularity  wane  before  the  newer 
lights,  and  to  be  charged  with  the  loss  of  his  powers 
of  scoffing  wit.  It  is  noticeable  that  in  his  "  Frogs  " 
and  "  Birds  "  he  preceded  Aristophanes  in  the  employ- 
ment of  these  famous  titles. 

With  these  two  great  historic  names,  Icarians  sink 
totally  out  of  sight  to  the  reader  of  our  literary 
sources  only,  with  the  exception  of  that  Diotimus,  son 
of  Diotimus  the  Icarian,  whom  Ariston,  the  adversary 
of  Conon  in  Demosthenes,  liv.  31,  charges  with  giving 
false  testimony  as  to  what  he  saw  when  a  quarrel  was 
going  on  between  Conon  and  the  speaker.  But  that 
it  was  still  for  a  long  time  a  vigorous  deme  has  been 
shown  by  our  excavations,  and  this  to  the  student  of 
Greek  inscriptions  is  also  a  well-known  fact.  It  is  in- 
teresting to  see  what  this  other  source  of  information 
has  to  tell  us  about  the  people  of  this  deme. 

ICARIANS  FROM  THE  INSCRIPTIONS. 

The  earliest  Icarians  of  whom  we  find  mention 
in  inscriptions  are  two,  whose  names  in  full  we  do 
not  recover  in  consequence  of  the  mutilation  of  the 
stones.  Both  belong  to  the  first  half  of  the  fifth 
century.  The  first  is  .  .  .  ias,  who  consecrates  on  his 
native  Pentelic  stone  the  tithe  of  something,  —  no 

6 


82 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


doubt  to  the  goddess  Athena.  The  stone  was  found 
on  the  Acropolis.1  The  second  is  also  a  consecra- 
tion erected  on  a  basis  of  Pentelic  stone  in  the  Acro- 
polis by  .  .  .  seutes.2 

In  the  second  half  of  the  fifth  century  we  find  three 
Icarians  occupying  the  most  important  financial  office 
under  the  imperial  democracy.  They  are  presidents 
of  the  "  Hellenotamiae," —  a  board  of  ten,  to  which 
was  intrusted  the  management  of  all  the  tribute 
moneys  that  were  brought  to  Athens  yearly  by  the 
allies  about  the  time  of  the  great  Dionysia.  The 
first  of  these  is  Doryphilus,  who  is  mentioned  in 
the  tribute  list  of  the  year  442-41  B.C.;3  the  second, 
Philetaerus,  also  mentioned  in  a  tribute  list  belong- 
ing to  the  first  year  of  the  Peloponnesian  War, 
432-31  ;4  and  the  third  is  Phrasitelides,  of  the  year 
410,5  who  appears  in  an  account  of  expenditures  of 
the  State,  inscribed  on  that  marble  in  the  archaic 
room  of  the  Louvre  which  is  crowned  by  a  beautiful, 
though  somewhat  defaced,  relief  representing  Athena 
beside  her  olive  with  spear  in  hand.  On  the  opposite 
side  of  the  tree,  facing  her,  is  an  elderly  man  leaning 
upon  his  staff,  with  his  right  hand  on  a  branch  of  the 
olive.  The  scene  has  been  interpreted  as  signifying 
that  the  goddess  intrusts  her  olive  to  king  Erechtheus. 

Another  important  office  in  the  State  was  that  of 
the  treasurers  of  the  "other  gods."    These  had  gen- 

1  C.  I.  A  ,  i.  378.  2  C.  I.  A.,  i.  380.  8  C.  I.  A.,  i.  238. 

4  C.I.  A.,  i.  247.  5  C.  I.  A.,  i.  188. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


83 


eral  control  of  all  the  property  of  all  the  gods  except 
Athena,  whose  treasury  possessed  a  special  board  of 
officers.  The  board  of  the  "  other  gods  "  was  estab- 
lished 435  B.C.;  and  in  the  year  432-31  Gorgoenus, 
son  of  Oinides  the  Icarian,  is  three  times  mentioned 
in  an  account  of  expenditures  as  chief  of  the  board.1 

In  437-36  Timogenes  the  Icarian  was  presiding 
officer  of  the  commission  that  superintended  the 
building  of  the  Propylaea,  which  had  been  begun 
the  year  before.2 

In  the  second  year  of  the  Peloponnesian  War, 
.  .  .  ros,  an  Icarian,  appears  to  have  been  one  of  the 
generals  sent  out  on  some  naval  expedition.  The 
inscription  is  much  mutilated.3 

After  the  catastrophe  which  befell  the  city  at  the 
close  of  the  Peloponnesian  War  and  the  tyranny  of 
the  Thirty,  the  diminished  revenues  of  the  State  ren- 
dered it  advisable  to  unite  in  one  board  the  treasurers 
of  Athena  and  of  the  "other  gods,"  and  in  398-97 
we  find  Protocles,  the  Icarian,  head-treasurer  of  this 
combined  board.4 

Nine  years  after  the  formation  of  the  second  mari- 
time confederacy  of  the  Athenians,  and  when  their 
naval  power  had  again  regained  much  of  its  pristine 
vigor  and  importance,  an  Icarian  .  raton  appears  as 
commissioner  in  charge  of  the  dockyards  in  Peiraeus 
and  adjacent  harbors,  369-68  B.C.5     The  full  form 

1  c.  1.  A.,  i.  273.  2  c.  1.  A.,  i.  314. 

3  C.  I.  A.,  iv.  179.  4  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  652-53. 

5  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  799. 


84 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


of  this  name  can  be  supplied  from  a  consecration 
offered  by  the  Prytanes  of  the  Aegeid  tribe,  in  the 
year  341-40,  on  the  occasion  of  their  being  honored 
with  a  crown  by  the  people  "  for  their  virtue  and 
justice."  Among  the  five  Icarians  occurs  Eraton,  son 
of  Eration.1  Hence  Eraton  is  to  be  read  as  the  name 
of  the  commissioner.  The  man  who  in  the  prime  of 
vigorous  manhood  was  commissioner  of  the  maritime 
board  becomes,  twenty-eight  years  later,  a  senator, 
with  years  of  experience  gathered  in  the  troublous 
times  of  Demosthenes. 

Toward  the  middle  of  the  first  half  of  the  fourth 
century  an  officer  called  "  Treasurer  of  the  People  " 
appears  for  the  first  time  in  inscriptions.2  This  office 
seems  to  have  been  abolished  in  295,  according  to 
Kohler.8  At  some  time  near  the  termination  of 
this  period  we  find  Acrotimus  the  Icarian  holding 
the  office.  We  shall  have  something  more  to  say  of 
him  farther  on. 

Another  treasurer,  crowned  for  faithful  discharge  of 
duty,  is  Gorgiades,  son  of  Mnesiclides,  in  the  archon- 
ship  of  Theophrastus,  which  fell  either  in  340-39,  or 
313-12.4 

Among  other  public  offices,  that  of  public  arbitra- 
tor (§10117777779)  was  held  by  the  Icarians  Theodorus 
and  Cleaenetus5  in  325-24;  Diod[or]usor  Diod[ot]us 

1  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  872. 

2  Earliest  datable,  368  b.  c,  Frankel-Bockh,  Staatshaushaltung  der 
Athener,  1886,  ii.  note  288.    Cf.  C.  I.  A  ,  ii.  15  b,  pp.  397,  423. 

3  C  I.  A  ,  ii.  836.  4  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  1209. 
5  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  943. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


35 


was  senator  and  eVtcrraT^?  in  320-19  ;l  and  Lacri- 
tides,  son  of  Sostratus,  was  one  of  the  nine  archons 
(Thesmothete)  in  97-96  b.  c.3 

Besides  these  officers  of  the  State,  we  find  Icarians 
connected  also  with  religious  functions.  Timocritus 
and  Aristophanes  are  praised  and  crowned  with  olive 
for  their  services  as  "  hieropoioi "  to  the  mysteries  of 
Eleusis,  341-40  b.c.3 

Thrasippus,  an  Icarian,  was  "  hieropoios "  at  the 
Ptolemaea  during  the  first  part  of  the  second  century 

B.C.4 

Lacratides,  son  of  Sostratus,  was  priest  at  Eleusis 
about  the  beginning  of  the  first  century  b.  c.5 

Damon,  son  of  Philocles,  had  charge  of  sacred 
things  in  Delos.6 

So^enes  was  a  member  of  a  committee  to  refash- 
ion  some  of  the  offerings  belonging  to  the  "  Hero 
Physician  "  by  melting  down  the  objects  that  were 
worn  or  broken.7 

Acrotimus,  son  of  Aischias,  in  the  early  part  of 
the  third  century  proposed  a  decree  to  the  following 
effect,  at  a  regular  assembly  of  the  people :  "  Whereas 
it  is  a  patrial  custom  for  physicians  of  the  State  to 
sacrifice  to  Aesculapius  and  Hygieia  twice  a  year  in 
behalf  both  of  themselves  and  of  the  persons  whom 

1  Dittenberger,  Sylloge,  337. 

2  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  985.  3  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  872. 

4  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  953. 

5  Ephemeris  Archaeologike,  1886,  p.  26. 

6  C.  I.  G.,  2306  7  C  I.  A.,  ii.  403. 


86 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


they  have  severally  cured,  be  it  resolved  that  the  next 
proedri  shall  bring  the  matter  before  the  next  as- 
sembly." The  remainder  is  lost.1  The  same  Acro- 
timus  is  mentioned  in  an  inventory  of  sacred  objects 
in  the  temple  of  Aesculapius  as  having  offered  up 
fifty-four  drachmas  consecrate  to  the  god.  This  was 
customary  upon  any  cure  being  effected  that  was  be- 
lieved to  be  due  to  the  divinity.  It  is  very  probable 
that  he  was  the  mover  of  a  resolution  which  resulted 
in  the  consecration  by  the  people,  in  the  same  temple, 
of  a  large  drinking-cup,  worth  ninety-six  drachmas, 
when  he  was  treasurer,  as  mentioned  above.2  It 
was  his  son  Pisicrates  who  designates  himself  as 
Pythaistes,  or  State  priest  and  envoy  to  the  Delphian 
temple,  upon  the  relief  found  in  the  vestibule  of  the 
"  Pythion  of  the  Icarians." 

Da[mon],  an  Icarian  (perhaps  the  same  as  the  son 
of  Philocles,  above),  was  a  gymnasiarch  who  presided 
over  the. gymnasium  in  Delos.  95-94,  b.  c.8  His  name 
occurs  along  with  that  of  Lacratides  in  a  list  of  Delian 
priests  and  Attic  magistrates  who  contribute  a  tithe 
for  the  Pythian  Apollo. 

Records  of  o;enerous  contributions  also  occur.  For 
the  repair  of  the  theatre  the  true  Icarian  Heraclitus 
contributed  one  hundred  drachmas  in  behalf  of  him- 
self, his  wife  Nike,  and  his  sons  Heraclitus  and 
Dionysogenes,  and  his  daughter  Nicarete.    As  the 


1  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  Add.  nov.  352  b. 

2  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  836,  80-87. 


s  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  985. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


3? 


stone  recording  this  fact  was  found  in  the  Peiraeus, 
it  is  probable  that  the  theatre  mentioned  is  one  of 
the  two  in  that  town.  The  date  is  about  the  begin- 
ning of  the  second  century  b.  c.1 

Not  long  after,  Philocles,  another  Icarian,  gave 
liberally  for  some  purpose,  not  to  be  made  out  by 
reason  of  the  fracture  of  the  stone.2 

The  daughter  or  wife  of  some  Icarian  is  mentioned 
in  a  list  of  objects  consecrated,  342-1  b.  c,  in  that 
sanctuary  of  old  clothes  on  the  Acropolis,  called  "  of 
Artemis  Brauronia." 3 

Among  those  who  served  their  country  as  trie- 
rarchs,  or  captains  of  triremes  fitted  out  at  their 
own  expense,  was  Hagnias  the  Icarian.  The  name 
appears  first  in  356-55  b.  c.,4  and  again  in  323, 5 
when,  together  with  his  fellow-trierarchs,  he  is  said 
to  have  repaired  the  trireme  "  Apobasis  "  (builder  Cha- 
retides),  at  the  cost  of  twelve  hundred  drachmas. 
Though  these  notices  are  thirty-two  years  apart,  it 
is  possible  that  they  refer  to  the  same  person,  be- 
cause a  youth  with  sufficient  property  might  be 
called  upon  to  serve  as  trierarch  on  arriving  at 
the  age  of  eighteen,  or,  if  an  orphan,  at  nineteen, 
and  Isocrates  was  trierarch  in  his  eighty-second  year. 
According  to  the  calculations  of  Kirchner  (Rheinisches 
Museum,  xlix.  p.  379),  a  certain  Dionysius  at  the 
age  of  eighty  was  fellow-trierarch  with  his  son  about 
342  b.  c.    Hence  we  have  in  this  Hagnias  not  only  the 

1  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  984.  2  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  983.  8  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  761. 

4  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  794.  5  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  811. 


88 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


same  name  which  we  have  recovered  from  the  arch- 
itrave of  the  choragic  monument  at  Icaria,  but  I 
think  the  same  person  also.  The  inscription  consists 
of  three  names,  the  first  of  which  was  read  by 
Chandler  as  hXvias,  and  by  Lolling  as  Aii/tas.1  One 
result  of  our  first  visit  to  the  spot  last  fall  was  the 
correction  of  this,  with  full  certainty,  to  Hagnias. 

Three  Icarian  trierarchs  are  mentioned  together2 
—  namely,  Timocrates,  Cleaenetus,  and  Neaeus  — 
about  348  b.  c.  Of  these,  Timocrates  is  no  doubt 
the  father  of  the  Timocritus  already  cited  as  a  pry- 
tanis  and  "  hieropoios  "  of  the  year  341-40 ;  and  he 
also  appears  in  a  broken  inscription  among  those  from 
Icaria.  And  Cleaenetus  is  the  same  person  whom  we 
have  seen  above  as  "  diaitetes  "  of  the  year  325-24. 
Another  trierarchs  name  is  lost.3 

A  naval  catalogue  of  the  early  part  of  the  fourth 
century 4  cites  among  citizen  sailors  . . .  ichus,  an 
Icarian.  It  seems  possible  to  supply  this  name  as 
Olympichus  from  an  inscription  likewise  of  the  early 
part  of  the  fourth  century5  found  last  May  built  into 
the  wall  at  the  west  end  of  the  Acropolis.  This  is 
upon  a  basis  of  Pentelic  marble,  and  served  as  a  sup- 
port for  some  consecration  to  Athena.  According  to 
Dr.  Lollings  reasonable  conjecture,6  the  offering  was 
made  by  the  members  of  the  same  gens,  —  three  sons 
of  Autophilus,  of  the  deme  of  Phlya;  an  Aphidnaean ; 
a  Marathonian ;  and  Olympichus,  son  of  Lysimachus 

1  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  1317.  2  C.I.  A.,  ii.  803. 

3  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  812  c,  60.  4  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  959. 

5  C  I.  A.,  ii.  1427,  b.  6  Deltion,  1888,  p.  91. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


89 


the  Icarian.  It  is  noticeable  that  three  of  these  demes 
belong  to  the  Diacrian  region. 

Dr.  Milchhofer  recently  discovered  at  Spata,  in  the 
Mesogaea,1  a  boundary  stone  of  property  which  had 
been  mortgaged,  subject  to  a  lien  held  by  a  society 
(eranistai)  of  which  Theopithcs  the  Icarian  was  the 
president,  or  agent. 

Among  the  materials  furnished  by  contractors  for 
construction  and  repairs  at  Eleusis,  329-28  b.  c, 
reeds  are  twice  mentioned  as  supplied  by  Ergasus 
the  Icarian.2  These  "  kalamides "  are  spoken  of  in 
"  Anecdota  Bekkeri "  as  employed  in  layers  for 
strengthening  walls.3  The  cost  of  those  furnished  by 
Ergasus  is  not  great,  —  only  ten  drachmas,  all  told. 
But  this  entry  in  the  Eleusinian  accounts  is  interest- 
ing because  Ergasus  belongs  to  a  family  who  conse- 
crated an  offering  in  Icaria  for  their  victories  with 
tragedies. 

The  only  Icarian  (unless  Damon  is  one)  whom  by 
chance  I  find  resident  abroad  is  Chaerigenes,  the  son 
of  Agasias,  who  is  made  known  to  us  by  a  family  in- 
scription from  the  island  of  Imbros  later  than  387  b.  c. 
He  had  gone  there  and  settled  as  cleruch ;  but,  as  is 
well  known,  he,  together  with  his  family,  still  retained 
the  rights  of  an  Athenian  citizen  and  his  connection 
with  his  deme  at  home.  He  accordingly  styles  him- 
self an  Icarian.  He  has  married  an  Athenian  wife, 
daughter  of  Ctesias  the  Paeanian ;  and  their  daughter 


1  Mittheilungen,  1887,  p.  88. 

8  Cf.  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  834     Col.,  I.  64. 


2  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  834  b. 


90 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Chaerylla  is  styled  in  full,  "daughter  of  Chaerigenes 
the  Icarian."  She  marries  an  Athenian  of  Aphidna ; 
and  their  son,  named  Chaerigenes  after  his  grand- 
father, is  by  birth  a  demesman  of  Aphidna.1 

One  family  we  are  able  to  trace  for  five  generations, 
especially  in  connection  with  the  worship  at  Eleusis 
during  the  second  and  first  centuries  B.C.  The  first 
of  them  is  Lacratides,  of  whom  we  have  mention 
only  as  the  father  of  Sostratus,  who  appears  in  a 
catalogue  of  sacred  envoys  (theoroi)  after  the  middle 
of  the  second  century.2  The  third  is  Lacratides,  son 
of  Sostratus,  who  is  thesmothete  b.  c.  97-96,  as  above, 
and  contributor  of  one  hundred  drachmas  for  the 
Pythian  Apollo.  His  name  also  occurs  in  a  list  of 
distinguished  men  in  an  inscription  whose  purport  is  , 
not  definitely  known,  although  Ross  conjectures  it  to 
be  a  list  of  priests.3  But  the  most  important  memorial 
of  him  was  found  in  October,  1885,  by  Ephor  Philios 
in  the  course  of  excavations  conducted  at  Eleusis, 
just  to  the  west  of  the  smaller  Propylaea,  and  below 
the  rock  which  rises  close  by  and  is  crowned  by 
the  little  chapel  of  the  Virgin  (Panagia).  Here,  in 
front  of  two  grottos  in  the  cliff,  was  discovered  the 
foundation  of  a  small  temple,  amid  the  debris  above 
which  came  to  light  a  relief  bearing  an  inscription. 
This,  taken  in  connection  with  other  references  to 
a  temple  of  Pluto  in  the  inscriptions  at  Eleusis,  and 


1  Conze,  Reise  auf  den  Inseln  des  Thrakischen  Meeres,  p.  85. 

2  C.I.  A.,  ii/955. 

3  Demen,  14  ;  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  1047. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


91 


the  similarity  of  the  grottos  to  those  of  the  Eumenides 
in  the  Areopagus,  which  were  believed  to  connect  with 
the  lower  world,  has  led  to  the  identification  of  the 
spot  as  the  site  of  that  temple.  The  relief  is  broken 
at  both  ends  and  below.  The  inscription  was  placed 
near  the  top,  and  is  incomplete  at  both  ends.  Below 
it  is  the  head  of  the  goddess,  preserved  to  the  neck ; 
and  the  top  of  her  sceptre  appears  as  held  in  her  left 
hand.  To  her  right  is  Pluto,  also  holding  a  sceptre, 
but  preserved  only  to  the  chin.  To  his  right  was 
Triptolemus,  with  a  flaming  torch.  To  the  left  of  the 
goddess  no  figures  remain ;  but  the  inscription  seems 
to  show  that  Lacratides  was  there  represented  in 
more  diminutive  form  than  the  divinities,  and  per- 
haps with  his  children  beside  him.  The  relief  is 
consecrated  in  the  sanctuary  of  Pluto,  as  his  fellow- 
demesman  Pisicrates  placed  his  in  the  Pythian  of 
the  Icarians  (where  he  probably  is  represented  by 
the  adorant) ;  and,  like  his,  it  had  the  fortune  to  be 
found  on  the  spot.  The  inscription  of  Lacratides 
is  as  follows  :  — 

AaKpaTtibrjs  laxTTpdrov  'i/captjeuy  ieptvs  Qeov  kcu  3eas  kcu  Et»/3ovAea>[s 

 TETON  vnep  eavrov  kcu  tg>v  vwv  JZaxTTpdr^ov 

 kcu  Trjs  dv^yarpos  xaPia"rVPl0V  A^p^rpi  KaL  Kop/7 

dv€0T)K€V. 

H\ov  Qed.  AaKpaTel[dr)s 

tcov.  2a)arpar[ov 
Tpi7rr6Xe  'I/capieus. 
[pos] 

The  words  supplied  by  Philios  are  certainly  reason- 
able ;  but  we  can  go  farther,  and  add  the  name  of 


92 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


another  son  besides  the  Sostratus  there  given.  During 
the  year  i860,  excavations  were  conducted  at  Eleu- 
sis,  under  the  auspices  of  the  French  Government,  by 
Francois  Lenormant ;  and  during  their  progress  an 
inscription  was  found  on  the  plinth  of  a  statue,  run- 
ning as  follows:  "The  people  honor  Cleo,  daughter 
of  Dionysius,  son  of  Lacratides  the  Icarian." 1  The 
forms  of  the  letters  and  the  identity  of  the  name 
are  sufficient  proof  that  this  is  the  same  family,  and 
Dionysius  may  be  placed  with  Sostratus  in  the  fourth 
generation.  Cleo,  in  the  fifth,  is  very  possibly  a 
priestess,  and  has  so  distinguished  herself  as  a  bene- 
factress that  she  has  been  honored  by  the  people 
with  a  statue. 

Another  priestess,  the  wife  of  Menecrates  the  Ica- 
rian, is  honored,  not  by  the  people,  but  by  a  grateful 
husband.  Her  epitaph  was  found  in  the  Peiraeus, 
and  belonged  to  the  fourth  or  third  century  b.  c.2 
"  The  attendant  and  priestess  of  the  Mother  of  all 
children,  Chaerestrate,  lies  here,  whom  her  husband 
loved  while  living,  and  grieved  for  when  dead.  Blessed 
did  she  leave  the  light  of  life,  for  she  lived  to  see 
her  children's  children." 

If  these  are  fair  examples  of  Icarian  wives,  they 
might  well  resent  the  old  jibe  attributed  to  Susarion : 
"Women  are  an  evil;  but  still,  O  ye  demesmen,  one 
cannot  have  a  house  without  the  evil.    To  marry  or 

1  Lenormant,  Recherches  archdologiques  a  fileusis,  p.  239. 

2  Kaibel,  Epigrammata  Graeca,  44. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


93 


not  to  marry,  either  is  bad."  Whether  his  or  not, 
such  flings  were  the  fashion  of  the  day,  and  are  found 
plentifully  outside  the  license  of  comedy. 

Some  other  inscriptions  may  be  brought  into  juxta- 
position, with  some  probability  of  the  identity  of  the 
person  mentioned. 

The  tombstone  of  Diodorus,  son  of  Theodorus  the 
Icarian,  was  found,  according  to  Fourmont,  at  Cara, 
on  the  west  slope  of  Hymettus.1  It  was  this  inscrip- 
tion that  misled  many  into  a  false  notion  of  the  site 
of  the  deme.  From  the  form  of  the  letters  it  may  be 
the  wife  of  this  Diodorus  whose  cippus  was  discovered 
near  the  Arsakeion  in  Athens,  reading  thus:  "Aristea, 
daughter  of  Astias,  of  the  deme  of  Atene,  wife  of 
Diodorus  the  Icarian."2 

We  seem  also  to  have  husband  and  wife  in  the 
following :  "  Euxenos,  son  of  Nicanor  the  Icarian," 
in  a  catalogue  of  names  in  which  Lacratides  also 
appears,3  and  "  Agathoclea,  daughter  of  Dionysius, 
a  Milesian,  wife  of  Nicanor  the  Icarian."4 

The  remaining  names  on  my  list  are  at  present 
suitable  only  for  a  catalogue. 

Glancing  back  over  this  enumeration  of  Icarians 
and  their  deeds,  while  acknowledging  its  fragmentary 
and  accidental  character,  we  still  seem  to  have  enough 
to  draw  some  conclusions  as  to  the  characteristics  of 
the  people  who  dwelt  in  that  picturesque  mountain- 


1  c.  I.  A.,  iii.  1716. 
3  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  1047. 


2  C.  T.  A.,  iii.  1581. 
4  C.  I.  A.,  iii.  2162. 


94 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


hemmed  spot,  and  traced  their  ancestry  back  to  Ica- 
rius  who  entertained  the  god.  We  find  no  generals  of 
renown,  no  statesmen  active  in  moulding  for  good  or 
ill  the  affairs  of  Athens,  no  orators  of  power,  no  one 
especially  active  in  proposing  and  pushing  laws  in  the 
public  assembly  for  public  weal  or  private  gain,  no 
historians,  no  philosophers,  no  artists.  They  are  dis- 
tinguished by  two  traits,  which  claim  our  respect  and 
admiration.  These  are  a  deep  devotion  to  religion, 
and  a  sound  and  sturdy  integrity.  Their  great  inven- 
tion, the  drama,  was  the  outgrowth  of  their  worship 
of  Dionysus,  and  was  always  a  part  of  the  service 
which  they  paid  to  their  god.  While  the  revel  of 
comedy  was  no  doubt  more  or  less  connected  with 
their  festival,  tragedy  seems  to  have  been  their  es- 
pecial preference,  and  perhaps  suited  rather  their  turn 
of  mind,  if  it  was  not  out  of  loyalty  to  their  demes- 
nial!, the  great  originator,  that  they  maintained  his 
traditions.  Side  by  side  with  the  worship  of  Dionysus, 
stood  that  of  the  Pythian  Apollo,  which  originally 
belongs  to  the  Marathonian  region,  and  received 
especial  brilliancy  at  Athens  from  Pisistratus  in 
the  Pythion,  in  close  proximity  to  the  precinct  of 
Dionysus.  Acrotimus  is  signally  devoted  to  the 
Aesculapian  divinities  (another  side  of  the  Apolline 
function),  while  his  son  attests  the  home-worship. 
Lacratides  and  his  family,  while  doing  their  duty  to 
the  Pythian,  were  especially  attracted  by  the  Eleusin- 
ian  rites,  in  which  the  worship  of  Iacchus-Dionysus 
was  an  important  feature. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


95 


Their  sturdy  integrity  is  evinced  by  the  number  of 
offices  of  trust  which  they  held.  They  are  found  in 
the  highest  positions  in  the  State,  where  money  is  to  be 
kept  safe,  with  fingers  unstained  by  peculation.  They 
superintend  the  building  of  the  Propylaea,  they  preside 
over  the  docks,  they  serve  as  treasurers  of  the  temples, 
and  assist  in  their  sacrifices  and  in  their  adornment. 
And  finally  they  do  their  duty  as  citizens,  spending 
their  money  liberally  at  home  in  support  of  their 
patrial  theatrical  displays,  or  for  those  of  other  towns. 
They  serve  also  with  liberality  as  trierarchs  and  as 
seamen.  The  period  of  their  greatest  influence  is  in 
the  sixth,  fifth,  and  fourth  centuries.  The  popularity 
of  their  worship  of  Dionysus,  and  of  the  mummeries 
and  choruses  connected  therewith  in  the  first  half 
of  the  sixth  century,  has  been  seen  in  the  fact  that 
Susarion  was  attracted  thither  from  Megara,  and  in 
the  stimulation  of  Thespis  to  the  elaboration  of  the 
tragic  side  of  the  Dionysiac  worship. 

The  story  of  Plutarch  in  relation  to  Solon  and 
dramatic  representations  assumes  a  new  reality  when 
we  know  where  Icaria  was,  and  its  distance  from 
Athens;  and  if  the  story  is  not  true,  it  wears  the 
garb  of  truth  with  a  deserving  grace.  The  new 
world  opened  by  Thespis  made  his  home  so  famous 
that  Pisistratus  must  needs  bring  him  to  Athens. 
In  the  next  century  Magnes  maintained  the  reputa- 
tion of  Icaria,  and  the  original  invention  reached  pro- 
portions which  made  it  the  wonder  of  Greece.  The 


96 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


worship  was  still  maintained  in  Icaria,  plays  were 
still  produced  there,  and  the  members  of  its  deme 
held  positions  of  the  greatest  responsibility  at  Athens. 
All  this  seems  to  show  that  Ungers  conjecture  of 
for  'iraXiW,  in  the  well-known  passage  of 
the  "  Antigone  "  of  Sophocles  (i  1 18),  has,  as  Professor 
D'Ooge  has  remarked  to  me,  far  more  to  recommend 
it  than  ever  before.  Professor  Jebb  in  his  edition  of 
the  "Antigone"  fairly  sums  up  the  evidence:  "Clearly 
then  'iKapiW  is  possible.  But  is  it  so  probable  as 
'ItolXlglv?  We  may  remark  :  (i)  It  is  not  enough  that 
there  was  a  well-known  Icarian  myth.  We  want  a  fa- 
mous region,  —  kXvtolv,  —  and  one  worthy  to  be  linked 
with  Eleusis.  Now,  Statius,  indeed,  links  Icaria  with 
Eleusis  (Theb.,  xii.  619,  Icarii  Celeique  domus);  but  in 
the  classical  age  of  Attica  the  deme  'I/capta  seems  to 
have  been  wholly  obscure,  save  for  this  legend. 
(2)  An  Attic  poet  might,  doubtless,  wish  to  bring  in 
Icaria  ;  but  dramatically  —  i.  e.y  in  a  Theban  ode  to  a 
Theban  deity  —  Italy  better  serves  the  purpose  of 
glorifying  the  god.  (3)  The  corruption  of  'iKaplav 
into  'Irakziav  would  not  be  a  very  natural  one.  In 
fine,  the  case  for  'IraXCav  seems  at  least  good  enough 
to  warrant  a  suspense  of  judgment."  As  to  (1),  we 
need  add  nothing  to  what  has  already  been  said,  ex- 
cept that  the  legends  of  Eleusis  and  Icaria  were  so 
closely  connected  in  the  minds  of  the  mythologists 
that  the  one  naturally  suggested  the  other.  Not  only 
has  Statius  linked  Icaria  with  Eleusis,  but  Apollo- 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


97 


dorus  (iii.  14,  7)  has  done  the  same;  as  also  Schol. 
Aristophanes,  "  Knights,"  697  ;  Philostratus,  Epist,  39  ; 
Gregory  Nazianzen,  Orat,  iii.  p.  100  c ;  and  Lucian,  de 
Saltatione,  39-40,  where  he  speaks  of  both  stories 
being  represented  in  full  by  the  dancers  of  the  day. 
In  some  writers  they  were  even  confused,  as  in  the 
"  Etymologicum  Magnum,"  62,  11,  where  Erigone  is 
interchanged  with  Persephone,  and  in  Servius  ad  Vir- 
gilii  Georgica,  i.  19,  Triptolemus  is  called  the  son  of 
Icarius.  Nonnus  links  the  two  stories,  "  Dionysiaca," 
xxvii.  283-286 ;  and  at  xlvii.  47  and  99,  he  sings 
that. from  the  gift  of  the  vine  Icarius  is  to  win  more 
glory  than  Triptolemus  for  his  ear  of  corn.  As  to 
(2),  why  mention  even  Eleusis?  But  the  poets  pur- 
pose is  to  speak  of  those  places  which  were  especially 
noted  for  the  worship  of  Dionysus,  and  therefore 
Icaria  naturally  enters  beside  Eleusis  in  Attica.  As 
to  (3),  the  corruption  of  1  to  a  would  be  easy,  under 
the  same  pronunciation,  which  prevailed  even  before 
the  beginning  of  our  era,1  and  the  accent  would  be 
shifted  later.  In  fact,  I  think  that  'li<apiav  is  now 
justified. 

Finally,  are  we  to  suppose  with  Leake  that  the 
dcme  of  Icaria  extended  as  far  east  as  the  village  of 
Rapedosa?2  This  is  possible;  but  when  we  consider 
the  situation  of  Dionyso,  and  the  very  rocky  nature 

1  Cf.  Meisterhans,  Grammatik  der  Attischen  Inschriften,  24-32. 

2  This  name  has  been  variously  spelled  Rapendosia,  Rapendosa, 
Rapentosa,  Rapatosa. 

7 


98 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


of  the  district  between  it  and  Rapedosa,  it  seems 
far  more  likely  that  the  ravines  just  east  of  Dionyso 
formed  the  natural  boundary  in  that  direction,  and 
that  the  real  extent  of  the  district  was  down  the  valley 
towards  the  northwest,  where  many  remains  of  graves 
and  costly  family  burial-grounds  are  seen.  The  prob- 
ability of  this  is  greatly  strengthened  by  the  discovery 
of  a  sepulchral  inscription  about  a  mile  in  that  direc- 
tion, containing  the  name  of  an  Icarian  and  a  .Plo- 
theian  on  the  same  stone.  Pliny's  Mons  Icarius  (it  is 
mentioned  only  by  him,  and  by  Solinus,  who  merely 
copies  him)  would  then  be  best  assigned  to  the  entire 
range  which  shuts  in  the  Marathonian  plain  on  the 
west,  —  a  chain  whose  ancient  name  we  otherwise  do 
not  know,1  important  as  it  was  in  connection  with 
the  Tetrapolis.  We  should  thus  have  a  range  of 
sufficient  dignity  to  entitle  it  to  be  named  by  the  side 
of  "  Aegaleus,  Brilessus  [Pentelicus],  Hymettus,  and 
Lycabettus ; "  and  Icarius  would  get  his  rights  once 
more. 

AUGUSTUS  C.  MERRIAM. 

Columbia  College,  New  York, 
December,  1888. 

1  Modern  names,  Aphorismo,  Stamatavuni,  Mai  Dionyso. 


1 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


99 


INDEX  OF  ICARIAN  NAMES. 


Adeimantos,  £.  of  .  .  .  a[gora]s;  ii. 
I047-1 

Agasias,  f.  of  Chairigenes,  Conze, 
Reise  auf  den  Inseln,  p.  85. 

Agesias,  trierarch,  Bockh,  Att.  See- 
wesen,  xvi.  c.  156. 

Aischias,  f.  of  Akrotimos,  ii.  add. 
352  b. 

Akrotimos,  treasurer,  ii.  836,  add. 

352  b.  —  D. 
Anthesterios,  f.  of  ...  on,  ii.  478. 
Aphr]odeisios,  s.  of  Athenodoros, 

ephebe,  iii.  1 142. 
Archenautes,  s.  of  Archenautes, 

senator,  ii.  872. 
Archippos,  f.  of  Kleitopolis,  ii. 

2113. 

Arignotos,  s.  of  Babyrios,  senator, 

ii.  872. 

Aristophanes,  s.  of  Eukleides,  sen- 
ator, ii.  872. 

A]sklepiod[oros,  iii.  171 5. 

Athenodoros,  f.  of  Aphrodisios,  iii. 
1 142. 

Babyrios,  f.  of  Arignotos,  ii.  872. 

Chairigenes,  s.  of  Agasias,  cleruch 
in  Imbros,  Conze,  Reise,  p.  85. 

Chairylla,  d.  of  Chairigenes,  Conze, 
Reise,  p.  85. 

Damon,  s.  of  Philokles,  superinten- 
dent in  Delos,  C.  I.G.  2306^/ 
gymnasiarch  in  Delos,  ii.  985. 

Deinias,  f.  of  Polyarches,  ii.  1010. 

Diodoros,  s.  of  Theodoros,  iii.  1716, 

iii.  1 58 1 . 

1  References  to  Corpus  Inscriptionum 
Atticarum,  unless  otherwise  stated,  f.,  fa- 
ther, s.,  son,  d.,  daughter,  D.,  Dionyso. 


Diod[or]os,  or  Diod[ot]os,  senator, 
Dittenberger,  Sylloge.  337. 

Dionysogenes,  s.  of  Herakleitos, 
ii.  984. 

Dionysios,  s.  of  Lakrateides,  iii. 
885. 

Diotimos.s.  of  Diotimos,  Demosth., 
liv.  31. 

Doryphilos,  Hellenotamias,  i.  238. 
Dromoklea,  d.  of  Gorgias,  ii.  21 10. 
Elpias,  ii.  2109. 

Ejpameinon,  Ephem.  Arch.  1886, 
p.  14. 

Epikrateia,  d.  of  Epikrates,  ii.  21 1 1 . 
Eraton,  s.  of  Eration,  senator,  ii. 

872  ;  superintendent  of  docks,  ii. 

799- 

Ergasos,  contractor,  ii.  834  b,  II. 
53-58. 

Eukleides,  f.  of  Aristophanes,  ii. 
872. 

Euthiades,  ii.  21 12. 
Euxenos,  s.  of  Nikanor,  ii.  1047. 
Gorgiades,  s.  of  Mnesikleides,  ii. 
1209. 

Gorgias,  f.  of  Dromoklea,  ii.  21 10. 
Gorgoinos,  s.  of  Oineides,  treasurer 

of  "the  other  gods,''  i.  273. 
Hagnias,  trierarch,  ii.  794,  811. — D. 
Herakleitos,  f.  of  Herakleitos,  ii. 

984. 

Hieron,  iii.  171 7. 

Kallim  .  .  .,  ii.  2115. 

Kleainetos,  trierarch,  ii.  803  ;  ref- 
eree, ii.  943. 

Kleitopolis,  d.  of  Archippos,  ii. 
2113. 

Kleo,  d.  of  Dionysios,  iii.  885. 


IOO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Lakrateides,  f.  of  Sostratos,  ii  955. 
Lakrateides,  s.  of  Sostratos,  thes- 

mothete,  ii.  985;  priest,  Ephem. 

Arch.  1886,  p.  26;  cf.  C.  I.  A.  ii. 

1047. 

Lysimachos,  f.  of  Olympichos, 
Deltion,  1888,  p.  91,  ii.  1427  b. 

Magnes,  comic  poet,  Aristoph.  Eq. 
520. 

Men]ekr[ates,  ii.  21 16. 
Menephilos,  mortgagee,  ii.  11 16. 
Mnesikleides,  f.  of  Gorgiades,  ii. 
1209. 

Neaios,  trierarch,  ii.  803. 
Nikanor,  f.  of  Euxenos,  ii.  1047  ; 
iii.  2162. 

Nikarete,  d.  of  Herakleitos,  ii.  984. 
Olympichos,   s.    of  Lysimachos, 

sailor,  ii.  959;  member  of  gens, 

Deltion,  1888,  p.  91. 
Ophelion,  ii.  21 17. 
Phayllos,  mortgagee,  ii.  11 16. 
Philar]gyros,  iii.  1240. 
Philetairos,  Hellenotamias,  i.  247. 
Philokles,  f.  of  Damon,  C.  I.  G., 

2306  b.    Cf.  C.  I.  A.,  ii.  983. 
Phrasitelides,    Hellenotamias,  i. 

188. 

Po]lemon,  s.  of  Polemon,  ii.  1041. 
Polyarches,  s.  of  Deinias,  ii.  1010. 
Polykleitos,  s.  of  Pos]eidippos, 
ii.  1044. 

Protokles,  treasurer  of  Athena  and 
the  other  gods,  ii.  652-3. 


Rhodylla,  ii.  21 14. 

Sogenes,  committee-man,  ii.  403. 

Sostratos,  s.  of  Lakrateides,  the- 
oros,  ii.  955. 

Sostratos,  s.  of  Lakrateides,  Eph- 
em. Arch.  1886,  p.  26. 

Straton,  iii.  1241. 

Theodoros,  referee,  ii.  943. 

Theodoros,  f .  of  Diodoros,  iii.  1716. 

Theopeithes,  president  of  a  society, 
Mitth.  xii.  p.  88. 

Thoukydides,  ii.  1020. 

Thespis,  father  of  tragedy.  C.  I.  G. 
2374- 

Thrasippos,  hieropoios,  ii.  953. 

Timogenes,  supervisor  of  the  Pro- 
pylaea,  i.  314. 

Timokrates,  trierarch,  Bockh,  See- 
wesen,  x.  e.  43.  —  D. 

Timokritos,  s.  of  Timokrates,  sen- 
ator, ii.  872.  —  D. 

.  .  .  a[gora]s,  s.  of  Adeimantos,  ii. 
1047. 

.  .  .  ates,  ii.  add.  I.  c. 
.  .  .  ias,  consecrates  something,  i. 
378. 

.  .  .  on,  s.  of  Anthesterios,  mover 

of  decree,  ii.  478. 
.  .  .  os,  trierarch,  ii.  812,  c.  60. 
.  .  .  phantos,  ii.  103 1. 
.  .  .  ros,  iv.  179. 

.  .  .  seutes,  consecrates  something, 

i:  380. 
 ii.  761. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


IOI 


ICARIAN  NAMES  FROM 
IN  THE 

Akrotimos,  f.  of  Peisikrates. 
Androkl  .  .  .  f .  of  .  .  .  memon. 
Archidek[tes,  f.  of  Archippos. 
Archippos,  s.  of  Archidektes,  cho- 

ragus. 
Aristom[enes. 
Chairemenes,  s.  of  Diodotos. 
Diognetos,  s.  of  Ergasos,  choragus. 
Diodotos,  f.  of  Chairemenes. 
Epikrates,  choragus  ;  C.  I.  A.,  ii. 

2III(?). 

Ergasos,  s.  of  Phanomachos,  cho- 
ragus. 

Exajkestos  (?). 

Hagnias,  choragus. 

Kallippos,  mover  of  decree. 

Kephisios,  s.  of  Timarchos,  con- 
secrates something 


INSCRIPTIONS  FOUND 
DEME. 

Lysistratos,  mortgagee. 
Menest[ratos,  mover  of  decree. 
Mnesilochos,  s.  of  Mnesiphilos, 

choragus. 
Nikon,  demarch. 

Peisikrates,  s.  of  Akrotimos,  Py- 
thaistes. 

Phanomachos,  f.  of  Ergasos. 

Phanomachos,  s.  of  Ergasos,  cho- 
ragus. 

Praxias,  choragus,  mortgagee  (?). 
Timarch[os,  f.  of  Kephisios. 
Timokritos,  s.  of  Timokrates. 
Xanthides,  choragus. 
Xanthippos,  choragus. 


102  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


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SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


IO3 


ACCOUNT  OF  PUBLICATION  OF  VOLS.  II.,  III.,  AND  IV. 


Vol.  III.    Printing  and  binding  1,000  copies  .    .    .  $1,459.00 
I  cost  ($610.59)  of  Kiepert's  Maps  .    .    .  407.06 


$1,866.06 


Vol.  IV.     Printing  and  binding  1,200  copies  $1,128.37 
Engraving  Plan  and  cuts  of  Pnyx  $100.00 
Duties  on  1,000  copies     "      "  5.00 
545  extra             "        "     "  21.30 
Duties,  charges  and  freight  on 

small  cuts  of  Pnyx    ....  12.93 

  139  23 

Engravings  of  Thoricus  .    ...  m.50 

Printing  articles  for  Authors   .    .  38.50 


Vol.  II.     Printing  and  binding  1,200  copies  $1,138.47 
\  cost  of  Kiepert's  Maps    .    .    .  203.53 


1,417.60 


,342.00 


Expenses   of  wrapping,  freight, 
boxes,  postage,  and  delivery  of 

Vols.  II.,  III.,  and  IV.    ...  112  71 

Whole  cost  of  three  volumes   $4,738-37 


The  expenses  of  publication  have  been  paid  as  follows  :  — 


Paid  by  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America  .    .  $750.00 

Sales  of  publications  in  1888  $86.44 

Old  electrotvpe  plates  sold   1.38 

  87.82 

Charge  in  Account  IV.  (1885-86):  — 
Engraving  of  Plan  of  Pnyx  $100.00 

Charges  in  Account  V.  (1886-87)  :  — 

Paid  (on  account)  for  printing  350.00 

Kiepert's  Maps  (1,000  copies)   533-37 

 ■  983-37 

Charge  in  Account  VI.  (1887-88)   2917.18 

  #4>73S  37 


Note,  —  Cost  of  Kiepert's  Maps:  — 

Engraving  and  printing  i,ooocopies  $470.84 
Duties  and  expenses  on  "  .  62.53 
300  extra  copies  in  1888  ....  77.22 

 $610.59 


THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


JANUARY,  1889. 

The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  founded  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  and  organized  under  the 
auspices  of  some  of  the  leading  American  Colleges,  was  opened  Octo- 
ber 2,  1882.  During  the  first  five  years  of  its  existence  it  occupied 
a  hired  house  on  the  'OSo?  'A/xaA-tas  in  Athens,  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Olympieion.  A  large  and  convenient  building  has  now  been  erected 
for  the  School  on  a  piece  of  land,  granted  by  the  generous  liberality  of 
the  Government  of  Greece,  on  the  southeastern  slope  of  Mount  Lyca- 
bettus,  adjoining  the  ground  already  occupied  by  the  English  School. 
This  permanent  home  of  the  School,  built  by  the  subscriptions  of  its 
friends  in  the  United  States,  was  ready  for  occupation  early  in  1888. 

The  new  building  contains  the  apartments  to  be  occupied  by  the 
Director  and  his  family,  and  a  large  room  which  will  be  used  as  a 
library  and  also  as  a  general  reading-room  and  place  of  meeting  for 
the  whole  School.  A  few  rooms  in  the  house  are  intended  for  the 
use  of  students.  These  will  be  assigned  by  the  Director,  under  such 
regulations  as  he  may  establish,  to  as  many  members  of  the  School  as 
they  will  accommodate.  Each  student  admitted  to  the  privilege  of  a 
room  in  the  house  will  be  expected  to  undertake  the  performance  of 
some  service  to  the  School,  to  be  determined  by  the  Director ;  such, 
for  example,  as  keeping  the  accounts  of  the  School,  taking  charge  of 
the  delivery  of  books  from  the  Library  and  their  return,  and  keeping 
up  the  catalogue  of  the  Library. 

The  Library  now  contains  more  than  1,600  volumes,  exclusive  of 
sets  of  periodicals.  It  includes  a  complete  set  of  the  Greek  classics 
and  the  most  necessary  books  of  reference  for  philological,  archaeologi- 
cal, and  architectural  study  in  Greece. 

The  advantages  of  the  School  are  offered  free  of  expense  for  tuition 
to  graduates  of  the  Colleges  co-operating  in  its  support,  and  to  other 


106  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

American  students  who  are  deemed  by  the  Committee  of  sufficient 
promise  to  warrant  the  extension  to  them  of  the  privilege  of  member- 
ship. It  is  hoped  that  the  Archaeological  Institute  may  in  time  be 
supplied  with  the  means  of  establishing  scholarships,  which  will  aid 
some  members  in  defraying  their  expenses  at  the  School.  In  the 
mean  time,  students  must  rely  upon  their  own  resources,  or  upon 
scholarships  which  may  be  granted  them  by  the  Colleges  to  which 
they  belong.  The  amount  needed  for  the  expenses  of  an  eight 
months'  residence  in  Athens  differs  little  from  that  required  in  other 
European  capitals,  and  depends  chiefly  on  the  economy  of  the 
individual. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  temporary  organization  of  the  School  dur- 
ing its  first  six  years,  which  has  distinguished  it  from  the  older  German 
and  French  Schools  at  Athens,  has  been  the  yearly  change  of  Director. 
This  arrangement,  by  which  a  new  Director  has  been  sent  out  each 
year  by  one  of  the  co-operating  Colleges,  was  never  looked  upon  as 
permanent.  It  is  earnestly  hoped  and  confidently  expected  that  the 
School  will  henceforth  be  under  the  control  of  a  permanent  Director, 
who  by  continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate  that  body  of 
local  and  special  knowledge  without  which  the  highest  purpose  of  such 
a  school  cannot  be  fulfilled,  while  an  Annual  Director  will  also  be  sent 
out  each  year  by  one  of  the  Colleges  to  assist  in  the  conduct  of  the 
School.  (See  Regulation  V.)  The  School  has  been  able,  even  under 
its  temporary  organization,  to  meet  a  most  pressing  want,  and  to  be  of 
service  to  classical  scholarship  in  America.  It  has  sought  at  first,  and 
it  must  continue  to  seek  for  the  present,  rather  to  arouse  a  lively  inter- 
est in  classical  archaeology  in  American  Colleges  than  to  accomplish 
distinguished  achievements.  The  lack  of  this  interest  has  heretofore 
been  conspicuous  ;  but  without  it  the  School  at  Athens,  however  well 
endowed,  can  never  accomplish  the  best  results.  A  decided  improve- 
ment in  this  respect  is  already  apparent ;  and  it  is  beyond  question 
that  the  presence  in  many  American  Colleges  of  professors  who  have 
been  resident  a  year  at  Athens  under  favorable  circumstances,  as  an- 
nual directors  or  as  students  of  the  School,  has  done  much,  and  will 
do  still  more,  to  stimulate  intelligent  interest  in  classic  antiquity. 

The  address  of  the  Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  is 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  New  Haven,  Conn. ;  that  of  the  Secretary, 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT, 


107 


REGULATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS." 

JANUARY,  1889. 

1.  The  object  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  is  to 
furnish  an  opportunity  to  study  Classical  Literature,  Art,  and  Antiqui- 
ties in  Athens,  under  suitable  guidance,  to  graduates  of  American 
Colleges  and  to  other  qualified  students ;  to  prosecute  and  to  aid 
original  research  in  these  subjects ;  and  to  co-operate  with  the  Arch- 
aeological Institute  of  America,  so  far  as  it  may  be  able,  in  conducting 
the  exploration  and  excavation  of  classic  sites. 

II.  The  School  is  in  charge  of  a  Managing  Committee.  This  Com- 
mittee, which  was  originally  appointed  by  the  Archaeological  Institute, 
disburses  the  annual  income  of  the  School,  and  has  power  to  add  to 
its  membership  and  to  make  such  regulations  for  the  government  of 
the  School  as  it  may  deem  proper.  The  President  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute  and  the  Director  and  Annual  Director  of  the  School 
are  ex-officio  members  of  the  Committee. 

III.  The  Managing  Committee  meets  semi-annually, — in  New 
York  on  the  third  Friday  in  November,  and  in  Boston  on  the  third 
Friday  in  May.  Special  meetings  may  be  called  at  any  time  by  the 
Chairman. 

IV.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  is  the  official  representative 
of  the  interests  of  the  School  in  America.  He  presents  a  Report 
annually  to  the  Archaeological  Institute  concerning  the  affairs  of  the 
School. 

V.  1.  The  School  is  under  the  superintendence  of  a  Director. 
The  Director  is  chosen  and  his  salary  is  fixed  by  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee. The  term  for  which  he  is  chosen  is  five  years.  The  Com- 
mittee provides  him  with  a  house  in  Athens  containing  apartments 
for  himself  and  his  family,  and  suitable  rooms  for  the  meetings  of 
the  members  of  the  School,  its  collections,  and  its  library. 

2.  Each  year  the  Committee  appoints  from  the  instructors  of  the 
Colleges  uniting  in  the  support  of  the  School  an  Annual  Director, 
who  resides  in  Athens  during  the  ensuing  year  and  co-operates  in 


108  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

the  conduct  of  the  School.  In  case  of  the  illness  or  absence  of  the 
Director,  the  Annual  Director  acts  as  Director  for  the  time  being. 

VI.  The  Director  superintends  personally  the  work  of  each  mem- 
ber of  the  School,  advising  him  in  what  direction  to  turn  his  studies, 
and  assisting  him  in  their  prosecution.  He  conducts  no  regular 
courses  of  instruction,  but  holds  meetings  of  the  members  of  the 
School  at  stated  times  for  consultation  and  discussion.  He  makes  a 
full  Report  annually  to  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  work  accom- 
plished by  the  School. 

VII.  The  school  year  extends  from  the  ist  of  October  to  the  ist 
of  June.  Members  are  required  to  prosecute  their  studies  during  the 
whole  of  this  time  in  Greek  lands  under  the  supervision  of  the  Direc- 
tor. The  studies  of  the  remaining  four  months  necessary  to  complete 
a  full  year  (the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given)  may  be 
carried  on  in  Greece  or  elsewhere,  as  the  student  prefers. 

VIII.  Bachelors  of  Arts  of  co-operating  Colleges,  and  all  Bachelors 
of  Arts  who  have  studied  at  one  of  these  Colleges  as  candidates  for  a 
higher  degree,  are  admitted  to  membership  in  the  School  on  present- 
ing to  the  Committee  a  certificate  from  the  instructors  in  classics  of 
the  College  at  which  they  have  last  studied,  stating  that  they  are  com- 
petent to  pursue  an  independent  course  of  study  at  Athens  under  the 
advice  of  the  Director.  All  other  persons  who  desire  to  become 
members  of  the  School  must  make  application  to  the  Committee. 
Members  of  the  School  are  subject  to  no  charge  for  tuition.  The 
Committee,  reserves  the  right  to  modify  the  conditions  of  member- 
ship. 

IX.  Each  member  of  the  School  must  pursue  some  definite  subject 
of  study  or  research  in  Classical  Literature,  Art,  or  Antiquities,  and 
must  present  a  thesis  or  report  embodying  the  results  of  some  impor- 
tant part  of  his  year's  work.  These  theses,  if  approved  by  the  Direc- 
tor, are  sent  to  the  Managing  Committee,  by  which  each  thesis  is 
referred  to  a  Sub -Committee  of  three,  of  whom  one  is  always  the 
Director  under  whose  supervision  the  thesis  was  prepared.  If  recom- 
mended for  publication  by  this  Committee,  the  thesis  or  report  will 
be  issued  in  the  Papers  of  the  School. 

X.  All  work  of  excavation,  of  investigation,  or  of  any  other  kind 
done  by  any  student  in  connection  with  the  School  shall  be  regarded 
as  done  for  the  School  and  by  the  School,  and  shall  be  under  the 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  109 

supervision  and  control  of  the  Director,  who  shall  also,  in  conjunction 
with  the  Committee  on  Publications,  supervise  and  control  all  publi- 
cation of  the  results,  —  giving  full  acknowledgment  for  work  done  by 
the  student. 

XL  When  any  member  of  the  School  has  completed  one  or  more 
full  years  of  study,  the  results  of  which  have  been  approved  by  the 
Director,  he  receives  a  certificate  stating  the  work  accomplished  by 
him,  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  School,  the  President  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute,  and  the  Chairman  and  the  Secretary  of  the 
Managing  Committee. 

XII.  American  students  resident  or  travelling  in  Greece  who  are 
not  regular  members  of  the  School  may,  at  the  discretion  of  the 
Director,  be  enrolled  as  special  students  and  enjoy  the  privileges  of 
the  School. 


I  IO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1882-1889. 

The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee  may  be  had  gratis  on  application  to 
the  Secretary  of  the  Managing  Committee.  The  other  publications  are  for  sale 
by  Messrs.  Damrell,  Upham  &  Co.,  283  Washington  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

First,  Second,  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Managing  Commit- 
tee, 1881-84.    pp.  30. 

Fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1884-85.    pp.  30. 

Fifth  and  Sixth  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee,  1885-87. 
pp.  56. 

Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1887-88,  with  the 
Report  of  Professor  D'Ooge  (Director  in  1886-87)  and  that  of 
Professor  Merriam  (Director  in  1887-88).    pp.  115. 

Bulletin  I.  Report  of  Professor  William  W.  Goodwin,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1882-83.    pp.  33.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  II.  Memoir  of  Professor  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1883-84,  with  Resolutions  of  the  Committee  and  the 
Report  for  1883-84.    pp.  34.    Price  25  cents. 

Preliminary  Report  of  an  Archaeological  Journey  made  in  Asia 
Minor  during  the  Summer  of  1884.  By  Lr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 
pp.45.    Price.  25  cents. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  SCHOOL. 

Volume  I.  1882-83.  Published  in  1885.  8vo.  pp.  viii  and  262. 
Illustrated.    Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R.  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier. 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salamis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 


SEVENTH  ANXUAL  REPORT. 


I  I  I 


Volume  II.,  1883-84,  containing  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett's  Report  of 
his  Journey  in  Asia  Minor  in  1884,  with  Inscriptions,  and  two  new 
Maps  by  Professor  H.  Kiepert.  Published  in  1888.  8vo.  pp.  344. 
Price  $2.25. 

Volume  III.,  1884-85,  containing  Dr.  Sterrett's  Report  of  the  Wolfe 
Expedition  to  Asia  Minor  in  1885,  with  Inscriptions,  mostly  hitherto 
unpublished,  and  two  new  Maps  by  Professor  Kiepert.  Published  in 
1888.    8vo.  pp.  448.    Price  $2.50. 

Volume  IV.  1885-86.  Published  in  1888.  8vo.  pp.277.  Illus- 
trated.   Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Preliminary  Report,  by  Walter  Miller. 

2.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Supplementary  Report,  by  William  L.  Cushing. 

3.  On  Greek  Versification  in  Inscriptions,  by  Frederic  D.  Allen. 

4.  The  Athenian  Pnyx,  by  John  M.  Crow  ;  with  a  Survey  of  the  Pnyx  and 
Notes,  by  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke. 

5.  Notes  on  Attic  Vocalism,  by  J.  McKeen  Lewis. 


CIRCULAR  OF  INFORMATION  FOR  STUDENTS  WHO 
PROPOSE  TO  JOIN  THE  SCHOOL. 

JANUARY,  1889. 

Students  in  Athens  will  find  a  knowledge  of  German  and  French 
of  the  utmost  service  in  all  their  work. 

The  books  in  the  following  lists  of  which  the  titles  are  printed  in 
the  larger  type  are  recommended  to  students  as  an  introduction  to  the 
different  branches  of  Greek  Archaeology.  The  more  special  works, 
whose  titles  are  printed  in  smaller  type,  are  recommended  as  books 
of  reference  and  for  students  whose  department  of  special  study  is 
already  determined. 

LIST  OF  BOOKS. 
GENERAL  WORKS. 

Pausanias. 

Collignon  :  Manual  of  Greek  Archaeology  (translated  by  J.  H. 
Wright),  1886. 


112  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Guhl  and  Koner :  Life  of  the  Ancient  Greeks  and  Romans. 
Baumeister  :  Denkmaler  des  klassischen  Alterthums. 
C.  O.  Miiller  :  Ancient  Art  and  its  Remains. 
Taine  :  Philosophic  de  l'Art  en  Grece. 

S.  Reinach  :  Manuel  de  Philologie  classique. 

Stark:  Systematik  und  Geschichte  der  Archaologie  der  Kunst. 

C.  T.  Newton:  Essays  on  Art  and  Archaeology. 

Burnouf  :  Memoires  sur  l'Antiquite. 

Boeckh-Frankel :  Die  Staatshaushaltung  der  Athener,  1886. 
K.  F.  Hermann  :  Griechische  Alterthiimer. 
Daremberg  et  Saglio  :  Dictionnaire  des  Antiquites. 

ARCHITECTURE. 
Durm  :  Die  Baukunst  der  Griechen. 

Von  Reber  :  History  of  Ancient  Art  (translated  by  Clarke). 

Penrose  r  Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture,  2d  ed. 

Michaelis  .  Der  Parthenon. 

Fergusson  :  The  Parthenon. 

Bohn:  Propylaea  der  Akropolis. 

Boutmy :  Philosophie  de  l'Architecture  en  Grece. 

Papers  of  the  American  School  at  Athens.    Vol.  I. 

SCULPTURE. 

Mrs.  Mitchell :  History  of  Ancient  Sculpture. 
A.  S.  Murray  :  History  of  Greek  Sculpture. 
Overbeck  :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Plastik. 
Overbeck  :  Die  antiken  Schriftquellen  zur  Geschichte  der  bildenden 
Kiinste. 

Waldstein  :  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidias. 
Petersen  :  Die  Kunst  des  Pheidias. 
Collignon  :  Phidias. 

Brunn  :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  KUnstler. 
Heuzey:  Catalogue  des  Terres  Cuites  du  Louvre. 

Friedrichs*Wolters :  Bausteine  zur  Geschichte  der  gnechisch-romischen 
Plastik. 

VASES. 

Rayet  et  Collignon  :  Histoire  de  la  Ceramique  grecque. 
Dumont  et  Chaplain  :  Les  Ceramiques  de  la  Grece  propre. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


"3 


Birch  !  History  of  Ancient  Pottery. 

Jahn  :  Beschreibung  der  Vasensammlung  Konig  Ludwigs,  1854  {Einleitung) . 
Furtwangler  :  Vasensammlung  im  Antiquarium  (Berlin). 
Klein  :  Euphronios. 

Klein:  Die  griecbischen  Vasen  mit  Meistersignaturen. 

COINS. 

Percy  Gardner  :  Types  of  Greek  Coins. 
Head :  Historia  Numorum. 

(Ruskinj  Aratra  Pentelici.) 

Catalogues  of  Coins  of  the  British  Museum- 

EPIGRAPHY. 

Roberts  :  Introduction  to  Greek  Epigraphy. 
Dittenberger :  Sylloge  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Kirchhoff :  Geschichte  des  griechischen  Alphabets. 
Hicks  :  Greek  Historical  Inscriptions. 
S.  Reinach:  Traite  d'fipigraphie  grecque. 

Hinrichs :  Griechische  Epigraphik,  in  Muller's  Handbuch  der  Alterthumswis- 
senschaft,  Vol.  I. 

Cauer  :  Delectus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Collitz  :  Sammlung  der  griechischen  Dialektinschriften. 

Meisterhans  .  Grammatik  der  attischen  Inschriften, 

G.  Meyer  :  Griechische  Grammatik. 

Roehl:  Inscriptiones  Graecae  Antiquissimae. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Atticarum. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Papers  of  the  American  School  at  Athens. 

Loewy  :  Inschriften  griechischer  Bildhauer. 

Reinach  :  Conseils  au  Voyageur  archeologue  en  Grece. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Baedeker:  Greece  (latest  edition). 

Murray's  Handbook  for  Travellers  in  Greece. 

Guide  Joanne  :  Athenes  et  ses  environs  (latest  edition). 

Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Atlas  von  Athen. 

Curtius  und  Kaupert:  Karten  von  Attika  (erlauternder  Text). 

Bursian  :  Geographie  von  Griechenland. 
Tozer  :  Geography  of  Greece. 

8  ■ 


ii4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Lolling:  Topographie  von  Griechenland,  in  Miiller's  Ilandbuch  der  Alter- 
thumswissenschaft,  Vol  III. 

Leake  :  Travels  in  Northern  Greece. 
Leake  :  Topography  of  Athens. 
Leake  :  Travels  in  the  Morea. 
(Wordsworth:  Greece.) 
E.  Curtius  :  Peloponnesos. 

Jahn-Michaelis :  Pausaniae  descriptio  arcis  Athenarum,  1880. 

Wachsmuth  :  Die  Stadt  Athen  im  Alterthum. 

Hertzberg  :  Athen. 

Dyer :  Ancient  Athens. 

Burnouf  :  La  Ville  et  l'Acropole  d'Athenes. 

Botticher  :  Die  Akropolis  von  Athen. 

Botticher:  Olympia. 

MYTHOLOGY. 

Preller :  Griechische  Mythologie. 
Seemann  :  Mythologie  der  Griechen  und  Romer. 
Collignon  :  Mythologie  figuree  de  la  Grece. 
Decharme  :  Mythologie  de  la  Grece  antique. 

Welcker :  Griechische  Gotterlehre. 

Roscher  :  Lexikon  der  griechischen  und  romischen  Mythologie. 
(Burnouf  -  La  Legende  athenienne.) 
(Ruskin  :  Queen  of  the  Air.) 

PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin'  de  Correspondance  hellenique. 

Mittheilungen  des  deutschen  Archasologischen  Instituts. 

Jahrbuch  des  deutschen  Archaeologischen  Instituts. 

American  Journal  of  Archaeology. 

Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies. 

*Fj(f)7)[JLepL<s  ' Ap^aioXoyixr}. 

TlpoLKTLKa  rrj<;  iv  'A^vai?  'Ap^atoAoytK^?  'Eratpta?. 

Archaeologisch-epigraphische  Mittheilungen  aus  Oesterreich. 

MODERN  GREEK. 

Vincent  and  Dickson  :  Handbook  to  Modern  Greek. 
Contopoulos  :  Modern  Greek  and  English  Lexicon. 


SEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  I  15 


TRAVEL  AND  EXPENSES. 

Students  wishing  to  travel  from  the  United  States  to  Athens  with  the  greatest 
economy  of  time  and  money  are  advised  to  sail  from  New  York  to  Havre,  Ant- 
werp, Bremen,  or  Hamburg.  The  cost  of  the  sea  voyage  varies  from  $40  to 
$125.  From  the  port  of  landing  the  journey  to  Athens  may  be  made  for  about 
$100  (first  class)  or  $65  (second  class),  including  ordinary  expenses.  Three 
routes  are  available  for  the  voyage  to  Athens  upon  the  Mediterranean,  —  from 
Marseilles,  by  the  Messageries  Maritimes  steamers,  or  by  the  Fraissinet  or 
Florio-Rubattino  line;  from  Brindisi,  by  Greek  or  Italian  steamers  or  the  Aus- 
trian Lloyd  ;  from  Trieste,  by  the  Austrian  Lloyd.  Before  securing  passage 
by  any  of  these  lines,  care  should  be  taken  to  ascertain  that  the  Greek  Govern- 
ment has  not  established  a  quarantine  against  the  port  of  departure.  Quaran- 
tined ports  are  to  be  avoided  if  possible,  as  the  delay  on  landing  from  them  is 
tedious  and  costly. 

The  quickest  route  is  by  steamer  from  Brindisi  to  Patras  (a  little  more  than 
twenty-four  hours),  and  thence  by  rail  to  Athens  (about  eight  hours).  The 
routes  through  the  Gulf  of  Corinth  and  around  Peloponnesus  are  very  attractive 
in  good  weather. 

It  is  not  advisable  to  attempt  to  sail  directly  from  New  York  to  the  Piraeus 
during  the  summer  months,  on  account  of  the  danger  of  quarantine.  The  voy- 
age by  this  route  (by  the  Florio  steamers),  which  is  to  be  recommended  at  other 
seasons,  takes  about  three  weeks,  and  costs  $150  (first  class). 

At  the  large  hotels  in  Athens,  board  and  lodging  can  be  obtained  for  $14  per 
week;  at  small  hotels  and  in  private  families  for  $5. 50  per  week  and  upward. 
A  limited  number  of  students  may  have  rooms,  without  board,  in  the  new  School 
building.  The  figures  here  given  represent  maximum  estimates,  and  careful 
economy  may  reduce  actual  expenses  below  them.  The  student  should  go  well 
supplied  with  clothing  and  similar  necessities  for  his  stay,  as  all  such  articles 
are  expensive  in  Athens;  and  in  providing  these  he  must  not  count  too  much 
on  a  warm  climate  during  the  winter.  He  should  encumber  himself  with  as  few 
books  as  possible  in  travelling ;  the  School  library,  which  now  contains  more 
than  sixteen  hundred  volumes,  provides  all  the  books  that  are  most  essential  for 
study  in  Greece. 

Members  of  the  School  are  required  to  study  in  Athens,  or  in  such  Greek  lands 
as  the  Director  of  the  School  may  approve,  between  October  1  and  June  1. 


5tory 


•  5uilding  for.  Tkje-  American  6cwool 

aVT    (\TMEN6        Pflof    W  K,  .  WAR.E  ,  -architect  - 


Soaks. 


TIR5T  5TORY 

0  Metres.        5  10 


10  20  30 


Ilrtjraologifiiil  Institute  of  |\,nurita. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1888-89. 
WKitij  tfje  Reports  of 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  Litt.D.,  Ph.D.,  L.H.D.,  Director, 

AND 

FRANK  B.  TARBELL,  Ph.D.,  Annual  Director. 


CAMBRIDGE : 
JOHN    WILSON    AND  SON. 
Hnfoersttg  Press. 
1889. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


jJHanagmg  Committee. 

1888-89. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  {Chairman),  Yale  University,  New  Haven, 
Conn. 

H.  M.  Baird,  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 

I.  T.  Beckwith,  Trinity  College,  Hartford,  Conn. 

Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York  City. 

Miss  A.  C.  Chapin,  Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Mass. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York  City. 

O.  M.  Fernald,  Williams  College,  Williamstown,  Mass. 

A.  F.  Fleet,  University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Mo. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 

William  W.  Goodwin,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

William  G.  Hale,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 

Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 

Miss  Abby  Leach,  Vassar  College,  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y. 

Thomas  W.  Ludlow  {Secretary),  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 

Richard  H.  Mather,  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

Augustus  C.  Merriam  {Chairman  of  Committee  on  Publications), 

Columbia  College,  640  Madison  Ave.,  New  York  City. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton  {ex  officio),  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 

Mass. 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Francis  W.  Palfrey,  255  Beacon  St.,  Boston,  Mass. 
William  Pepper,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  {Treasurer),  7  East  420I  St.,  New  York  City. 
William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 
Frank  B.  Tarbell,  Athens,  Greece. 

FitzGerald  Tisdall,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 
James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 
William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
John  Williams  White,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 


(^--operating  (Jlollqreg. 
1888-89. 


AMHERST  COLLEGE. 

BROWN  UNIVERSITY. 

COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK. 

COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 

COLUMBIA  COLLEGE. 

CORNELL  UNIVERSITY. 

DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 

HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 

JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 

TRINITY  COLLEGE. 


UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW 
YORK. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  MISSOURI. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 
VASSAR  COLLEGE. 
WESLEYAN  UNIVERSITY. 
WELLESLEY  COLLEGE. 
WILLIAMS  COLLEGE. 
YALE  UNIVERSITY. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


5 


lExecutibe  Committee. 

1888-89. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  {Chairman). 

William  W.  Goodwin. 

Thomas  W.  Ludlow  {Secretary). 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  {Treasurer). 

William  R.  Ware. 

John  Williams  White. 


©(rector. 

Charles  Waldstein,  Litt.  D.,  Ph.  D.,  L.  H.  D.  1888—. 


Annual  ©tmtorg. 

William  Watson  Goodwin,  Ph.  D.,  LL.D.,  Eliot  Professor  of  Greek 
Literature  in  Harvard  University.  1882-83. 

Lewis  R.  Packard,  Ph.  D.,  Hillhouse  Professor  of  Greek  in  Yale  Uni- 
versity. 1883-84. 

James  Cooke  Van  Benschoten,  LL.D.,  Seney  Professor  of  the  Greek 
Language  and  Literature  in  Wesleyan  University.  1884-85. 

Frederic  De  Forest  Allen,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Classical  Philology 
in  Harvard  University.  1885-86. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  Ph.  D.,  LL.D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Michigan.  1886-87. 

Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in  Columbia  Col- 
lege. 1887-88. 

Frank  Bigelow  Tarbell,  Ph.  D.  1888-89. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


trustees  of  tfje  Scfjaol. 

James  Russell  Lowell  (President). 

Edward  J.  Lowell  {Treasurer). 

William  W.  Goodwin  (Secretary). 

Martin  Brimmer. 

Henry  Drisler. 

Basil  M.  Gildersleeve. 

Henry  G.  Marquand. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 

Henry  C.  Potter. 

William  M.  Sloane. 

John  Williams  White. 

Theodore  D.  Woolsey. 


lExecuttfce  Committee  of  tfje  ^Trustees. 

James  Russell  Lowell. 
William  W.  Goodwin. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


7 


LOUIS  BEVIER  (1882-83),*  Associate  Professor  in  Rutgers  College,  New  Brunswick,  N.  J. 
WALTER  RAY  BRIDGMAN  (1883-84),  Professor  in  MiarrTi  University,  Oxford,  0. 
CARL  DARLING  BUCK  (1887-89),  Student  in  the  University  of  Leipzig. 
N.  E.  CROSBY  (1886-87),  Instructor  in  the  Westminster  School,  Dobbs  Ferry,  N.  Y. 
JOHN  M.  CROW  (1882-83),  Professor  in  Iowa  College,  Grinnell,  la. 

WILLIAM  LEE  CUSHING  (1885-87),  Head  Master  of  the  Westminster  School,  Dobbs 
Ferry,  N.  Y. 

MORTIMER  LAMSON  EARLE  (1887-88),    Instructor  in  Columbia   College,    New  York 
City. 

THOMAS  H.  ECKFELDT  (1884-85),  Principal  of  the  Friends'  School,  New  Bedford,  Mass. 
A.  F.  FLEET  (1887-88),  Professor  in  the  University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Mo. 
HAROLD  NORTH  FOWLER  (1882-83),  Instructor  in  Phillips  Academy,  Exeter,  N.  H. 
HENRY  T.  HILDRETH  (1885-86),  Instructor  in  the  Parish  School,  Boston,  Mass. 
GEORGE  BENJAMIN  HUSSEY  (1887-88)  *  Fellow  in  Archaeology,  College  of  New  Jersey, 
Princeton,  N.  J. 

FRANCIS  DEMETRIUS  KALOPOTHAKES  (1888-89),  Student  in  the  University  of 
Berlin. 

JOSEPH  McKEEN  LEWIS  (1885-87).    Died  April  29,  1887. 

GONZA  LEZ  LODGE  (1888-89),*  Associate  Professor  in  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Mawr.  Pa. 
WALTER  MILLER  (1885-86),  Student  in  the  University  of  Leipzig. 

WILLIAM  J.  McMURTRY  (1886-87),  Professor  in  Yankton  College,  Yankton,  South  Dakota. 
Miss  EMILY  NORCROSS  (1888-89),  Instructor  in  Smith  College,  Northampton,  Mass. 
Miss  ANNIE  S.  PECK  (1885-86),  Providence. 

DANIEL  QUINN  (1887-89),  Professor  in  Mt.  St.  Mary's  College,  Emmitsburg,  Md. 
JOHN  CARE  IV  ROLFE  (1888-89),  Instructor  in  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
WILLIAM  J.  SEELYE  (1886-87),  Professor  in  Parsons  College,  Garfield,  la. 
PAUL  SHOREY  (1882-83),  Associate  Professor  in  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Mawr,  Pa. 
Miss  EMILY  E.  SLATER  (1888-89). 

J.  R.  SITLINGTON  STERRETT  (1882-83),  Professor  in  the  University  of  Texas,  Austin, 
Tex. 

FRANKLIN  H.  TAYLOR  (1882-83),  Tutor  in  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 
OLIVER  JOS.  THATCHER  (1887-88),  Lecturer  in  Alleghany  Theological  Seminary,  Alle- 
ghany, Pa 

S.  B.  P.  TROWBRIDGE  (1886-88),  Architect,  New  York  City. 
HENRY  STEPHENS  WASHINGTON  (1888-89)  * 

JAMES  R.  WHEELER  (1882-83),  Professor  in  the  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vt. 
ALEXANDER  M.  WILCOX  (1883-84),  Professor  in  the  University  of  Kansas,  Lawrence, 
Kan. 

FRANK  E.  WOODRUFF  (1882-83),*  Professor  in  Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,  Me. 
THEODORE  L.  WRIGHT  (1886-87),  Professor  in  Beloit  College,  Beloit,  Wisconsin. 

*  Not  present  during  the  entire  year.    Italics  indicate  students  of  the  year  1888-89. 


/ 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 


OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Archceological  Institute  of  America: 

Gentlemen, —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
the  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  Ameri- 
can School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  for  the  year 
from  October  i,  1888,  to  October  1,  1889;  and  also 
the  Reports  of  the  Director,  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein, 
and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Dr.  Frank  B.  Tarbell. 

During  the  past  year  the  following  persons  have 
been  enrolled  as  members  of  the  School :  — 

Carl  Darling  Buck,  A.  B.  Yale,  Soldiers'  Memorial  Fellow 
of  Yale. 

Francis  Demetrius  Kalopothakes,  A.  B.  Harvard. 
Gonzalez   Lodge,  Ph.  D.  Johns    Hopkins,   Professor  in 
Davidson  College. 

Miss  Emily  Norcross,  A.  M.  Wellesley. 
Rev.  Daniel  Quinn,  A.  M.  Mt.  St.  Mary's. 
John  Carew  Rolfe,  A.  M.  Harvard,  Ph.  D.  Cornell. 
Miss  Elizabeth  E.  Slater,  A.  B.  Wellesley. 
Henry  Stephens  Washington,  A.  M.  Yale. 


IO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Two  of  these,  Mr.  Buck  and  Mr.  Quinn,  were 
members  of  the  School  also  during  the  year  1887-88. 

Among  the  Americans  who  visited  the  School  at 
Athens  during  the  year,  and  were  present  at  some 
of  its  exercises,  were  Professor  Hale  of  Cornell,  and 
Professor  Palmer  of  Harvard  with  Mrs.  Alice  Free- 
man Palmer. 

Mr.  Dimitri  Staneff,  late  a  student  in  the  Oberlin 
Theological  Seminary,  was  admitted  to  the  ordinary 
privileges  of  the  School. 

Dr.  Tarbell  reached  Athens  on  September  26,  1888, 
and  at  the  beginning  of  October  the  work  of  the 
School  was  opened  under  his  direction.  Most  of  the 
exercises  of  the  School  were  placed  in  the  afternoon 
for  the  convenience  of  the  lady  students. 

Dr.  Waldstein  reached  Athens  on  December  18, 
and  took  hold  of  the  work  of  the  School  with  great 
vigor.  He  began  his  lectures  on  the  day  after  his 
arrival,  and  lectured  five  times  a  week,  —  giving  place 
on  one  day  of  the  week  to  Mr.  Gardner  of  the  British 
School,  who  lectured  on  Greek  Vases.  Students  of 
the  British  and  German  Schools  attended  Dr.  Wald- 
stein's  lectures.  During  his  stay,  Dr.  Tarbell's  exer- 
cises were  suspended. 

A  series  of  open  meetings  was  instituted  and  at- 
tended by  the  most  prominent  archaeologists  of 
Athens,  —  Dorpfeld,  Gardner,  Rangabe,  Schliemann, 
—  by  the  American  and  British  ministers,  and  many 
others.   At  the  first  of  these  open  meetings,  of  which 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


an  account  is  given  in  Dr.  Tarbell's  Report,  Dr.  Wald- 
stein  had  the  high  satisfaction  of  proving  his  identifica- 
tion of  a  fine  marble  head  on  a  triangular  fragment 
of  relief  which  had  been  recently  found  in  a  piece  of 
mediaeval  wall  on  the  Acropolis,  showing  that  this 
was  the  missing  head  of  Iris  in  the  central  slab  of 
the  eastern  frieze  of  the  Parthenon.  This  paper  of 
Dr.  Waldstein's  was  speedily  published  as  a  "  pre- 
print "  of  the  "  American  Journal  of  Archaeology," 
and  has  been  distributed  to  members  of  the  Institute. 
A  paper  which  was  read  by  Dr.  Tarbell  at  the  same 
meeting,  on  Nd/xot  and  ^^icr^aTa,  has  been  pub- 
lished in  the  "  American  Journal  of  Philology." 

Dr.  Waldstein  was  obliged  to  resume  his  Cambridge 
duties  before  the  end  of  January,  but  he  returned  to 
Athens  in  March. 

The  formal  work  of  the  School  closed  about  April  i. 
As  in  former  years,  the  students  desired  to  travel 
and  explore  the  country  of  Greece,  —  an  opportu- 
nity which  is  among  the  chief  advantages  of  their  con- 
nection with  the  School.  None  remained  in  the  city 
of  Athens  after  the  time  named,  except  incidentally 
and  temporarily. 

The  arrangement  for  the  Direction  of  the  School 
during  the  Academic  year  1888-89  proved  highly 
satisfactory.  For  most  of  the  year  the  School  was  in 
charge  of  the  Annual  Director,  Dr.  Tarbell,  who 
guided  with  scholarly  wisdom  the  researches  of  the 
students  in  topography  and  epigraphy,  read  with  them 


12 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


works  of  classical  literature,  and  prepared  them  for 
the  lectures  of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  on  plas- 
tic art. 

When  this  Committee  rendered  their  last  Report, 
the  matter  of  the  permanent  directorship  was  still 
undecided.  The  fund  for  the  permanent  endowment  of 
the  School  was  not  secured,  and  no  final  arrangement 
could  be  made.  The  Committee's  desire  that  Dr. 
Waldstein  should  accept  the  Directorship  was  in- 
creased by  his  manifest  success  in  stimulating  the 
students  and  in  gaining  new  friends  and  opportuni- 
ties for  the  School.  The  Committee  were  unable  to 
offer  any  inducement  which  could  justify  him  in  re- 
signing his  positions  in  Cambridge  and  giving  him- 
self wholly  to  the  work  of  the  School.  They  report 
with  pleasure  that  Dr.  Waldstein  will  continue  to 
serve  as  Director  for  the  next  three  years,  residing 
in  Athens  from  the  first  of  January  until  the  first  of 
April  each  year,  and  perhaps  longer.  He  has  received 
leave  of  absence  from  the  duties  of  his  Cambridge 
lectureship  during  the  Lent  Term,  and  has  resigned 
the  Directorship  of  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum,  in  order 
to  allow  him  to  accept  our  invitation.  This  arrange- 
ment is  essentially  the  same  as  that  under  which  M. 
Foucart  directs  the  work  of  the  French  School  at 
-  Athens.  It  is  not  what  we  most  desired,  but  is  the 
best  arrangement  possible  under  the  circumstances. 

This  Committee  have  repeatedly  expressed  their 
purpose  not  to  abandon  the  system  of  Annual  Direc- 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


13 


tors,  which  has  served  well  in  the  past,  and  prom- 
ises to  be  as  useful  in  the  future.  The  Annual 
Director  will  be  in  charge  of  the  School  during  the 
absence  of  Dr.  Waldstein.  The  work  of  the  two 
Directors  will  be  mutually  complementary,  as  it  has 
been  during  the  past  year.  Both  will  find  profitable 
and  abundant  employment  in  the  service  of  the 
School.  The  Committee,  if  funds  permitted,  would 
gladly  appoint  a  permanent  Secretary  who  should 
have  charge  of  the  business  details  of  the  School 
in  Athens.  Such  a  situation  would  be  very  attrac- 
tive to  a  student  of  archaeology,  art,  or  the  classics, 
and  the  incumbent  could  render  important  services 
in  the  conduct  of  the  School. 

The  "  American  Journal  of  Archaeology "  was 
adopted  by  the  Executive  Committee  in  January,  1889, 
as  an  official  organ  of  the  School ;  and  this  action 
was  approved  by  the  Managing  Committee  at  their 
May  meeting.  The  Committee  trust  that  this  ar- 
rangement will  secure  a  speedy  publication  of  scien- 
tific papers  prepared  by  the  Directors  or  students, 
and  at  the  same  time  relieve  the  School  of  part  of 
the  expense  of  printing.  The  papers  are  now  to 
be  printed  and  issued  separately,  but  will  finally  be 
gathered  and  published  in  volumes. 

Besides  the  paper  by  Dr.  Waldstein  on  "  The  Newly 
Discovered  Head  of  Iris  from  the  Frieze  of  the  Parthe- 
non "  (to  which  reference  has  been  made  above),  and 
that  by  Dr.  Tarbell  on  "  The  Decrees  of  the  Demo- 


14 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


tionidae :  a  Study  of  the  Attic  Phratry,"  six  papers 
have  been  published  by  Mr.  Buck  on  "  The  Discoveries 
in  the  Attic  Deme  of  Icaria,"  and  one  by  Mr.  Earle  on 
a  new  Sicyonian  inscription.  Other  papers  are  to  be 
published  immediately.  Some  of  these  papers  have 
been  illustrated  with  wood-cuts  and  with  separate 
plates. 

The  project  of  establishing  at  Athens  an  organ 
of  the  School  for  the  more  prompt  publication  of 
important  discoveries  was  considered  carefully,  but 
was  rejected  as  for  the  present  unwise  under  all  the 
circumstances. 

The  excavations  conducted  under  the  direction  of 
the  School  during  this  year  have  not  been  fruitful 
of  such  brilliant  discoveries  as  those  of  the  preceding 
year  at  Icaria,  but  they  have  been  valuable  and  encour- 
aging, and  on  a  somewhat  larger  scale  than  hitherto. 
The  continued  excavations  at  Icaria  in  the  autumn  of 
1888  were  mainly  negative  in  their  results.  They 
stimulated,  however,  the  interest  and  zeal  of  one  of  the 
members  of  the  School,  Mr.  Washington,  who  was 
intrusted  with  investigations  carried  on  at  his  own 
expense  at  two  points  in  the  neighborhood  of  Stamata, 
a  village  to  the  north  of  Pentelicon,  about  halfway 
between  Kephisia  and  Marathon.  These  excava- 
tions identified,  by  means  of  inscriptions,  the  site  of 
the  ancient  deme  Plotheia.  Some  interesting  frag- 
ments of  sculpture  and  architecture  were  also  brought 
to  light. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


15 


In  the  spring  of  1889,  Dr.  Rolfe  took  charge  of 
excavations  in  Boeotia,  —  first  for  three  weeks  at 
Anthedon,  and  afterward  for  a  few  days  at  Thisbe. 
The  campaign  at  Anthedon  laid  bare  the  foundations 
of  a  large  and  irregular  building,  of  which  a  portion 
had  been  previously  in  sight,  and  which  Leake  mis- 
takenly supposed  to  be  a  temple.  The  foundations 
of  a  small  building  (perhaps  the  temple  of  Dionysus, 
Paus.  ix.  22,  6)  were  unearthed;  various  small  objects 
of  terra-cotta  and  a  large  and  somewhat  important 
collection  of  bronze  tools  were  discovered.  Nearly 
sixty  new  inscriptions  were  found,  which  will  be 
published  speedily. 

The  work  at  Thisbe  was  comparatively  unproduc- 
tive. 

Near  the  close  of  the  season,  excavations  were  in- 
stituted at  Plataea,  as  described  by  Dr.  Waldstein  in 
his  Report.  These  were  suspended  before  noteworthy 
discoveries  had  been  made  in  the  line  of  architecture 
or  sculpture,  but  not  without  securing,  in  a  tolerable 
state  of  preservation  (although  the  right  half  is  illegi- 
ble), a  long  fragment  of  the  preamble  of  Diocletian's 
famous  edict,  De  pretiis  rerum  venalium.  This  frag- 
ment will  fill  most  of  the  gaps  which  exist  in  the 
two  copies  of  the  preamble  which  are  already  known. 
No  other  copy  of  the  edict  yet  found  on  Greek  soil 
has  been  in  Latin. 

Dr.  Waldstein  secured  permission  for  the  School 
to  explore  and  dig  in  Arcadia,  and  plans  to  avail  him- 


i6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


self  of  this  privilege  during  the  coming  year,  as  well 
as  to  continue  the  excavations  at  Plataea. 

The  opportunity  of  excavating  at  Delphi  was  unex- 
pectedly placed  in  our  hands  by  the  French  Senate's 
repeated  rejection  of  the  commercial  treaty  with 
Greece,  and  the  consequent  failure  of  the  proposed 
concession  of  Delphi  to  the  French.  The  Com- 
mittee and  the  Directors  have  been  very  desirous 
and  careful  to  observe  every  rule  of  international 
and  scientific  comity;  and  in  view  of  the  French 
excavations  on  that  site  in  former  years,  Dr.  Wald- 
stein  made  no  request  for  the  concession  until  he 
learned  from  the  highest  authority  that  the  Greeks 
regarded  the  French  as  having  no  further  claim  to 
the  privilege.  Professor  Palmer  of  Harvard  Univer- 
sity and  Professor  Hale  of  Cornell  University,  who 
were  in  Athens  in  the  early  spring,  took  pains  to 
ascertain  the  exact  facts,  and  they  agree  that  the 
opportunity  is  ours  not  only  by  law  but  by  equity. 
Nothing  need  be  said  here  to  show  the  extreme 
importance  and  interest  of  the  site,  and  the  various 
advantages  which  would  accrue  to  American  scholar- 
ship if  the  honor  and  service  of  excavating  the  site 
of  Delphi  were  ours. 

The  additions  to  the  Library  during  the  last  year 
were  few,  and  confined  mainly  to  continuations  of 
works  already  in  the  Library  and  some  books  of 
special  importance.  The  School  funds  did  not  allow 
a  liberal  purchase  of  books ;  but  the  catalogue  of  the 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  I J 

>* 

Library  was  so  perfected  as  to  make  the  really  excellent 
collection  more  available  and  useful  to  the  students. 

The  students  of  the  past  year  have  been  the  first 
to  enjoy  the  full  benefit  of  the  new  School  building, 
which  has  proved  itself  admirably  suited  to  its  pur- 
pose, and  has  greatly  quickened  and  deepened  the 
community  of  scholarly  life  in  connection  with  the 
School.  The  servant  of  the  School  provided  the 
morning  coffee  for  the  students,  and  thus  spared 
them  the  inconvenience  of  leaving  the  School  build- 
ing for  breakfast. 

The  School  building  during  the  summer  months 
was  in  charge  of  the  trusty  Basili,  who  has  been  in 
the  service  of  the  School  most  of  the  time  since  the 
year  of  its  organization. 

On  another  page  of  this  Report  will  be  found 
a  summary  statement  of  the  expenditures  for  the 
building  of  the  School  at  Athens.  The  cost  of  the 
building  has  been  about  thirty  thousand  dollars. 
The  excess  of  the  cost  over  the  estimates  is  ex- 
plained partly  by  the  difficulty  in  forming  exact  esti- 
mates at  this  distance,  but  chiefly  by  the  facts  that 
better  materials  were  used,  and  that  the  construction 
was  made  more  substantial  than  had  been  planned. 
The  money  was  wisely  expended;  the  construction 
was  supervised  throughout  by  an  expert.  The  build- 
ing is  well  worth  all  it  cost.  Since  the  building 
fund  of  the  School  is  entirely  distinct  from  the 
endowment  fund,  the  deficiency  in  the  former  has 


1 8  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

not  been  permitted  to  encroach  upon  the  latter,  and 
the  money  (about  three  thousand  dollars)  required 
to  cover  the  deficiency  on  the  building  fund  has 
been  borrowed  on  the  personal  responsibility  of 
members  of  the  Committee,  and  is  to  be  repaid  from 
income  or  in  other  ways. 

The  Director  calls  attention  to  the  invariable  cour- 
tesy which  has  been  shown  by  all  Greek  officials. 
The  people  of  Greece  have  proved  themselves  uni- 
formly well  disposed  to  the  School.  The  supervising 
architect  of  our  building  gives  pleasant  testimony  to 
the  interest  and  fidelity  of  the  artisans  :  "  The  work- 
men would  no  more  have  cheated  me  than  they  would 
have  cut  off  their  hands,  and  they  were  just  as  careful 
not  to  let  others  cheat  me." 

At  its  May  meeting,  the  Committee  received  with 
a  resolution  of  regret,  coupled  with  thanks  for  previous 
services,  Professor  John  Williams  White's  resignation 
from  the  Executive  Committee.  In  this  connection, 
may  find  place  the  following  extract  from  the  minutes 
of  the  meeting  of  May  20,  1887 :  — 

On  motion  of  Professor  Norton,  a  committee  of  five  was 
appointed  to  consider  the  resignation  of  the  Chairman,  and 
to  consider  the  nomination  of  a  new  Chairman,  as  follows : 
Professor  Norton,  Miss  Freeman,  Professors  Drisler  and  Good- 
win, and  Mr.  de  Peyster. 

The  Committee  on  the  resignation  of  the  Chairman 
reported  the  following  Resolutions,  which  were  passed 
unanimously:  — 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


19 


Resolved,  That  the  Committee  accept  with  sincere  regret  the  resig- 
nation of  Professor  White  of  the  position  of  Chairman  of  the  Commit- 
tee, which  he  has  held  from  the  date  of  its  organization ;  and 

Resolved,  That  the  Committee  desire  to  place  upon  record  their 
sense  of  the  admirable  manner  in  which  the  varied  and  often  complex 
duties  of  his  post  have  been  performed  by  Professor  White ;  their 
recognition  of  the  fact  that  to  his  energy  and  good  judgment  the  suc- 
cessful establishment  of  the  School  is  in  large  measure  due ;  and  their 
wish  that  while  no  longer  Chairman  of  the  Committee,  he  may  still 
assist  in  its  deliberations. 

Resolved,  That  these  resolutions  be  spread  upon  the  minutes  of  the 
Committee, 

It  was  further 

Resolved,  That  Professor  White  be  requested  to  remain  on  the 
Executive  Committee. 

Adelbert  College  of  Western  Reserve  University 
has  accepted  the  invitation  of  the  Committee  to  join 
the  colleges  which  are  associated  in  the  support  of 
the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens ; 
and  Professor  Bernadotte  Perrin,  Ph.  D.,  has  been 
elected  to  represent  this  college  on  the  Managing 
Committee. 

Professor  S.  Stanhope  Orris,  L.  H.  D„  Ewing  Pro- 
fessor of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  the 
College  of  New  Jersey,  was  unanimously  elected  by 
the  Committee  as  Annual  Director  for  the  year 
1889-90.  Professor  Orris  spent  eight  months  in 
Greece  several  years  ago,  and  is  familiar  with  the 
country  and  the  language.  He. has  passed  this  sum- 
mer in  work  in  the  museums  of  Europe,  and  went 


20  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

to  Athens  before  the  first  of  September.  This  last 
fact  is  a  sufficient  proof  of  his  enthusiasm. 

This  Committee  in  their  last  Report  called  renewed 
attention  to  the  importance  of  scholarships  in  our 
colleges  and  universities  which  would  allow  the  hold- 
ers to  study  in  connection  with  the  School  at  Athens. 
They  take  pleasure  in  noting  that  at  the  University 
of  Michigan  a  "Jones  Classical  Scholarship,"  with 
an  income  of  five  hundred  dollars,  has  been  founded 
in  honor  of  the  late  Professor  Elisha  Jones.  This 
scholarship  may  be  held  for  two  years,  and  the  second 
year  may  be  spent  in  the  American  School  of  Classi- 
cal Studies  at  Athens.  The  first  incumbent  of  this 
scholarship  expects  to  spend  the  year  1890-91  in 
Greece. 

Vigorous  efforts  have  been  made  during  this  year 
to  complete  the  fund  for  the  permanent  endowment 
of  the  School.  The  Right  Reverend  Bishop  of  New 
York  invited  a  number  of  gentlemen  to  meet  him 
on  the  fourteenth  of  January  at  the  See  House, 
where  the  claims  of  the  School  were  presented  by 
Professors  Norton,  Goodwin,  Sloane,  and  Merriam. 
A  committee  of  gentlemen  was  appointed  to  solicit 
subscriptions  both  for  the  endowment  of  the  School 
and  for  excavations.  More  than  fifty  thousand  dollars 
in  all  has  now  been  subscribed;  but  a  considerable 
part  of  these  subscriptions  cannot  be  called  in  before 
the  total  amount  subscribed  reaches  seventy-five  thou- 
sand dollars. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


21 


Never  were  the  conditions  and  prospects  of  the 
School's  work  in  Greece  so  favorable  and  bright  as  at 
present.  The  Managing  Committee  trust  that  their 
next  Report  can  declare  that  the  School  is  at  last  on 
a  permanent  basis  with  a  secured  endowment. 

THOMAS  D.  SEYMOUR, 

Chairman. 

New  Haven,  Conn.,  Oct.  i,  1889. 


REPORT  OF  THE  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Classic 
cal  Studies  at  Athens:  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  beg  to  make  a  brief  statement  of 
the  work  done  in  the  School  so  far  as  I  have  been 
connected  with  it  during  the  last  year. 

My  work  with  the  School  may  be  said  to  have 
begun  in  October,  when  Mr.  Buck  came  to  Cam- 
bridge for  the  purpose  of  working  up  a  portion  of 
the  material  from  the  Icarian  excavations,  and  of  pre- 
paring himself'  for  their  continuation.  During  his 
stay  at  Cambridge  he  attended  some  of  my  lectures, 
and  received  my  assistance  in  the  editing  of  the 
Icarian  archaic  stele. 

I  arrived  at  Athens  December  18,  to  take  actual 
charge  of  the  School  in  co-operation  with  my  col- 
league, Professor  Tarbell.  I  found  that  under  Mr. 
Tarbell  the  School  had  been  presided  over  in  a 
most  efficient  manner.  There  were  eight  students, 
who  had  attended  his  lectures  and  exercises,  and 
had  manifestly  profited  by  them.  The  departments 
of  Epigraphy  and  Topography  were  at  my  arrival, 
and  have  since  remained,  in  his  hands.  I  leave  it 
to  him  to  give  a  more  detailed  account  of  the  work 
of  the  students. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


On  December  19  I  gave  my  first  lecture,  in  the 
library  of  the  School.  My  aim  was  to  prepare  the 
students,  as  far  as  possible,  for  profitable  study  of 
the  works  in  the  Athenian  Museums  and  on  the 
ancient  sites.  I  began  by  giving  alternately  a  lec- 
ture in  the  School  and  a  peripatetic  lecture  in  the 
Museums.  But  I  soon  found  that  the  latter  were 
the  more  useful,  especially  in  view  of  the  limited 
time  during  which  it  was  possible  for  me  to  remain 
at  Athens.  These  lectures  were  so  arranged  as  to 
illustrate  the  development  of  Greek  art.  To  them 
the  students  of  the  other  schools  were  invited,  and 
several  availed  themselves  of  the  invitation.  At  the 
same  time  I  arranged  with  the  Director  of  the 
British  School,  Mr.  E.  A.  Gardner,  that  he  should 
begin  a  course  on  Greek  Ceramic  Art.  With  Dr. 
Dorpf  eld's  topographical  and  architectural  giri,  and 
Mr.  Tarbell's  classes  in  addition,  the  students  may 
be  said  to  have  had  an  unusually  full  course  of  in- 
struction offered  them. 

In  order  that  another  chief  object  of  the  School, 
the  encouragement  of  original  research,  might  ,  have 
due  attention,  we  decided  upon  holding  fortnightly 
meetings  on  the  plan  of  those  of  the  German  Insti- 
tute, at  which  original  papers,  which  aim  at  being 
genuine  contributions  to  science,  should  be  read. 
Accordingly,  in  addition  to  the  subjects  already 
chosen  for  the  students  by  Mr.  Tarbell,  I  assigned 
some  subjects  in  the  history  of  Greek  art  to  several 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


25 


of  them ;  among  these,  a  careful  comparative  analysis 
of  the  drapery  and  head-dress  of  the  female  figures 
recently  discovered  on  the  Acropolis,  to  Miss  Nor- 
cross ;  an  examination  of  the  relation  between  chil- 
dren and  their  attendant  adult  figures  on  sepulchral 
monuments  and  in  later  statues,  to  Mr.  Rolfe ;  a 
treatise  on  the  mineralogy  of  marbles  used  in  an- 
cient sculpture  and  architecture,  to  Mr.  Washington. 

There  were  two  of  these  fortnightly  meetings  dur- 
ing my  stay  at  Athens,  and  both  were  well  attended. 
For  the  opening  meeting,  the  authorities  in  charge  of 
the  national  museums  and  excavations  kindly  sent 
the  original  of  the  head  of  Iris  from  the  frieze  of  the 
Parthenon,  together  with  a  cast  of  the  slab  in  the 
British  Museum,  of  which  the  fragment  formed  a  part, 
to  illustrate  my  paper  on  this  subject.  This  paper 
was  preceded  by  my  opening  address,  which  was  sub- 
sequently translated  into  Greek  and  printed  in  full 
in  the  official  daily  paper,  eH  *nPa>  Mr.  Tarbell  at 
this  meeting  read  a  paper  on  Attic  No/xoi  and 
^(^tcr/xara.  At  the  second  meeting  Mr.  Buck  pre- 
sented a  paper  on  an  Icarian  inscription ;  Mr.  Tarbell 
announced  the  work  done  at  Stamata,  and  com- 
mented on  the  inscriptions  there  found;  and  I  read 
notes  on  a  number  of  the  most  interesting  works 
of  sculpture  in  the  Museums  of  Athens,  dwelling 
upon  the  series  of  archaic  male  figures  in  the  Cen- 
tral Museum,  which  series  presents  an  unbroken 
record  of  the  early  development  of  sculpture,  and 


26 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


when  supplemented  by  the  Strangford  "  Apollo"  in 
the  British  Museum,  is  the  most  instructive  series 
for  the  study  of  this  period.  I  also  drew  attention 
to  the  necessity  of  considering  these  statues  in  con- 
nection with  the  female  figures  recently  discovered 
on  the  Acropolis,  if  light  is  to  be  thrown  upon  the 
position  of  the  latter.  I  commented  also  upon  a  series 
of  heads  illustrating  the  art  of  the  fourth  century  b.  c, 
which  are  scattered  among  the  Museums  of  Athens. 

As  regards  the  third  main  department  of  School 
work,  Excavation  and  Exploration,  my  first  duty  was 
to  visit  Dionysos  (Icaria),  in  order  to  supplement 
on  the  art  side  the  work  of  Professor  Merriam  and 
Mr.  Buck.  At  the  earliest  opportunity  I  visited  this 
site  with  Mr.  Buck,  Mr.  Rolfe,  and  Mr.  Washing- 
ton. We  took  notes  of  the  sculptures  on  the  spot, 
which  will  be  incorporated  in  Mr.  Buck's  work,  and 
I  endeavored  to  render  him  every  assistance  in  read- 
ing up  the  subject  in  preparation  for  publication. 
We  visited  Stamata  and  decided  to  carry  on  some  ex- 
cavations. Mr.  Washington  offered  to  provide  the 
funds  and  to  supervise  the  work;  and  permission 
having  readily  been  secured,  the  work  was  at  once 
taken  in  hand,  with  the  result,  of  which  you  are 
already  aware,  of  fixing  the  site  of  the  ancient  deme 
Plotheia.  Mr.  Washington's  account  of  the  excava- 
tions will  be  published  shortly. 

I  wish  to  take  this  occasion  to  express  the  thanks 
which  the  School  owes  to  the  Greek  authorities  for 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


27 


the  encouragement  and  help  offered  us  during  the 
current  year.  From  the  Prime  Minister  down  to 
the  humblest  official  we  have  always  met  with  cour- 
tesy and  not  unfrequently  with  generosity.  Among 
these  authorities  I  must  single  out  Mr.  Kabbadias, 
the  Director-General  of  Museums  and  Excavations, 
who  has  proved  himself  a  true  well-wisher  of  the 
American  School. 

Besides  my  regular  work  as  Director,  much  time 
was  taken  up  by  official  and  semi-official  visits  and 
correspondence ;  and  I  am  beginning  to  realize  that 
this  department  of  the  Directors  duties  will  require 
a  certain  amount  of  organization  in  order  not  to  in- 
terfere with  his  more  immediate  duties.  As  Director 
of  the  School,  I  was  one  of  a  committee  of  five  ap- 
pointed by  the  Greek  Government  to  decide  upon  the 
steps  to  be  taken  for  the  general  preservation  of  what 
has  been  found  on  the  Acropolis,  and  for  the  plan  of 
future  work  and  excavations  on  and  around  this  site. 

I  left  Athens  for  Cambridge  in  the  third  week  of 
January,  and  returned  on  my  second  .visit  in  the 
third  week  of  March.  During  my  absence  Mr.  Tar- 
bell  continued  his  instruction  and  presided  at  the 
meetings  of  the  School.  Upon  my  second  arrival, 
both  lectures  and  meetings  were  discontinued,  as 
most  of  the  students  were  travelling  or  engaged  in 
independent  work. 

During  my  second  stay  in  Greece,  I  devoted  my- 
self chiefly  to  supervision  of  the  excavations  that  were 


28 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


being  carried  on  by  the  School.  On  my  first  visit  I 
obtained  from  the  Greek  Government  permission  to 
excavate  at  Plataea,  Anthedon,  and  Thisbe.  Anthe- 
don  and  Thisbe  were  chosen  because  of  information 
which  the  Director-General  of  Excavations  was  good 
enough  to  communicate  to  me.  The  site  on  which  I 
was  most  anxious  to  excavate  was  Plataea ;  and  I  felt 
that  it  was  the  safest  to  work  upon,  inasmuch  as  the 
careful  study  of  the  topography  of  a  site  possessing 
so  much  historical  interest  could  not  fail  to  produce 
results  of  scientific  value. 

The  excavations  at  Anthedon,  about  which  a  fuller 
report  will  be  sent  to  the  Committee,  were  carried  on 
by  Mr.  Rolfe  and  Mr.  Buck,  and  were  completed  be- 
fore I  arrived  at  Athens.  At  that  time  Mr.  Rolfe  was 
engaged  in  excavating  at  Thisbe  ;  and  I  decided  to 
make  a  tour  of  inspection  with  Mr.  Tarbell,  in  order 
to  see  what  had  been  done,  and  to  determine  upon  what 
was  to  be  done  in  future.  Our  financial  position  with 
regard  to  excavations  had  now  become  much  more 
favorable  than  when  we  undertook  our  work ;  for 
besides  the  money  in  hand,  Professor  Merriam  had 
kindly  advanced  the  sum  of  $500  in  anticipation  of 
the  like  sum  to  be  paid  by  the  American  Archaeo- 
logical Institute,  and  I  had  been  successful  in  raising 
funds  privately.  Mr.  H.  G.  Marquand  sent  me  a  check 
for  $100,  and  Mr.  Wesley  Harper  and  other  friends 
of  the  School  sent  $450,  which  they  had  collected 
for  the  furtherance  of  explorations  at  Plataea. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


29 


Before  my  departure  from  Athens,  there  was  much 
business  to  be  attended  to,  not  the  least  important 
having  to  do  with  the  possibility  of  our  obtaining 
permission  to  excavate  at  Delphi.  This  question 
had  assumed  a  new  phase.  Before  my  arrival  in 
December,  I  was  not  aware  that  there  were  any 
prospects  of  our  taking  up  the  work  of  exploring 
that  site.  At  the  time  of  my  arrival  at  Athens,  I 
heard  that  the  right  to  excavate  at  Delphi  had  been 
offered  to  the  American  School.  Through  Mr. 
Fearn,  the  American  minister  at  Athens,  and  Mr. 
Tricoupis,  I  was  enabled  to  acquaint  myself  with  the 
conditions  and  circumstances  of  this  undertaking. 
The  conclusions  I  formed,  together  with  the  grounds 
upon  which  my  opinion  was  based,  I  embodied  in  a 
letter  addressed  to  a  member  of  your  Committee. 
It  was  my  opinion  that  under  the  circumstances  it 
was  undesirable  for  the  School  to  stand  in  the  way 
of  the  French  School,  if  there  was  any  prospect  of 
their  securing  the  concession,  and  I  urged  that  it  was 
the  duty  of  our  School  to  guard  the  rights  of  sci- 
entific and  international  courtesy.  The  conditions 
upon  which  this  opinion  was  based,  were,  however, 
soon  changed.  The  first  intimation  of  this  change 
came  to  me  before  I  left  Athens,  at  the  close  of  my 
first  visit.  I  was  then  informed  that  the  Govern- 
ment was  negotiating  with  an  Austrian  bank  for 
the  right  of  establishing  a  lottery  from  which  the 
Greek  Archaeological  Society  would  receive  the  sum 


3<3  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

of  3,000,000  francs.  These  funds  would  enable  the 
Greeks  to  investigate  the  site  of  Delphi  themselves; 
but  I  suggested  the  possibility  of  co-operation  be- 
tween the  American  School  and  the  Greek  Archaeo- 
logical Society.  While  in  England  I  learned  that 
there  was  no  prospect  of  realizing  such  co-operation, 
and  that  the  Greek  Society  was  in  a  fair  way  to 
undertake  the  excavation  themselves.  But  upon  my 
arrival  in  March,  I  learned,  first,  that  the  lottery 
scheme  had  failed,  or  was  at  least  postponed ;  second, 
that  there  was  no  prospect  of  the  right  to  excavate 
being  conferred  upon  the  French ;  and  third,  that 
there  was  a  willingness  to  grant  it  to  the  Ameri- 
cans. Under  these  circumstances,  I  felt  at  liberty  to 
examine  the  question  anew,  with  a  view  to  obtaining 
the  grant  for  the  American  School.  I  had  an  inter- 
view with  the  Prime  Minister,  Mr.  Tricoupis,  and  he 
kindly  sent  me  the  official  valuation  of  Delphi  as 
made  by  the  Greek  authorities  and  by  the  French 
engineers.  The  total  of  the  estimate  in  the  Greek 
valuation  reached  the  figure  of  538,802  drachmas, 
and  of  the  French  engineers,  431,180  drachmas.  I 
was  allowed  to  keep  the  papers,  and  I  decided  to 
take  them,  as  well  as  Pomtow's  book  on  Delphi, 
which  had  just  appeared,  and  to  inspect  Delphi  be- 
fore I  returned  to  Athens. 

I  may  add  that,  after  leaving  Greece,  I  heard  from 
an  eminent  French  authority  that  the  French  were 
not  likely  to  be  in  a  position  to  undertake  the  exca- 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  31 

vation,  even  if  the  Greek  Government  gave  permis- 
sion. He  expressed  the  hope  that  in  the  interest  of 
science  some  responsible  body  would  soon  under- 
take and  perform  the  work.  I  wrote  to  the  French 
minister  at  Athens,  offering  to  meet  him  or  the  au- 
thorities of  the  French  School  at  Athens  at  any  place 
in  France  appointed  by  him,  in  order  to  explain  the 
situation  and  to  pay  due  regard  to  the  courtesy  which 
ought  to  be  sustained  between  the  Schools. 

On  March  29  I  started  with  Mr.  Tarbell  for 
Thebes,  where  he  left  me  to  join  Mr.  Rolfe  at  Thisbe, 
while  I  proceeded  to  inspect  the  site  of  Plataea.  The 
greatest  drawback  of  Plataea  as  a  site  for  excavation 
is  the  enormous  extent  of  the  town  walls,  and,  as 
yet,  the  absence  of  any  clew  to  the  situation  of  any 
of  the  important  ancient  buildings.  It  was  too  late 
in  the  season  to  begin  excavations  on  a  large  scale ; 
but  I  decided  that  it  was  desirable  to  make  tentative 
diggings  at  once  in  order  at  least  to  ascertain  whether 
it  would  be  worth  our  while  to  continue  next  season. 
I  then  rode  by  way  of  Eremokastro  (Thespiae)  to 
Thisbe,  where  I  arrived  on  March  31.  Mr.  Tarbell 
and  I  inspected  the  work  done  under  Mr.  Rolfe  (of 
which  a  fuller  report  will  be  sent),  and  we  all  agreed 
that  it  was  not  advisable  to  continue  excavations 
there.  Accordingly  we  started  early  next  day  with 
a  caravan  carrying  the  tools,  accompanied  by  a  num- 
ber of  the  workmen  from  Thebes  and  Kakosia,  over 
the  mountains  for  Plataea,  where  we  arrived  that  even- 


32 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


ing.  We  immediately  engaged  additional  workmen, 
and  at  six  o'clock  the  next  morning  (April  2),  we 
began  work  with  sixty-three  men.  Our  aim  was  to 
arrive  at  some  clew,  be  it  architectural,  epigraphical, 
or  artistic,  which  would  enable  us  to  determine  the 
ancient  Hellenic  portions  of  the  town,  upon  which  we 
could  then  concentrate  our  forces.  Ruined  Byzantine 
churches  are  notably  favorable  store-houses  of  such 
indications.  Plataea  possesses  no  less  than  nine  such 
ruined  churches.  Accordingly  we  divided  our  men 
into  three  parties.  Mr.  Tarbell  began  digging  in  and 
about  a  small  church  outside  the  wall  at  the  north- 
eastern side  of  the  town,  close  to  an  elevation  that 
looked  as  if  it  had  been  the  ancient  site  of  some  im- 
portant edifice  ;  Mr.  Rolfe  went  to  work  at  a  church 
within  the  walls,  to  the  south  of  the  one  upon  which 
Mr.  Tarbell  was  engaged;  while  I  dug  in  and  about 
a  church  beside  the  northeast  wall  of  the  city,  at  a 
point  which  I  thought  might  possibly  be  the  site  of 
the  ancient  Propylaea.  In  the  afternoon  Mr.  Tarbell 
and  I  found  it  desirable  to  shift  our  positions,  choos- 
ing the  two  churches  within  the  wall  on  the  north- 
east side,  near  the  spot  which  Leake  assigns  to  the 
acropolis  ;  while  Mr.  Rolfe  continued  digging  on  his 
site  during  this  day  and  part  of  the  next,  going  to  a 
considerable  depth,  and  finding  several  inscriptions 
and  late  sepulchral  slabs.  At  noon  the  next  day  our 
work  was  interrupted  by  rain ;  but  it  having  cleared 
up  shortly  before  sunset,  I  utilized  the  remaining  half- 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  33 

hour  by  employing  all  hands  in  clearing  away  the 
rubbish  from  the  ruins  of  a  church  near  the  well 
outside  the  walls,  on  the  road  to  the  village  of  Kokla, 
near  which  appeared  a  few  stones  of  classical  architec- 
ture, and  one  fair,  though  late,  sepulchral  slab.  The 
next  day  Mr.  Tarbell  left  us ;  but  before  going,  he 
cleared  away  the  rubbish  from  a  ruined  church  at 
the  south  end  of  the  walls,  where  Vischer  places 
the  ancient  city.  On  April  5  Mr.  Rolfe  and  I  re- 
sumed our  trial  excavations  at  the  northeast  end, 
which  seemed  on  the  whole  the  most  promising  place. 
Mr.  Rolfe  sunk  trenches  in  various  directions  to  de- 
termine if  possible  the  nature  of  some  of  the  walls, 
traces  of  which  were  manifest  on  the  soil ;  while  I  con- 
tinued working  at  the  church  at  which  Mr.  Tarbell 
had  been  digging  in  the  afternoon  of  the  first  day. 
This  church  (the  walls  of  which  were  all  under  ground) 
appeared  to  me  of  considerable  interest,  not  only  for 
the  promise  it  gave  with  regard  to  classical  remains, 
but  also  for  the  light  it  may  throw  upon  Byzantine 
architecture.  As  it  now  stands,  it  appears  to  have 
been  built  upon  and  out  of  the  ruins  of  an  earlier 
Byzantine  church,  as  some  interesting  architectural 
fragments  of  Byzantine  work  were  found  immured  in 
the  walls,  as  well  as  a  number  of  blocks  of  marble 
cornices  and  architraves  belonging  to  a  classical  build- 
ing of  considerable  importance,  besides  several  in- 
scriptions. Accordingly,  as  we  were  compelled  to 
bring  these  tentative  explorations  to  an  end  by  the 


34 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


6th  of  April,  Mr.  Rolfe  and  I  joined  forces  at  the 
church,  and  at  the  close  of  that  day  we  came  upon  a 
Latin  inscription  of  fifty-four  lines,  forming  part  of 
the  pavement  of  the  church,  which  proved  to  be  a 
portion  of  the  edict  of  Diocletian  De  pretiis  rerum 
venalium,  the  only  one  in  Latin  found  in  Greece 
proper.  It  will  be  advisable  to  continue  the  excava- 
tions at  this  church  next  season,  carrying  them  to 
considerable  depth.  I  am  now  in  possession,  too,  of 
some  other  clews  that  may  simplify  the  task  in  the 
future.  But  whatever  may  be  the  immediate  results  of 
the  excavations  as  such,  a  careful  study,  extended  over 
at  least  three  weeks,  of  the  topography  of  the  walls  of 
the  city  in  their  present  state  is  urgently  called  for, 
as  all  the  work  hitherto  done  and  published  fails  to 
present  a  satisfactory  description  of  a  city  which  is  as 
interesting  to  students  of  classical  topography  and 
history  as  it  is  intricate  in  plan.  Mr.  Rolfe  and  I 
spent  half  of  the  next  day  (April  7)  in  examining  the 
work  at  Plataea,  —  he  carefully  copying  the  inscription 
and  taking  squeezes ;  and  we  then  set  off  by  Thebes, 
Lebadeia,  and  Arachova  for  Delphi,  where  we  arrived 
on  the  evening  of  April  9.  We  immediately  began 
our  inspection  and  carried  it  on  through  the  next  day. 

I  also  met  the  chief  representatives  of  the  village  and 
conferred  with  them  as  to  the  terms  which  they  de- 
manded and  which  they  ought  to  demand.    On  April 

I I  we  returned  to  Athens  by  Itea.  I  then  had  further 
communication  with   Mr.  Tricoupis,  with  the  result 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


35 


that  he  promises  personally,  as  Prime  Minister,  to 
reserve  the  privilege  of  excavating  Delphi  for  the 
American  School  till  the  end  of  December  of  this 
year,  provided  funds  can  be  raised  to  expropriate  the 
village  of  Castri.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  exca- 
vation of  Delphi  will  be  a  gigantic  operation  ;  but  as 
far  as  it  is  possible  to  predict  in  such  matters,  it  looks 
as  though  it  would  repay  any  sacrifice.  The  work 
would  require  a  large  staff  of  experts,  beginning  with 
an  entirely  competent  engineer,  and  must  be  done 
thoroughly  if  at  all.  It  now  remains  to  be  seen  whether 
there  is  in  America  any  man  possessed  of  sufficient 
enthusiasm  for  the  great  past  of  Hellenic  civilization 
who  is  able  and  willing  to  associate  his  name  with  one 
of  the  greatest  undertakings  in  the  excavations  of 
classic  sites,  to  be  classed  only  with  those  of  Olym- 
pia  and  Pompeii. 

Dr.  Dorpfeld  beginning  his  girt  in  Peloponnesus 
on  April  14,  I  availed  myself  of  the  opportunity  to 
examine  in  his  company  some  of  the  sites  which  he 
had  himself  excavated,  with  a  view  to  instructing 
myself  in  his  system  of  carrying  on  such  work.  We 
visited  Corinth,  Epidaurus,  Tiryns,  Argos,  and  My- 
cenae, and  I  returned  to  Athens  on  April  17.  As 
being,  perhaps,  part  of  my  official  duties,  I  may 
mention  that  I  have  been  asked  by  the  Greek  authori- 
ties to  write  a  Report  on  the  formation  of  the  Mu- 
seum of  Casts  which  it  is  designed  to  establish  at 
Athens.    I  was  busy  with  the  affairs  of  the  School 


36 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


till  April  20,  when  I  left  Athens,  proceeding  to  Con- 
stantinople on  my  way  to  England,  in  order  to  es- 
tablish friendly  relations  with  Hamdi  Bey,  the  leader 
in  archaeological  matters  in  the  Turkish  empire. 


CHARLES  WALDSTEIN, 

Director. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ANNUAL  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  fol- 
lowing Report: 

Eight  students  have  been  connected  with  the 
School  for  longer  or  shorter  periods  during  the  year 
1888-89;  namely,  Messrs.  Buck,  Quinn,  Rolfe,  Kalo- 
pothakes,  Lodge,  Washington,  and  Misses  Norcross 
and  Slater.  At  the  time  of  writing,  Messrs.  Buck, 
Quinn,  Rolfe,  Lodge,  and  Washington  have  left 
Greece.  Miss  Norcross  goes  this  week  to  Italy,  and 
Miss  Slater  to  Volo.  The  only  one  of  the  eight 
who  will  have  spent  the  whole  time  from  October  1 
to  May  31  in  Greek  lands  is  Mr.  Kalopothakes. 

Except  during  the  time  of  Dr.  Waldstein's  first  visit, 
I  held  three  exercises  a  week  with  the  students  till 
toward  the  end  of  the  winter.  One  of  these  exercises 
was  devoted  to  the  architectural  remains  of  ancient 
Athens,  one  to  inscriptions,  and  one  to  reading  Greek 
(Aeschylus'  Persae,  Pausanias,  Plutarch's  Pericles). 

The  meetings  organized  by  Dr.  Waldstein  for  the 
presentation  of  papers  were  kept  up  after  his  de- 
parture, though  it  proved  impossible  to  hold  them 


38 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


regularly  once  a  fortnight  as  he  proposed.  Five 
such  meetings  in  all  were  held,  with  the  following 
programmes :  — 

I.  Dr.  Waldstein,  The  Head  of  Iris  from  the  Parthenon 
Frieze.    Dr.  Tarbell,  No/mot  and  Wrj^la/jLara. 
II.  Mr.  Buck,  The  Choregia  at  Icaria.    Dr.  Tarbell,  Dedi- 
catory Inscriptions  from  the  Deme  Plotheia.  Dr. 
Waldstein,  Notes  on  the  Athenian  Museums. 

III.  Mr.  Buck,  The  Topography  of  Epacria.     Dr.  Rolfe, 

Notes  on  the  Epidaurian  Architectural  Inscription. 

IV.  Mr.  Lodge,  The  Psephism  Relating  to  the  Temple  of 

Aphrodite  Pandemus  in  Athens.  Mr.  Quinn,  Aegi- 
planctus  and  Arachnaeum.  Dr.  Tarbell,  The  Attic 
Phratries. 

V.  Mr.  W.  J.  Stillman,  Evidences  of  Prehistoric  Civiliza- 
tion in  Italy  and  Greece. 

These  meetings  were  attended  by  a  considerable 
number  of  archaeologists  living  in  Athens,  as  well  as 
by  the  members  of  the  School. 

Most  of  the  students  have  submitted  or  will  sub- 
mit special  theses.  Mr.  Buck,  besides  completing  his 
account  of  the  Icarian  discoveries,  will  edit  jointly 
with  me  the  inscriptions  found  at  Anthedon.  Mr. 
Rolfe  will  report  on  the  excavations  conducted  by 
him  in  Boeotia,  and  will  edit  with  me  the  inscrip- 
tions found  at  Thisbe  and  Plataea.  Mr.  Washington 
has  prepared  an  account  of  the  work  done  at  his  own 
expense  at  Stamata.  Mr.  Kalopothakes  is  writing  on 
Greek  and  Graeco-Roman  Propylaea,  Miss  Norcross 
on  the  Archaic  Female  Statues  found  on  the  Acropo- 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


39 


lis,  Miss  Slater  on  Country  Life  in  Attica  in  the  fifth 
and  fourth  centuries  b.  c.  Mr.  Quinn  has  promised 
a  paper  on  the  Modern  Greek  Language. 

The  library  has  received  during  the  year  a  number 
of  gifts ;  namely,  from  the  Society  of  Dilettanti,  Pen- 
rose's Athenian  Architecture  (2d  ed.) ;  from  Mme. 
Z.  A.  Ragozin,  Chaldea,  Assyria,  and  Media  (in  the 
Story  of  the  Nations  Series) ;  from  Mr.  H.  S.  Wash- 
ington, Neumann  und  Partsch's  Physikalische  Geo- 
graphic von  Griechenland,  and  Olivier's  Grammaire 
Elementaire  du  Grec  Moderne ;  from  Dr.  Waldstein, 
Mahaffy's  Greek  Life  and  Thought,  and  Baedeker's 
Greece  (Eng.  ed.) ;  from  Mr.  Staneff,  Lansing's  Arabic 
Manual ;  from  Professor  G.  N.  Hatzidakes,  a  volume 
containing  two  essays  by  himself  on  the  modern 
Greek  language ;  from  Mr.  Kampouroglos,  'laropia 
tcov  ' AOrjvaCcov  (I.,  II.);  from  Dr.  J.  C.  Rolfe,  Macau- 
lay's  Lays  of  Ancient  Rome  and  Adams's  Greek 
Prepositions ;  from  Mr.  C.  D.  Buck,  Maspero's  Arche- 
ologie  Egyptienne ;  from  the  Trustees  of  the  British 
Museum,  Catalogue  of  Greek  Coins  (Corinth,  etc.); 
from  Mr.  D.  Quinn,  Kontopoulos's  'AOavaaia  rrjs 
'EWrjvLKrjs  TXaxTcrrjS. 

I  have  bought  very  few  books,  except  such  as  had 
been  subscribed  for  before  I  came. 

The  whole  library  has  been  rearranged,  the  shelves 
have  been  provided  with  numbers,  and  the  books 
and  catalogue-cards  have  been  marked  with  the  ap- 
propriate shelf-numbers. 


4Q 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


I  have  had  photographs  struck  off  from  most  of 
the  negatives  in  the  possession  of  the  School.  These 
have  been  mounted  on  thin  cardboard,  and  are  de- 
posited in  one  of  the  library  drawers. 

Dr.  Waldstein's  Report  tells  of  the  excavations 
which  were  conducted  during  the  year.  Mr.  Buck 
finished  his  work  at  Dionysos  without  important  new 
discoveries.  Mr.  Washington's  explorations  at  Sta- 
mata  were  of  value  chiefly  as  fixing  the  site  of  the 
deme  Plotheia.  The  work  at  Anthedon  brought  to 
light  the  substructions  of  two  buildings,  some  twenty- 
five  bronze  tools,  a  few  small  objects  in  terra-cotta, 
and  fifty  or  sixty  new  inscriptions. 

At  Thisbe  and  Plataea  were  found  twenty-five  or 
thirty  new  inscriptions,  of  which  the  most  important 
is  a  large  fragment  of  the  preamble  to  Diocletian's 
Edict  De pretiis  rerum  venalium.  The  $500  given  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  last  autumn  covered  ex- 
penses at  Dionysos,  Anthedon,  and  Thisbe.  The 
expenses  at  Plataea  were  paid  out  of  money  collected 
by  Dr.  Waldstein. 

F.  B.  TARBELL, 
Annual  Director  for  1888-89. 

Athens,  April  29,  1889. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


41 


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42 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


A  Brief  Statement  of  the  Expenditures  for  the  Building  of  the 
American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  1886-89. 

Materials  purchased  in  America  

Services  and  office  expenses  in  America  .... 

Freight  to  Athens,  and  delivery  

Materials  and  labor  in  Athens  (124,360.71  dr.)  .  . 

Architect's  expenses  in  Athens   . 

Total  cost  of  Building  

As  has  been  stated  in  previous  Reports  of  the  School,  liberal  gifts 
have  been  received  for  the  building,  among  which  the  following  may 
be  enumerated  here  :  from  Messrs.  J.  B.  and  J.  M.  Norcross,  the  iron 
staircase,  extending  from  cellar  to  roof ;  from  the  Hopkins  and  Dickin- 
son Manufacturing  Company,  all  the  hardware  required  for  the  build- 
ing ;  from  the  Sanitas  Company,  plumbing-fittings  ;  from  Messrs.  A.  H. 
Davenport  and  Company,  and  from  Messrs.  Norcross  Brothers,  hand- 
some mantel-pieces  for  the  library  and  the  dining-room,  respectively ; 
from  the  Belcher  Mosaic  Glass  Co.,  and  from  Mr.  W.  J.  McPherson, 
decorative  panels  for  the  outer  door,  and  a  beautiful  window  for  the 
staircase ;  from  Mr.  E.  H.  Kendall,  a  mantel-piece  for  another  room. 

The  land  on  which  the  building  stands,  a  plot  of  about  an  acre  and 
a  half  in  area,  is  a  most  munificent  gift  of  the  Greek  Government. 
It  adjoins  the  land  similarly  given  to  the  British  School  of  Archaeology, 
on  the  southern  slope  of  Mount  Lycabettus,  commanding  an  extensive 
and  beautiful  prospect,  from  Hymettus  over  the  Aegean,  with  Aegina 
and  the  mountains  of  Argolis,  to  Salamis.  The  Acropolis  stands 
out  boldly  in  the  middle  ground. 

The  building  contains  the  library,  the  usual  place  of  assembly  for 
the  school,  a  beautiful  light  room  about  thirty  feet  square,  and  beneath 
this  a  number  of  rooms  for  students,  and  in  the  basement  conven- 
iences for  photographic  work.  Independent  of  the  library  wing  is 
the  main  building,  about  fifty  feet  square,  with  a  fine  entrance  hall  and 
monumental  staircase,  the  large  drawing-room  and  the  study,  and  an 
ample  suite  of  living-rooms  for  the  Director  of  the  School.  In  the 
upper  story  there  are  two  loggias  for  summer  and  winter  use,  and 
the  flat  roof  affords  upon  occasion  a  delightful  place  for  enjoying  the 
view  and  the  air. 


$  5,666.91 
1,500.98 
1,902.37 
I9.37S-40 
1,243.40 

^29,689.06 


THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


OCTOBER,  1889. 

The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  founded  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  and  organized  under  the 
auspices  of  some  of  the  leading  American  Colleges,  was  opened  Octo- 
ber 2,  1882.  During  the  first  five  years  of  its  existence  it  occupied 
a  hired  house  on  the  eOS6?  'AfxaXtas  in  Athens,  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Olympieion.  A  large  and  convenient  building  has  now  been  erected 
for  the  School  on  a  piece  of  land,  granted  by  the  generous  liberality  of 
the  Government  of  Greece,  on  the  southeastern  slope  of  Mount  Lyca- 
bettus,  adjoining  the  ground  already  occupied  by  the  English  School. 
This  permanent  home  of  the  School,  built  by  the  subscriptions  of  its 
friends  in  the  United  States,  was  ready  for  occupation  early  in  1888. 

The  new  building  contains  the  apartments  to  be  occupied  by  the 
Director  and  his  family,  and  a  large  room  which  will  be  used  as  a 
library  and  also  as  a  general  reading-room  and  place  of  meeting  for 
the  whole  School.  A  few  rooms  in  the  house  are  intended  for  the 
use  of  students.  These  will  be  assigned  by  the  Director,  under  such 
regulations  as  he  may  establish,  to  as  many  members  of  the  School  as 
they  will  accommodate.  Each  student  admitted  to  the  privilege  of  a 
room  in  the  house  will  be  expected  to  undertake  the  performance  of 
some  service  to  the  School,  to  be  determined  by  the  Director ;  such, 
for  example,  as  keeping  the  accounts  of  the  School,  taking  charge  of 
the  delivery  of  books  from  the  Library  and  their  return,  and  keeping 
up  the  catalogue  of  the  Library. 

The  Library  now  contains  more  than  1,600  volumes,  exclusive  of 
sets  of  periodicals.  It  includes  a  complete  set  of  the  Greek  classics 
and  the  most  necessary  books  of  reference  for  philological,  archaeologi- 
cal, and  architectural  study  in  Greece. 

The  advantages  of  the  School  are  offered  free  of  expense  for  tuition 
to  graduates  of  the  Colleges  co-operating  in  its  support,  and  to  other 


44 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


American  students  who  are  deemed  by  the  Committee  of  sufficient 
promise  to  warrant  the  extension  to  them  of  the  privilege  of  member- 
ship. It  is  hoped  that  the  Archaeological  Institute  may  in  time  be 
supplied  with  the  means  of  establishing  scholarships,  which  will  aid 
some  members  in  defraying  their  expenses  at  the  School.  In  the 
mean  time,  students  must  rely  upon  their  own  resources,  or  upon 
scholarships  which  may  be  granted  them  by  the  Colleges  to  which 
they  belong.  The  amount  needed  for  the  expenses  of  an  eight 
months'  residence  in  Athens  differs  little  from  that  required  in  other 
European  capitals,  and  depends  chiefly  on  the  economy  of  the 
individual. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  temporary  organization  of  the  School  dur- 
ing its  first  six  years,  which  has  distinguished  it  from  the  older  German 
and  French  Schools  at  Athens,  has  been  the  yearly  change  of  Director. 
This  arrangement,  by  which  a  new  Director  has  been  sent  out  each  year 
by  one  of  the  co-operating  Colleges,  was  never  looked  upon  as  perma- 
nent. The  School  will  henceforth  be  under  the  control  of  a  permanent 
Director,  who  by  continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate  that 
body  of  local  and  special  knowledge  without  which  the  highest  purpose 
of  such  a  school  cannot  be  fulfilled,  while  an  Annual  Director  also  will 
be  sent  out  each  year  by  one  of  the  Colleges  to  assist  in  the  conduct  of 
the  School.  (See  Regulation  V.)  The  School  has  been  able,  even  under 
its  temporary  organization,  to  meet  a  most  pressing  want,  and  to  be  of 
service  to  classical  scholarship  in  America.  It  has  sought  at  first,  and 
it  must  continue  to  seek  for  the  present,  rather  to  arouse  a  lively  inter- 
est in  classical  archaeology  in  American  Colleges  than  to  accomplish 
distinguished  achievements.  The  lack  of  this  interest  has  heretofore 
been  conspicuous  ;  but  without  it  the  School  at  Athens,  however  well 
endowed,  can  never  accomplish  the  best  results.  A  decided  improve- 
ment in  this  respect  is  already  apparent ;  and  it  is  beyond  question 
that  the  presence  in  many  American  Colleges  of  professors  who  have 
been  resident  a  year  at  Athens  under  favorable  circumstances,  as  an- 
nual directors  or  as  students  of  the  School,  has  done  much,  and  will 
do  still  more,  to  stimulate  intelligent  interest  in  classic  antiquity. 

The  address  of  the  Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  is 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  New  Haven,  Conn. ;  that  of  the  Secretary, 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


45 


REGULATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

OCTOBER,  1889. 

1.  The  object  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  is  to 
furnish  an  opportunity  to  study  Classical  Literature,  Art,  and  Antiqui- 
ties in  Athens,  under  suitable  guidance,  to  graduates  of  American 
Colleges  and  to  other  qualified  students ;  to  prosecute  and  to  aid 
original  research  in  these  subjects ;  and  to  co-operate  with  the  Arch- 
aeological Institute  of  America,  so  far  as  it  may  be  able,  in  conducting 
the  exploration  and  excavation  of  classic  sites. 

II.  The  School  is  in  charge  of  a  Managing  Committee.  This  Com- 
mittee, which  was  originally  appointed  by  the  Archaeological  Institute, 
disburses  the  annual  income  of  the  School,  and  has  power  to  add  to 
its  membership  and  to  make  such  regulations  for  the  government  of 
the  School  as  it  may  deem  proper.  The  President  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute  and  the  Director  and  Annual  Director  of  the  School 
are  ex-officio  members  of  the  Committee. 

III.  The  Managing  Committee  meets  semi-annually,  —  in  New 
York  on  the  third  Friday  in  November,  and  in  Boston  on  the  third 
Friday  in  May.  Special  meetings  may  be  called  at  any  time  by  the 
Chairman. 

IV.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  is  the  official  representative 
of  the  interests  of  the  School  in  America.  He  presents  a  Report 
annually  to  the  Archaeological  Institute  concerning  the  affairs  of  the 
School. 

V.  1.  The  School  is  under  the  superintendence  of  a  Director. 
The  Director  is  chosen  and  his  salary  is  fixed  by  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee. The  term  for  which  he  is  chosen  is  five  years.  The  Com- 
mittee provides  him  with  a  house  in  Athens  containing  apartments 
for  himself  and  his  family,  and  suitable  rooms  for  the  meetings  of 
the  members  of  the  School,  its  collections,  and  its  library. 

2.  Each  year  the  Committee  appoints  from  the  instructors  of  the 
Colleges  uniting  in  the  support  of  the  School  an  Annual  Director, 
who  resides  in  Athens  during  the  ensuing  year  and  co-operates  in 


46 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  conduct  of.  the  School.  In  case  of  the  illness  or  absence  of  the 
Director,  the  Annual  Director  acts  as  Director  for  the  time  being. 

VI.  The  Director  superintends  personally  the  work  of  each  mem- 
ber of  the  School,  advising  him  in  what  direction  to  turn  his  studies, 
and  assisting  him  in  their  prosecution.  He  conducts  no  regular 
courses  of  instruction,  but  holds  meetings  of  the  members  of  the 
School  at  stated  times  for  consultation  and  discussion.  He  makes  a 
full  Report  annually  to  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  work  accom- 
plished by  the  School. 

VII.  The  school  year  extends  from  the  ist  of  October  to  the  ist 
of  June.  Members  are  required  to  prosecute  their  studies  during  the 
whole  of  this  time  in  Greek  lands  under  the  supervision  of  the  Direc- 
tor. The  studies  of  the  remaining  four  months  necessary  to  complete 
a  full  year  (the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given)  may  be 
carried  on  in  Greece  or  elsewhere,  as  the  student  prefers. 

VIII.  Bachelors  of  Arts  of  co-operating  Colleges,  and  all  Bachelors 
of  Arts  who  have  studied  at  one  of  these  Colleges  as  candidates  for  a 
higher  degree,  are  admitted  to  membership  in  the  School  on  present- 
ing to  the  Committee  a  certificate  from  the  instructors  in  classics  of 
the  College  at  which  they  have  last  studied,  stating  that  they  are  com- 
petent to  pursue  an  independent  course  of  study  at  Athens  under  the 
advice  of  the  Director.  All  other  persons  who  desire  to  become 
members  of  the  School  must  make  application  to  the  Committee. 
Members  of  the  School  are  subject  to  no  charge  for  tuition.  The 
Committee  reserves  the  right  to  modify  the  conditions  of  member- 
ship. 

IX.  Each  member  of  the  School  must  pursue  some  definite  subject 
of  study  or  research  in  Classical  Literature,  Art,  or  Antiquities,  and 
must  present  a  thesis  or  report  embodying  the  results  of  some  impor- 
tant part  of  his  year's  work.  These  theses,  if  approved  by  the  Direc- 
tor, are  sent  to  the  Managing  Committee,  by  which  each  thesis  is 
referred  to  a  Sub -Committee  of  three,  of  whom  one  is  always  the 
Director  under  whose  supervision  the  thesis  was  prepared.  If  recom- 
mended for  publication  by  this  Committee,  the  thesis  or  report  will 
be  issued  in  the  Papers  of  the  School. 

X.  All  work  of  excavation,  of  investigation,  or  of  any  other  kind 
done  by  any  student  in  connection  with  the  School  shall  be  regarded 
as  done  for  the  School  and  by  the  School,  and  shall  be  under  the 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


47 


supervision  and  control  of  the  Director,  who  shall  also,  in  conjunction 
with  the  Committee  on  Publications,  supervise  and  control  all  publi- 
cation of  the  results  (including  communications  to  public  journals), 
giving  full  acknowledgment  for  work  done  by  the  student. 

XI.  When  any  member  of  the  School  has  completed  one  or  more 
full  years  of  study,  the  results  of  which  have  been  approved  by  the 
Director,  he  receives  a  certificate  stating  the  work  accomplished  by 
him,  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  School,  the  President  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute,  and  the  Chairman  and  the  Secretary  of  the 
Managing  Committee. 

XII.  American  students  resident  or  travelling  in  Greece  who  are 
not  regular  members  of  the  School  may,  at  the  discretion  of  the 
Director,  be  enrolled  as  special  students  and  enjoy  the  privileges  of 
the  School. 


48 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1882-1889. 

The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee  may  be  had  gratis  on  application  to 
the  Secretary  of  the  Managing  Committee.  The  other  publications  are  for  sale 
by  Messrs.  Damrell,  Upham  &  Co.,  283  Washington  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

First,  Second,  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Managing  Commit- 
tee, 1881-84.    pp.  30. 

Fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1884-85.    pp.  30. 

Fifth  and  Sixth  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee,  1885-87. 
pp.  56. 

Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1887-88,  with  the 
Report  of  Professor  D'Ooge  (Director  in  1886-87)  an<^  tnat  of 
Professor  Merriam  (Director  in  1887-88).    pp.  115. 

Bulletin  I.  Report  of  Professor  William  W.  Goodwin,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1882-83.    pp.  33.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  II.  Memoir  of  Professor  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1883-84,  with  Resolutions  of  the  Committee  and  the 
Report  for  1883-84.    pp.  34.    Price  25  cents. 

Preliminary  Report  of  an  Archaeological  Journey  made  in  Asia 
Minor  during  the  Summer  of  1884.  By  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 
pp.  45.    Price  25  cents. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  SCHOOL. 

Volume  I.  1882-83.  Published  in  1885.  8vo.  pp.  viii  and  262. 
Illustrated.    Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R.  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier. 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salamis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


49 


Volume  II.,  1883-84.  containing  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett's  Report  of 
his  Journey  in  Asia  Minor  in  1884,  with  Inscriptions,  and  two  new 
Maps  by  Professor  H.  Kiepert.  Published  in  1888.  8vo.  pp.  344. 
Price  $2.25. 

Volume  III.,  1884-85,  containing  Dr.  Sterrett's  Report  of  the  Wolfe 
Expedition  to  Asia  Minor  in  1885,  with  Inscriptions,  mostly  hitherto 
unpublished,  and  two  new  Maps  by  Professor  Kiepert.  Published  in 
1888.    8vo.  pp.  448.    Price  #2.50. 

Volume  IV.  1885-86.  Published  in  1888.  8vo.  pp.  277.  Illus- 
trated.   Price  $2.00. 

Contents  :  — 

1.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Preliminary  Report,  by  Walter  Miller. 

2.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Supplementary  Report,  by  William  L.  Cushing. 

3.  On  Greek  Versification  in  Inscriptions,  by  Frederic  D.  Allen. 

4.  The  Athenian  Pnyx,  by  John  M.  Crow  ;  with  a  Survey  of  the  Pnyx  and 
Notes,  by  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke. 

5.  Notes  on  Attic  Vocalism,  by  J.  McKeen  Lewis. 


CIRCULAR  OF  INFORMATION  FOR  STUDENTS  WHO 
PROPOSE  TO  JOIN  THE  SCHOOL. 

OCTOBER,  1889. 

Students  in  Athens  will  find  a  knowledge  of  German  and  French 
of  the  utmost  service  in  all  their  work. 

The  books  in  the  following  lists  of  which  the  titles  are  printed  in 
the  larger  type  are  recommended  to  students  as  an  introduction  to  the 
different  branches  of  Greek  Archaeology.  The  more  special  works, 
whose  titles  are  printed  in  smaller  type,  are  recommended  as  books 
of  reference  and  for  students  whose  department  of  special  study  is 
already  determined. 

LIST  OF  BOOKS. 
GENERAL  WORKS. 

Pausanias. 

Collignon :  Manual  of  Greek  Archaeology  (translated  by  J.  H. 
Wright). 

4 


5o 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Guhl  and  Koner  :  Life  of  the  Ancient  Greeks  and  Romans. 
Baumeister  :  Denkmaler  des  klassischen  Altertums. 
C.  O.  Miiller  :  Ancient  Art  and  its  Remains. 
Taine  :  Philosophic  de  l'Art  en  Grece. 

S.  Reinach :  Manuel  de  Philologie  classique. 

Stark :  Systematik  und  Geschichte  der  Archaologie  der  Kunst. 

C.  T.  Newton  :  Essays  on  Art  and  Archaeology. 

Burnouf  :  Me  moires  sur  l'Antiquite. 

Boeckh-Fr'ankel :  Die  Staatshaushaltung  der  Athener. 

K.  F.  Hermann :  Lehrbuch  der  griechischen  Antiquitaten. 

Daremberg  et  Saglio  :  Dictionnaire  des  Antiquites. 

Pottier  et  Reinach  :  La  Necropole  de  Myrina. 

Beule  :  L'Art  grec  avant  Pericles. 

Ruskin :  Aratra  Pentelici. 

ARCHITECTURE. 
Durm  :  Die  Baukunst  der  Griechen. 

Von  Reber  :  History  of  Ancient  Art  (translated  by  Clarke). 

Penrose :  Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture,  2d  ed. 

Michaelis :  Der  Parthenon. 

Fergusson :  The  Parthenon. 

Bohn:  Die  Propylaeen  der  Akropolis  zu  Athen. 

Boutmy :  Philosophie  de  l'Architecture  en  Grece. 

Papers  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America.  Report  on  the  Investiga- 
tions at  Assos. 

SCULPTURE. 

Mrs.  Lucy  M.  Mitchell :  History  of  Ancient  Sculpture. 
A.  S.  Murray  :  History  of  Greek  Sculpture. 
Overbeck  :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Plastik. 
Overbeck  :  Die  antiken  Schriftquellen  zur  Geschichte  der  bildenden 
Kiinste. 

Waldstein :  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidias. 
Petersen  :  Die  Kunst  des  Pheidias. 
Collignon :  Phidias. 

Brunn  :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Kunstler. 
Heuzey:  Catalogue  des  Terres  Cuites  clu  Louvre. 

Friedrichs-Wolters :  Bausteine  zur  Geschichte  der  griechisch-romischen 
Plastik. 

P.  Paris :  La  Sculpture  Antique. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


51 


VASES. 

Rayet  et  Collignon  :  Histoire  de  la  Ceramique  grecque. 
Dumont  et  Chaplain  :  Les  Ceramiques  de  la  Grece  propre. 
Furtwangler  und  Loeschcke  :  Mykenische  Vasen. 

Birch  :  History  of  Ancient  Pottery. 

Von  Rohden  :  Vasenkunde,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler. 
Furtwangler:  Vasensammlung  im  Antiquarium  (Berlin). 
Klein :  Euphronios. 

Klein  :  Die  griechischen  Vasen  mit  Meistersignaturen. 

COINS. 

Percy  Gardner  :  Types  of  Greek  Coins. 
Head  :  Historia  Numorum. 

Catalogues  of  Coins  of  the  British  Museum. 

EPIGRAPHY. 
Roberts  :  Introduction  to  Greek  Epigraphy. 
Dittenberger :  Sylloge  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Kirchhoff :  Geschichte  des  griechischen  Alphabets. 
Hicks  :  Greek  Historical  Inscriptions. 
S.  Reinach  :  Traite  d'Epigraphie  grecque. 

Hinrichs  :  Griechische  Epigraphik,  in  Midler's  Handbuch  der  Altertumswis- 
senschaft,  Vol.  I. 

Cauer  :  Delectus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Collitz  :  Sammlung  der  griechischen  Dialektinschriften. 

Meisterhans  :  Grammatik  der  attischen  Inschriften. 

G.  Meyer :  Griechische  Grammatik. 

Roehl :  Inscriptiones  Graecae  Antiquissimae. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Atticarum. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Loewy  :  Inschriften  griechischer  Bildhauer. 

Reinach  :  Conseils  au  Voyageur  archeologue  en  Grece. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 
Baedeker:  Greece  (latest  edition) . 
Guides  Joanne  :  Athenes  et  ses  environs  (latest  edition). 
Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Atlas  von  Athen. 
Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Karten  von  Attika  (erlauternder  Text). 

Bursian :  Geographie  von  Griechenland. 
Tozer  :  Geography  of  Greece. 

Lolling :  Topographie  von  Griechenland,  in  Midler's  Handbuch  der  Alter- 
tumswissenschaft,  Vol.  III. 


52 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Leake :  Travels  in  Northern  Greece. 
Leake  :  Topography  of  Athens. 
Leake  :  Travels  in  the  Morea. 
E.  Curtius :  Peloponnesos. 

Jahn-Michaelis :  Pausaniae  descriptio  arcis  Athenarum,  1880. 

Wachsmuth:  Die  Stadt  Athen  im  Alterthum. 

Hertzberg:  Athen. 

Dyer :  Ancient  Athens. 

Burnouf :  La  Ville  et  l'Acropole  d'Athenes. 

Botticher :  Die  Akropolis  von  Athen. 

Botticher :  Olympia. 

Pomtow  :  Beitrage  zur  Topographie  von  Delphi. 
(Murray's  Handbook  for  Travellers  in  Greece.) 

MYTHOLOGY. 
Preller :  Griechische  Mythologie. 

Roscher  :  Lexikon  der  griechischen  und  romischen  Mythologie. 
Seemann  :  Mythologie  der  Griechen  und  Romer. 
Collignon  :  Mythologie  figuree  de  la  Grece. 
Decharme  :  Mythologie  de  la  Grece  antique. 

Welcker  :  Griechische  Gotterlehre. 
(Burnouf:  La  Legende  athenienne.) 
(Ruskin:  Queen  of  the  Air.) 

PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin  de  Correspondance  hellenique. 

Mittheilungen  des  deutschen  Archaeologischen  Instituts. 

Jahrbuch  des  deutschen  Archaeologischen  Instituts. 

American  Journal  of  Archaeology. 

Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies. 

'E^/xepis  ' KpyaioXoyiKiq. 

UpaKTLKa  rrjs  iv  'A^j/cus  'Ap^atoAoytK^?  'Eraipta?. 
AcXtlov  'ApxaioXoyiKov. 

Archaeologisch-epigraphische  Mittheilungen  aus  Oesterreich. 
Revue  Archeologique. 
Gazette  Archeologique. 

MODERN  GREEK. 

Vincent  and  Dickson  :  Handbook  to  Modern  Greek. 
Contopoulos  :  Modern  Greek  and  English  Lexicon. 
Jannarakis  :  Neugriechisch-deutsches  Worterbuch. 


EIGHTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


53 


TRAVEL  AND  EXPENSES. 

Students  wishing  to  travel  from  the  United  States  to  Athens  with  the  greatest 
economy  of  time  and  money  are  advised  to  sail  from  New  York  to  Havre,  Ant- 
werp, Bremen,  or  Hamburg.  The  cost  of  the  sea  voyage  varies  from  $40  to 
$125.  From  the  port  of  landing  the  journey  to  Athens  may  be  made  for  about 
$100  (first  class)  or  $65  (second  class),  including  ordinary  expenses.  Three 
routes  are  available  for  the  voyage  to  Athens  upon  the  Mediterranean,  —  from 
Marseilles,  by  the  Messageries  Maritimes  steamers,  or  by  the  Fraissinet  or 
Florio-Rubattino  line;  from  Brindisi,  by  Greek  or  Italian  steamers  or  the  Aus- 
trian Lloyd  ;  from  Trieste,  by  the  Austrian  Lloyd.  Before  securing  passage 
by  any  of  these  lines,  care  should  be  taken  to  ascertain  that  the  Greek  Govern- 
ment has  not  established  a  quarantine  against  the  port  of  departure.  Quaran- 
tined ports  are  to  be  avoided  if  possible,  as  the  delay  on  landing  from  them  is 
tedious  and  costly. 

The  quickest  route  is  by  steamer  from  Brindisi  to  Patras  (a  little  more  than 
twenty-four  hours),  and  thence  by  rail  to  Athens  (about  eight  hours).  The 
routes  through  the  Gulf  of  Corinth  and  around  Peloponnesus  are  very  attractive 
in  good  weather. 

It  is  hot  advisable  to  attempt  to  sail  directly  from  New  York  to  the  Piraeus 
during  the  summer  months,  on  account  of  the  danger  of  quarantine.  The  voy- 
age by  this  route  (by  the  Florio  steamers),  which  is  to  be  recommended  at  other 
seasons,  takes  about  three  weeks,  and  costs  $150  (first  class). 

At  the  large  hotels  in  Athens,  board  and  lodging  can  be  obtained  for  $14  per 
week;  at  small  hotels  and  in  private  families  for  $5  50  per  week  and  upward. 
A  limited  number  of  students  may  have  rooms,  without  board,  in  the  new  School 
building.  The  figures  here  given  represent  maximum  estimates,  and  careful 
economy  may  reduce  actual  expenses  below  them.  The  student  should  go  well 
supplied  with  clothing  and  similar  necessities  for  his  stay,  as  all  such  articles 
are  expensive  in  Athens ;  and  in  providing  these  he  must  not  count  too  much 
on  a  warm  climate  during  the  winter.  He  should  encumber  himself  with  as  few 
books  as  possible  in  travelling ;  the  School  library,  which  now  contains  more 
than  sixteen  hundred  volumes,  provides  all  the  books  that  are  most  essential  for 
study  in  Greece. 

Members  of  the  School  are  required  to  study  in  Athens,  or  in  such  Greek  lands 
as  the  Director  of  the  School  may  approve,  between  October  1  and  June  x. 


^itjmolojgifal  Institute  of  Omenta. 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OK  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1889-90. 
JSKitfj  tfje  2ftqjorts  of 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  Ph.D.,  Litt.D.,  L.H.D.,  Director, 

AND 

S.  STANHOPE  ORRIS,  Ph.D.,  L.H.D.,  Annual  Director. 
1   


CAMBRIDGE: 
JOHN    WILSON    AND  SON. 

1890. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


JHanagmu  Committee. 

1889-90. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  {Chairman),  Yale  University,  New  Haven, 
Conn. 

H.  M.  Baird,  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 

I.  T.  Beckwith,  Trinity  College,  Hartford,  Conn. 

Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York  City. 

Miss  A.  C.  Chapin,  Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Mass. 

Martin  L.  D"Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York  City. 

O.  M.  Fernald,  Williams  College,  Williamstown,  Mass. 

A.  F.  Fleet,  University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Mo. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 

William  W.  Goodwin,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

William  G.  Hale,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 

Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 

William  A.  Lamberton,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Miss  Abby  Leach,  Vassar  College,  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y. 

Seth  Low  (ex  officio :  President  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of 

America),  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary),  Cottage  Lawn,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Richard  H.  Mather,*  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

*  Died  April  16,  1S90. 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Augustus  C.  Merriam  {Chairman  of  Committee  on  Publications), 
Columbia  College,  640  Madison  Ave.,  New  York  City. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

S.  Stanhope  Orris  (ex  officio :  Annual  Director  of  the  School),  Col- 
lege of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 

Francis  W.  Palfrey,*  255  Beacon  St.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Bernadotte  Perrin,  Adelbert  College  of  Western  Reserve  University, 
Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer*),  7  East  42d  St.,  New  York  City. 
William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 
Fitz  Gerald  Tisdall,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 
James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 
Charles  Waldstein  (ex  officio  :  Director  of  the  School),  Cambridge, 
England. 

William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
John  Williams  White,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 


l£xccuttbe  (Committee. 

1889-90. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  (Chairman). 

William  W.  Goodwin. 

Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary). 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer) . 

William  R.  Ware. 


*  Died  December  5,  1889. 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


5 


©taction  of  tf)c  BcbooL 

1882-  1883. 

Director :  William  Watson  Goodwin,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  D.C  L.,  Eliot 
Professor  of  Greek  Literature  in  Harvard  University. 

1883-  1884. 

Director:  Lewis  R.  Packard,.  Ph.  D.,  Hillhouse  Professor  of  Greek 
in  Yale  University. 

1884-  1885. 

Director:  James  Cooke  Van  Benschoten,  LL.  D.,  Seney  Professor 
of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  Wesleyan  University. 

1885-  1886. 

Director :  Frederic  De  Forest  Allen,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Classical 
Philology  in  Harvard  University 

1886-  1887. 

Director :  Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in 
the  University  of  Michigan. 

1887-  1888. 

Director:  Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Ph.D.,  Professor  of  Greek  Archae- 
ology and  Epigraphy  in  Columbia  College. 

1888-  1889. 

Director :  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D.,  Reader  in 
Archaeology  at  the  University  of  Cambridge,  England. 

Annual  Director :  Frank  Bigelow  Tarbell,  Ph.D.,  Instructor  in 
Harvard  University. 

1889-  1890. 

Director :  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 

Annual  Director :  S.  Stanhope  Orris,  Ph.  D.,  L.  H.  D.,  Ewing  Pro- 
fessor of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  the  College  of 
New  Jersey. 


6  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

Cooperating  (ttolleps* 

1889-90. 


ADELBERT  COLLEGE    OF  WESTERN 

RESERVE  UNIVERSITY. 
AMHERST  COLLEGE. 
BROWN  UNIVERSITY. 
COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK. 
COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 
COLUMBIA  COLLEGE. 
CORNELL  UNIVERSITY. 
DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 
HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 
JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 


TRINITY  COLLEGE. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW 
YORK. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  MISSOURI. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 
VASSAR  COLLEGE. 
WESLEYAN  UNIVERSITY. 
WELLESLEY  COLLEGE. 
WILLIAMS  COLLEGE. 
YALE  UNIVERSITY. 


trustees  of  tfje  Srijool 

James  Russell  Lowell  (President). 

Edward  J.  Lowell  (Treasurer). 

William  W.  Goodwin  (Secretary). 

Martin  Brimmer. 

Henry  Drisler. 

Basil  M.  Gildersleeve. 

Henry  G.  Marquand. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 

Henry  C.  Potter. 

William  M.  Sloane. 

John  Williams  White. 


lEieeatfbe  Committee  of  tfje  Crustees. 

James  Russell  Lowell. 
William  W.  Goodwin. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton. 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


7 


Students  .* 

LOUIS  BEVIER  (1882-83)4 

Associate  Professor  in  Rutgers  College,  New  Brunswick,  N.  J. 

WALTER  RAY  BRIDGMAN  (1883-84), 

Professor  in  Miami  University,  Oxford,  Ohio. 

CARL  DARLING  BUCK  (1887-89), 

Student  in  the  University  of  Leipzig. 

N.  E.  CROSBY  (1886-87), 

Instructor  in  the  Westminster  School,  Dobbs  Ferry,  N.  Y. 

JOHN  M.  CROW  (1882-83), 

Professor  in  Iowa  College,  Grinnell,  Iowa.    Died  Sept.  28,  1890. 

WILLIAM  LEE  CUSHING  (1885-87), 

Head  Master  of  the  Westminster  School,  Dobbs  Ferry,  N.  Y. 

MORTIMER  LAMSON  EARLE  (1887-88), 

Instructor  in  Columbia  College,  New  York  City- 

THOMAS  H.  ECKFELDT  (1884-85), 

Principal  of  the  Friends'  School,  New  Bedford,  Mass. 

A.  F.  FLEET  (1887-88), 

Superintendent  of  the  Missouri  Military  Academy,  Mexico,  Missouri. 

HAROLD  NORTH  FOWLER  (1882-83), 

Professor  in  Phillips  Academy,  Exeter,  N.  H. 

HENRY  T.  HILDRETH  (1885-86), 

Instructor  in  the  Parish  School,  Boston,  Mass. 

//*.  IRVING  HUNT  (1889-90), 

Tutor  in  Greek,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn. 

GEORGE  BENJAMIN  HUSSEY  (1887-88)4 

Instructor  in  the  Western  Reserve  Academy,  Hudson,  Ohio. 

FRANCIS  DEMETRIUS  KALOPOT HAKES  (1888-89), 
Student  in  the  University  of  Berlin. 

JOSEPH  McKEEN  LEWIS  (1885-87). 
Died  April  29,  1887. 

GONZALEZ  LODGE  ( 1888-89), t 

Associate  Professor  in  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Mawr,  Pa. 

WALTER  MILLER  (1885-86), 

Student  in  the  University  of  Leipzig. 

WILLIAM  J.  McMURTRY  (1886-87), 

Professor  in  Yankton  College,  Yankton,  South  Dakota. 


*  The  year  of  residence  at  the  School  is  placed  in  a  parenthesis  after  the  name, 
indicate  students  of  the  year  1889-90. 

t  Not  present  during  the  entire  year. 


Italics 


8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Miss  EMILY  NORCROSS,  (1888-89), 

Instructor  in  Smith  College,  Northampton,  Mass. 

Miss  ANNIE  S.  PECK  (1885-86), 

865  North  Main  Street,  Providence,  R.  I. 

DANIEL  QUINN  (1887-89), 

Professor  in  Mt.  St   Mary's  College,  Emmitsburg,  Md. 

JOHN  CAREW  ROLFE  (1888-89), 

Assistant  Professor  in  the  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

WILLIAM  J.  SEELYE  (1886-87), 

Professor  in  Parsons  College,  Garfield,  Iowa. 

JOHN  P.  SHELLEY  (1889-90), 

Professor  in  Grove  College,  Grove  City,  Pa. 

PAUL  SHOREY  (1882-83), 

Associate  Professor  in  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Masvr,  Pa. 

Miss  EMILY  E.  SLATER  (1888-89). 

Instructor  at  Science  Hill,  Shelbyville,  Kentucky. 

J   R.  SITLINGTON  STERRETT  (1882-83), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Texas,  Austin,  Texas. 

FRANKLIN  H.  TAYLOR  (1882-83), 

Tutor  in  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 

OLIVER  JOS.  THATCHER  (18S7-88), 

Professor  in  Alleghany  Theological  Seminary,  Alleghany,  Pa. 

S.  B.  P.  TROWBRIDGE  (1886-88), 
Architect,  New  York  City. 

HENRY  STEPHENS  WASHINGTON  (1888-90). t 

JAMES  R.  WHEELER  (1882-83), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vt. 

ALEXANDER  M.  WILCOX  (1883-84), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Kansas,  Lawrence,  Kan. 

FRANX  E.  WOODRUFF  (1882-83U 

Professor  in  Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,  Me.  • 

THEODORE  L.  WRIGHT  (1886-S7), 

Professor  in  Beloit  College,  Beloit,  Wisconsin. 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Arc hceo logical  Institute  of  America  :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
the  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  Ameri- 
can School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  for  the  year 
from  October  i,  1889,  to  October  1,  1890;  and  also 
the  Reports  of  the  Director,  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein, 
and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Professor  S.  Stanhope 
Orris. 

During  the  past  year  the  following  persons  have 
been  enrolled  as  members  of  the  School :  — 

W.  Irving  Hunt,  A.  B.  Yale,  Soldiers'  Memorial  Fellow  of 
Yale. 

John  P.  Shelley,  A.  B.  Findlay. 
Henry  S.  Washington,  A.  M.  Yale. 

Of  these,  Mr.  Washington  had  also  been  connected 
with  the  School  during  the  previous  year. 

Mr.  John  F.  Gray,  Harvard,  Mr.  Herbert  D.  Hale, 
A.  B.  Harvard,  of  the  Ecole  des  Beaux  Arts  of  Paris, 


IO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


and  Mr.  Charles  W.  Washington,  A.  B.  Yale,  were  ad- 
mitted as  Special  Students  of  the  School. 

The  number  of  students  was  smaller  than  had  been 
expected,  three  who  had  planned  to  spend  the  year  in 
Athens  being  recalled  to  America  by  unlooked  for 
events.  During  part  of  the  year  Mr.  Hunt  and  Mr. 
Shelley  only  were  in  residence. 

Three  members  of  the  Managing  Committee  were 
in  Greece  in  the  spring  of  1890, —  Professor  Goodwin, 
Professor  Perrin,  and  Professor  Ware,  —  besides  the 
Rev.  Professor  Brooks  of  the  University  of  Minnesota, 
Professor  Hoffman  of  the  Indiana  State  University, 
and  some  other  American  scholars. 

The  visit  of  Professor  Ware  was  of  especial  impor- 
tance for  the  School.  Many  details  of  the  School 
building  required  the  attention  of  a  skilled  architect, 
and  the  grounds  about  it  remained  in  nearly  the  same 
unkempt  condition  as  before  the  house  was  erected. 
Grading  needed  to  be  done,  a  fence  or  wall  to  be 
raised,  trees  and  shrubs  to  be  planted,  and  grass  to  be 
sown.  The  Committee  authorized  the  expenditure, 
under  Professor  Ware's  direction,  of  $1,250  for  furni- 
ture and  the  improvement  of  the  house  and  grounds, 
in  addition  to  a  special  gift  for  this  purpose  of  $250  by 
Professor  Farnam  of  Yale.  With  unselfish  devotion 
to  the  cause,  Professor  Ware  remained  in  Athens  un- 
til June  17,  superintending  this  work.  Aided  by  Miss 
Ware  and  Mrs.  Goodwin,  he  afterward  selected  in  Ger- 
many and  England  articles  necessary  or  convenient 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


for  the  furnishing  of  the  building.  Arrangements 
have  been  made  for  the  beautifying  of  the  grounds  of 
the  School.  All  vegetation  prospers  in  Athens  with 
the  aid  of  irrigation,  and  fortunately  the  aqueduct 
built  from  Mount  Pentelicus  by  Hadrian  and  Anto- 
ninus Pius  passes  the  very  door  of  the  School  and  fur- 
nishes an  abundant  supply  of  water  at  a  moderate 
cost.  So  we  trust  that  the  exterior  of  the  School 
building  wil  1  soon  be  as  attractive  as  the  interior. 

Professor  Orris  reached  Athens  in  August,  1889,  as 
will  be  seen  from  his  Report,  and  from  that  time  was 
ready  to  extend  the  hospitalities  and  opportunities  of 
the  School  to  all  who  were  prepared  to  enjoy  and 
improve  them. 

Dr.  Waldstein  arrived  at  Athens  on  December  29, 
1889,  and  immediately  assumed  the  conduct  of  the 
School. 

A  brief  account  of  the  excavations  of  the  School 
during  the  year  is  given  in  the  Report  of  the  Director. 
The  expense  of  these  excavations  was  defrayed  by  spe- 
cial gifts.  The  appropriation  of  $500  by  the  Council 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute^  remains  untouched,  to 
be  used  during  the  coming  year,  together  with  the 
like  appropriation  of  May,  1890. 

We  have  been  in  a  state  of  suspense  with  regard  to 
obtaining  the  right  to  excavate  on  the  site  of  Delphi. 
The  situation  remains  "  critical,  but  not  hopeless." 
Perhaps  before  these  words  are  printed  the  decision 
will  have  been  made. 


12 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Two  members  of  the  Managing  Committee  have 
died  during  the  year. 

General  Francis  W.  Palfrey,  an  honored  soldier  and 
man  of  letters,  one  of  the  original  members  of  the 
Committee,  died  at  Cannes,  December  5,  1889,  in  the 
fifty-ninth  year  of  his  age. 

Professor  Richard  H.  Mather,  D.  D.,  after  a  service 
of  more  than  thirty  years  as  instructor  in  Greek  at 
Amherst  College,  died  on  April  16,  1890,  in  the  fifty- 
sixth  year  of  his  age.  He  entered  the  Committee  as 
the  successor  of  Professor  Tyler,  in  May,  1888. 

Professor  Henry  Gibbons  of  Amherst  College  has 
been  elected  a  member  of  the  Committee,  to  succeed 
Professor  Mather  as  a  representative  of  Amherst 
College. 

Professor  A.  F.  Fleet,  LL.  D.,  of  the  University  of 
Missouri,  has  resigned  his  membership  of  the  Com- 
mittee, since  he  leaves  his  professorial  chair  to  become 
Superintendent  of  the  Missouri  Military  Academy  at 
Mexico,  Missouri. 

Professor  Charles  Eliot  Norton,  in  whose  beautiful 
library  the  original  project  for  the  organization  of  the 
School  at  Athens  took  practical  form,  had  been  from 
the  first  a  member  of  the  Managing  Committee,  ex 
officio,  as  President  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of 
America.  On  his  resignation  of  the  Presidency  of 
the  Institute,  in  May,  1890,  he  was  made  a  regular 
member  of  the  Committee  by  election. 

President  Seth  Low  of  Columbia  College  became  a 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  1 3 

member  of  the  Committee,  ex  officio,  on  his  election, 
in  May,  1890,  to  the  Presidency  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute  of  America. 

Provost  William  Pepper,  M.D.,  LL.  D.,  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania,  resigned  his  place  on  the 
Committee  at  the  November  meeting  of  1889.  Pro- 
fessor William  A.  Lamberton  was  then  elected  to 
succeed  him  as  representative  of  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania. 

No  volume  of  Papers  has  been  issued  by  the  School 
during  the  past  year.  Several  valuable  papers,  how-  ' 
ever,  have  been  published  in  "  The  American  Journal 
of  Archaeology "  by  the  Directors  and  members  of 
the  School, — on  the  discoveries  at  Icaria,  Anthedon, 
Plataea,  Thisbe,  etc.,  and  the  excavations  at  Sicyon 
and  Stamata,  —  and  the  Committee  on  Publications 
expect  to  collect  and  publish  a  volume  of  Papers  in 
the  course  of  189 1.  Otto  Harrassowitz  of  Leipzig  has 
been  appointed  the  German  agent  for  the  publications 
of  the  School. 

Professor  Rufus  B.  Richardson,  Ph.  D.,  of  Dart- 
mouth College,  has  been  unanimously  elected  Annual 
Director  of  the  School  for  the  year  1890-91. 

The  financial  condition  of  the  School  is  as  satis- 
factory as  it  well  can  be  before  the  permanent  en- 
dowment  is  completed.  More  than  $46,000  of  this 
endowment  is  now  in  the  hands  of  the  Treasurer  of 
the  Trustees.  The  income  from  the  endowment  for 
the  year  1889-90  was  about  $1,100;  it  will  be  nearly 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


twice  that*  sum  during  the  next  year.  The  sum  of 
$800  lias  been  paid  this  year  toward  the  building 
debt,  which  is  at  present  about  $2,400.  A  special 
appropriation,  as  above  noted,  of  $1,250  was  made  for 
the  improvement  of  the  house  and  grounds  at  Athens. 
In  view  of  these  extraordinary  expenses,  we  take  great 
satisfaction  in  reporting  that  (as  in  every  previous 
year  of  its  history)  the  treasury  of  the  School  still  has 
a  small  balance  in  its  favor  at  the  close  of  the  year. 

At  the  organization  of  the  School,  in  1881,  most  of 
"the  Colleges  and  Universities  which  united  in  its  sup- 
port did  so  with  the  expectation  that  before  ten  years 
had  elapsed  a  sufficient  permanent  fund  for  the  proper 
support  of  the  School  would  be  secured,  and  several 
pledges  expire  with  the  coming  year.  Therefore,  the 
following  circular  was  issued  by  the  direction  of  the 
Committee. 

The  undersigned  have  been  appointed,  by  the  Managing 
Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at 
Athens,  as  a  sub-committee  to  lay  before  the  various  Colleges 
and  Universities  which  have  contributed  to  the  support  of  the 
School  a  brief  statement  of  its  present  condition,  and  its  pro- 
spective circumstances  and  needs,  and  to  ascertain  whether 
these  Colleges  and  Universities  will  continue  their  support^of 
the  School. 

At  the  time  of  the  foundation  of  the  School,  most  of  the 
institutions  that  united  in  its  establishment  agreed  to  combine 
in  its  support  for  a  term  of  ten  years.  It  was  believed  that 
within  that  space  of  time  the  utility  of  the  School  might  be 
demonstrated,  and  it  was  hoped  that  a  sufficient  fund  might 
be  obtained  for  its  permanent  support,  so  that  annual  contri- 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


'5 


buttons  might  no  longer  be  required.  The  expectation  in 
regard  to  the  worth  and  importance  of  the  School  for  the  pro- 
motion of  the  objects  for  which  it  was  established  has  been 
fully  satisfied,  but  the  hope  of  securing  a  permanent  fund  has 
been  only  partially  realized. 

A  beginning  has  been  made,  and  a  sum  of  between  forty 
and  fifty  thousand  dollars  is  now  in  the  hands  of  the  Trustees 
of  the  School,  while  subscriptions  not  yet  paid  may  increase 
the  amount  before  long  to  near  sixty  thousand  dollars.  It 
should  be  remembered  that  in  addition  to  this  amount  a  sum 
of  not  less  than  thirty  thousand  dollars  has  been  expended 
upon  the  school  building,  erected  upon  the  site  which  we  owe 
to  the  gracious  liberality  of  the  Greek  government. 

The  experience  of  the  last  few  years  has  proved  that  the  an- 
nual expense  of  maintaining  the  School,  and  of  the  publication 
of  its  papers,  cannot  be  reduced  much  below  five  thousand 
dollars.  This  sum  has  been  mainly  provided  by  the  yearly 
contributions  of  $250  each  of  about  twenty  Colleges  and  Uni- 
versities. Were  these  contributions  to  cease,  the  only  means 
of  support  would  be  the  income  of  the  fund, —  at  present 
about  two  thousand  dollars. 

Such  being  the  case,  it  is  evident  that  the  contributions 
hitherto  made  must  in  large  part  be  continued,  if  the  School 
is  to  be  maintained. 

But  the  present  organization  of  the  School  is  not  altogether 
satisfactory,  and,  to  render  it  so,  a  larger  income  is  required. 
The  present  staff  of  the  School  consists  of  a  Permanent  Di- 
rector, resident  but  a  comparatively  small  part  of  the  year  at 
Athens,  and  an  Annual  Director,  whose  term  of  service  is 
but  for  a  single  year  of  eight  months.  To  secure  continuity 
to  its  work  and  stability  to  its  administration,  a  permanent 
resident  officer,  with  the  title,  perhaps,  of  Secretary  of  the 
School,  is  required.  For  this  post  a  man  of  practical  ability  as 
well  as  of  learning  must  be  had, —  a  man  capable  of  conduct- 
ing the  daily  affairs  of  the  School,  as  well  as  of  directing  the 


i6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


outdoor  investigations  and  the  indoor  studies  of  the  pupils. 
The  salary  attaching  to  this  office  should  not  be  less  than 
$2,500. 

The  Managing  Committee  regard  it  as  of  great  importance 
to  the  life  of  the  School  that  such  an  officer  should  form  part 
of  its  staff. 

If  the  Colleges  and  Universities  that  have  hitherto  main- 
tained the  School  will  continue  their  annual  contributions,  the 
needed  income  for  its  support  will  be  provided  ;  the  income 
from  the  fund  may  be  applied  to  the  salary  of  a  Secretary, 
and  the  School  thus  strengthened  will  better  than  ever  fulfil 
the  end  of  its  establishment. 

We  therefore  beg  you  to  inform  us  whether  the  Committee 
may  rely  upon  the  continuance  of  the  annual  contribution 

from  ,  and  we  venture  to  urge  upon  you  the  importance 

of  its  continuance.  While  recognizing  the  effort  that  may  be 
demanded  to  obtain  the  sum  from  year  to  year,  we  trust  that 
you  will  be  willing  to  make  it.  The  School  is  no  longer  an 
experiment,  and  it  is  in  the  interests  of  learning  that  we 
appeal  to  you  to  assist  in  enabling  the  School  to  render  the 
best  service  of  which  it  is  capable. 

We  request  you  to  favor  us  with  an  early  reply,  addressed 
to  Professor  Norton,  Cambridge. 

C.  E.  NORTON. 
JOHN  WILLIAMS  WHITE. 
O.  M.  FERNALD. 
THOMAS  D.  SEYMOUR. 

1  September,  1890. 

The  replies  to  the  above  circular  have,  in  general, 
been  thoroughly  satisfactory.  In  some  cases,  for 
special  reasons,  no  assurance  could  be  given.  We 
have  good  grounds  for  expecting  other  institutions  to 
unite  with  those  which  have  been  associated  hitherto 
in  the  support  of  the  School.    The  Committee  would 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


17 


be  particularly  glad  to  have  scientific  and  other 
technical  schools  of  a  high  grade  brought  into  con- 
nection with  the  School  at  Athens.  Architects,  artists, 
and  men  of  science  generally,  would  find  in  Greece 
abundant  material  for  profitable  study.  From  the 
foundation  of  the  School,  its  managers  have  held  that 
all  such  students,  not  classical  scholars  only,  are  to  be 
cordially  welcomed  under  their  broad  programme  of 
"Classical  Literature,  Art,  and  Antiquities." 

A  special  meeting  of  the  Committee  was  held  in 
Professor  Norton's  library,  in  Cambridge,  on  Septem- 
ber 20,  1890,  to  meet  the  Director  of  the  School,  who 
by  his  other  engagements  is  precluded  from  attending 
the  regular  meetings  of  the  Committee. 

In  the  last  Report  of  the  School,  the  generous  gift 
of  the  iron  staircase  for  the  building  of  the  School 
at  Athens  was  credited,  by  error,  to  Messrs.  J.  B.  and 
J.  M.  Norcross,  instead  of  to  Messrs.  J.  B.  and  J.  M. 
Cornell,  of  Centre  Street,  New  York  City. 

The  list  of  students,  on  pages  7  and  8  of  this  Re- 
port, shows  that  those  who  have  been  connected  with 
the  School  in  former  years  are  now  occupying  impor- 
tant positions  ( principally  as  teachers )  in  the  States 
of  Connecticut,  Iowa,  Kansas,  Kentucky,  Maine,  Mary- 
land, Massachusetts,  Michigan,  Missouri,  New  Hamp- 
shire, New  Jersey,  New  York,  Ohio,  Pennsylvania, 
Rhode  Island,  South  Dakota,  Texas,  and  Vermont. 
Two   are   dead.     Three   are   studying  in  German 

Universities.    The  wide  distribution  of  these  scholars 

2 


i8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  A  THENS. 


indicates  the  wide  influence  of  the  School  at  Athens. 
It  is  self-evident  that  this  influence  and  the  impor- 
tance of  the  School's  work  are  not  to  be  measured 
by  the  number  of  students  in  residence  at  Athens. 
The  Committee  look  forward,  however,  with  desire 
and  confident  expectation,  to  a  considerable  increase 
in  the  number  of  students.  They  trust  that  means 
will  be  secured  to  use  to  the  full  the  opportunities 
for  growth  which  are  opened  to  the  School. 

THOMAS  D.  SEYMOUR, 

Chairman. 

New  Haven,  Conn., 

Oct.  i,  1890. 


REPORT  OF  THE  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens:  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  beg  to  submit  the  following  Re- 
port of  the  work  of  the  School  for  the  period  of  the 
last  year,  during  which  I  had  active  charge  of  its 
management. 

I  arrived  at  Athens  on  December  29,  1889,  and 
devoted  the  first  few  days  to  the  domestic  arrange- 
ments of  the  School,  which  required  considerable 
attention. 

Owing  to  illness  and  to  other  unfavorable  circum- 
stances, I  found  that  the  number  of  students  in  at- 
tendance was  reduced  to  two,  Mr.  W.  I.  Hunt,  of  Yale 
College,  and  Mr.  J.  P.  Shelley,  of  Findlay  College, 
Ohio.  I  soon  admitted  as  a  special  student  Mr. 
J.  F.  Gray,  formerly  a  student  of  Harvard  College, 
who  came  properly  recommended,  and  I  extended 
to  the  Rev.  Professor  Jabez  Brooks  the  privileges  of 
the  School.  With  these,  the  students  of  the  British 
School,  and  a  number  of  American  and  other  vis- 
itors interested  in  the  subject,  I  began  my  lectures, 
giving  three  introductory  lectures  in  the  Library  of 
the  School,  and  continuing  with  peripatetic  lectures 
in  the  different  Museums.    These  lectures  were  con- 


20 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


tinued  during  several  weeks,  though  interrupted  twice 
by  attacks  of  the  influenza,  by  which  disease  some 
of  the  students  were  affected.  I  also  made  arrange- 
ments with  Mr.  Gardner,  so  that  my  lectures  were 
supplemented  for  the  students  by  the  lectures  given 
before  the  British  School.  In  addition,  I  gave  an 
evening  talk  to  the  students  on  the  Origin  of  Early 
Decoration,  and  was  available  for  consultation  at  defi- 
nite hours.  Mr.  Hunt  was  the  only  student  who  de- 
voted himself  to  original  work  in  the  higher  classical 
studies,  and  I  advised  him  with  regard  to  the  writing 
of  a  paper  on  the  Topography  of  the  Battlefield 
of  Plataea,  and  to  some  work  on  Attic  Sepulchral 
Monuments. 

Our  formal  opening  meeting  took  place  on  Janu- 
ary 17  At  this  meeting  I  delivered  an  opening  ad- 
dress on  the  Mantinean  Reliefs.  I  hope  that  this 
paper  may  soon  be  published  in  the  American  Journal 
of  Archaeology.  The  meeting  may  be  considered  an 
event  in  the  history  of  the  School ;  we  were  honored 
at  it  by  the  presence,  not  only  of  all  the  distinguished 
scholars  at  Athens,  Greek  and  foreign,  but  also  of 
their  Royal  Highnesses  the  Crown  Prince  and  the 
Crown  Princess  of  Greece.  At  the  second  meeting  of 
the  School,  which  was  well  attended,  Mr.  Hunt  read 
his  paper  on  the  Topography  of  Plataea,  and  I  read 
remarks  on  a  newly  discovered  terra-cotta,  which 
throws  light  on  the  central  figures  of  the  Parthenon 
frieze. 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


21 


In  the  first  week  of  February,  we  were  joined  by- 
Mr.  H.  S.  Washington,  who  had  been  a  student  of 
the  School  in  the  preceding  year,  and  by  Mr.  C.  M. 
Washington,  both  of  Yale  College.  These  gentlemen 
had  agreed  to  assist  in  the  expedition  to  Plataea,  and 
I  was  especially  glad  to  have  the  assistance  of  the 
former,  who  had  already  gained  considerable  experi- 
ence in  the  work  of  excavating.  I  made  Mr.  C.  M. 
Washington  also  a  special  student  of  the  School.  In 
the  following  week  we  were  joined  by  Mr.  H.  D.  Hale, 
formerly  of  Harvard  College,  and  now  a  student  of 
architecture  at  the  Ecole  des  Beaux  Arts  in  Paris, 
who  had  come  at  my  special  invitation  to  assist  in 
the  making  of  maps  and  plans  of  the  site  and  of  the 
excavations.    He  also  was  made  a  special  student. 

Meanwhile  the  weather,  which  had  been  particularly 
unfavorable  during  the  whole  season,  did  not  improve, 
and  we  had  to  defer  from  day  to  day  the  beginning 
of  our  work  at  Plataea,  which  I  had  hoped  to  make 
in  the  middle  of  February.  My  own  health  did  not 
admit  of  my  leaving  Athens  during  the  bad  weather. 
I  finally  gave  way  to  the  enthusiastic  eagerness  of 
Mr.  Washington,  and,  having  procured  a  complete 
outfit  and  ample  provisions,  he  started  with  one  of 
the  servants  on  February  14.  On  February  19,  he 
began  digging  with  twenty-two  men  at  the  church 
where  last  year  the  Preamble  to  the  Edict  of  Diocle- 
tian was  found.  He  was  soon  joined  by  Mr.  Hunt 
and  Mr.  Shelley,  and  subsequently  by  Messrs.  Hale, 


22 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


C.  M.  Washington,  and  Gray.  During  this  time  the 
party  had  to  contend  with  great  difficulties,  the  most 
trying  of  which  was  the  severe  weather,  with  snow 
and  cold  winds,  in  houses  that  were  not  even  provided 
with  glass  windows  ;  and  I  cannot  sufficiently  com- 
mend the  enthusiastic  perseverance  of  all  concerned. 
I  was  much  relieved  in  mind  when,  after  a  week,  Mr. 
Gray,  who  had  previously  had  an  attack  of  influenza, 
returned  with  Messrs.  C.  M.  Washington  and  Hale, 
not  much  the  worse  for  his  hardship.  As  soon  as  I 
had  recovered  from  my  illness,  the  second  since  my 
arrival  in  Athens,  I  started  for  Plataea  with  Mr.  Hale 
and  Mr.  C.  M.  Washington,  and  remained  there  until 
we  closed  the  work  for  this  season,  on  March  12. 

The  exact  measurements  of  all  the  city  walls  (more 
than  two  and  a  half  miles  in  circumference)  were 
taken  by  Messrs.  Washington  and  Hale,  assisted  by 
Messrs.  C.  M.  Washington  and  Shelley.  A  survey 
was  made  and  a  map  drawn  by  Mr.  Hale.  This  map 
will  be  published  in  our  Report  of  the  Excavations. 
The  map  illustrating  the  battlefield,  designed  by 
Messrs.  Hale  and  Hunt  to  illustrate  the  paper  of  the 
latter  on  the  topography  of  the  battle,  will  also  be 
published  with  the  paper  which  it  accompanies.  Mr. 
Hale  drew,  moreover,  the  ground  plans  of  all  the 
churches  at  which  we  dug. 

Our  corps  of  workmen  was  increased  to  a  number 
averaging  forty  men,  with  which  for  some  time  we 
dug  at  a  promising  site  by  the  southeast  wall,  that 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


23 


of  a  Byzantine  church  and  monastery,  which  I 
thought  might  prove  to  have  been  an  important  en- 
trance to  the  ancient  city.  Here  Messrs.  Hunt  and 
Shelley  came  upon  an  interesting  ancient  aqueduct  or 
drain,  covered  with  large  stones,  light  yellow  in  color, 
at  a  depth  of  1.20  meters  below  the  surface.  Mr. 
Washington  describes  the  stone  as  somewhat  like 
poros,  very  soft  when  first  found,  but  hardening  on 
exposure.  It  is  apparently  a  limestone  containing 
gypsum  and  a  small  quantity  of  talc.  These  stones 
covered  a  trench  cut  through  very  solid  soil,  in  which 
are  laid  the  terra-cotta  drain-tiles.  These  tiles  were 
made  of  well  baked  red  clay,  like  three  sides  of  a 
rectangle,  0.60  meter  long,  0.20  deep,  and  0.15  wider 
(interior  measurements),  and  about  0.03  thick.  They 
were  joined  together  end  to  end,  not  overlapping,  by 
a  gray  cement  very  neatly  applied.  The  channel  has 
apparently  a  very  gentle  slope  down  toward  the  town, 
which  is  a  confirmation  of  the  supposition  that  it 
served  as  an  aqueduct.  Mr.  Hunt  and  I  explored  the 
neighborhood  for  the  possible  source  of  water-supply, 
and  there  is  some  probability  that  he  discovered  this 
outside  and  to  the  south  of  the  city  wall,  at  a  consid- 
erable distance  from  the  point  at  which  we  found  the 
tiles.  The  aqueduct  runs  under  the  city  wall,  and 
under  the  corner  of  the  church,  where  a  block  was  cut 
away  obliquely  to  make  room  for  the  church  wall.  It 
is  probable  that  the  wall  was  the  earliest,  the  aqueduct 
t the  next  in  date,  and  the  larger  church  the  latest. 


24 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Several  inscriptions  had  already  come  to  light ;  but 
we  were  much  cheered  when,  in  a  grave  below  the 
east  wall  of  the  church,  we  found,  used  as  covering- 
stones,  two  large  inscriptions.  The  one  proved  to  be 
another  slab  of  the  Diocletian  Edict,  giving  in  Greek 
the  prices  of  textiles.  This  contains  a  large  portion 
of  the  seventeenth  chapter  in  Waddington's  edition, 
with  some  interesting  variations,  as  well  as  a  column 
and  a  half  of  material  hitherto  unknown,  constitut- 
ing the  beginning  of  this  chapter  that  has  been 
wanting.  The  other  inscription  records  dedications 
on  the  part  of  women  to  some  goddess  (probably 
Demeter  or  Artemis),  with  many  interesting  female 
names. 

We  continued  to  dig  upon  various  sites  outside 
the  city  walls,  hoping  to  gain  some  fixed  point  in 
discovering  either  the  Temple  of  Demeter  (in  which 
we  followed  Mr.  Hunt's  suggestion)  or  the  Temple 
of  Hera.  We  did  not  succeed  in  establishing  these 
points,  though  several  objects  of  interest  were  discov- 
ered. It  may  be  desirable  to  dig  for  a  short  time 
next  season,  at  the  place  suggested  by  Mr.  Hunt,  for 
the  Temple  of  Demeter,  and  at  that  where  Mr.  Wash- 
ington worked,  and  where  last  year  we  discovered  the 
Preamble  to  Diocletian's  Edict.  When  this  has  been 
done,  these  explorative  excavations  may  be  considered 
as  completed. 

What  seems  to  stand  in  the  way  of  important  dis- 
coveries of  temples  and  statues  at  Plataea  is  the  fact 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


25 


of  its  importance  in  Byzantine  and  Frankish  times. 
Our  excavations  have  certainly  made  clear  an  histor- 
ical fact  which  seems  previously  to  have  been  over- 
looked ;  it  had  been  supposed  that,  after  the  classical 
period,  Plataea  sank  into  oblivion  and  insignificance. 
Our  excavations,  together  with  the  remains  of  nu- 
merous Byzantine  and  Frankish  churches  (there  are 
over  twelve  in  the  neighborhood),  certainly  prove  that 
in  post-classical  times  the  city  was  densely  populated. 
People  were  probably  attracted  thither  by  the  situa- 
tion, which  commands  the  Boeotian  plain,  and  by  the 
fortification,  which  must  have  remained  standing. 
Unfortunately,  the  ancient  materials  were  convenient 
for  building  the  numerous  houses  and  smaller  walls ; 
while,  to  produce  the  mortar  abundantly  used  by  the 
Byzantines,  all  the  marble  seems  to  have  been  burnt 
and  ground  for  lime.  It  appears  to  me  that  Plataea 
must  have  been  a  centre  of  considerable  activity  in 
Roman  times  also. 

The  funds  applied  to  the  surveying  and  excavation, 
as  well  as  to  the  outfit  of  the  expedition,  were  pro- 
vided from  the  generous  contribution  of  Dr.  Lamborn 
and  the  remainder  of  the  amount  collected  by  Mr. 
Wesley  Harper. 

We  all  returned  to  Athens  on  March  13. 

Owing  to  the  attack  of  Captain  Botticher  on  Dr. 
Schliemann's  views  with  regard  to  the  ruins  at  His- 
sarlik,  in  which  he  maintained  that  these  ruins  were 
not  those  of  an  ancient  fortified  city,  but  rather  of  a 


26 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


necropolis  for  incineration,  Drs.  Schliemann  and  Dorp- 
feld  invited  an  international  conference  to  examine 
this  subject  on  the  spot,  and  both  Dr.  Schliemann 
and  Dr.  Dorpfeld  left  Greece  early  in  March  to 
continue  the  excavations.  For  America,  the  School 
and  the  Smithsonian  Institution  of  Washington  were 
called  upon  to  send  representatives ;  and,  being  au- 
thorized by  your  Chairman  and  invited  by  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  to  represent  you  and  it  at  this 
conference,  I  started  for  Hissarlik  on  March  26,  and 
joined  the  body  of  representatives  there  assembled. 
The  company  included  Messrs.  Babin  for  the  French 
Academy  of  Inscriptions  and  Belles  Lettres,  Mr.  Cal- 
vert, U.  S.  Consul  at  the  Hellespont,  Professor  Von 
Duhn  of  Heidelberg,  Dr.  Grempler  of  Breslau,  Hamdi 
Bey  of  the  Museum  of  Constantinople,  Dr.  Humann 
(the  excavator  of  Pergamon)  of  the  Berlin  Museum, 
Professor  Virchow  of  Berlin,  and  myself.  Our  exami- 
nation of  the  site  and  excavations,  and  our  discussions, 
occupied  about  four  days.  The  results  were  drawn 
up  in  a  Report  unanimously  agreed  upon,  and  signed 
by  all.  We  carefully  limited  the  questions  to  those 
which  we  thought  such  a  conference  could  satisfac- 
torily decide.  We  also  examined  the  ruins  and  topog- 
raphy of  Bunarbashi  for  the  light  they  might  throw 
upon  Hissarlik.  The  official  Report  is  in  French; 
but,  before  I  left,  Professor  Virchow  and  I  drafted 
an  English  translation,  which  must  be  considered 
official,  and  which,  therefore,  I  dare  not  correct  in 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


27 


the  matter  of  style,  although  we  could  give  but  very 
little  time  to  the  drafting.    The  Report  runs  thus  :  — 

"  The  undersigned,  invited  by  Dr.  Schliemann  and  Dr. 
Dorpfeld  to  visit  the  excavations  of  Hissarlik,  have  examined 
these  ruins  carefully,  after  having  taken  cognizance  of  certain 
articles  by  Captain  Botticher  on  the  nature  of  these  structures, 
especially  of  his  La  Troie  de  Schliemann  une  Necropole  a 
Incineration.  The  results  of  this  examination  are  given  in 
the  following  propositions. 

"  1.  The  ruins  of  Hissarlik  are  situated  on  the  lowest  spur 
of  a  chain  of  hills,  running  from  east  to  west,  projecting  into 
the  valley  of  the  Scamander.  This  site,  which  dominates  the 
view  of  the  plain  as  well  as  of  the  entrance  to  the  Helles- 
pont, appears  well  adapted  for  the  foundation  of  a  fortified 
place. 

"  2.  We  have  there  seen  walls,  gates,  and  towers,  forming 
fortified  enclosures  belonging  to  different  periods. 

"  3.  The  enclosure  of  which  the  wall  B  (Troja,  PL  VII.,  and 
Ilios,  PI.  VII.)  forms  a  part,  consists  of  a  substructure  of  chalk 
stone,  slanting  outwards,  upon  which  is  erected  a  wall  of  sun- 
dried  bricks.  At  some  points  of  this  brick  wrall  even  the 
stucco  is  preserved.  Three  towers  have  recently  been  dis- 
covered still  showing  the  upper  wall  of  brick ;  they  are  in  the 
east,  where  the  stone  substructure  is  the  lowest  in  height,  and 
therefore  there  was  least  need  of  strengthening  the  wall  by  a 
buttress. 

"4.  The  transverse  cut  made  in  the  wall  B  opposite  the 
large  trench  XZ  showed  that  there  were  no  corridors,  the 
existence  of  which  had  been  asserted.  As  to  the  walls  of 
brick,  the  only  instance  which  could  be  evoked  in  support 
of  the  theory  of  corridors  are  the  two  nearly  adjoining  walls 
near  A  and  B.    But  these  walls  belong  to  distinct  buildings. 

k<  5.  The  hill  of  Hissarlik  has  never  had  the  form  of  a  'ter- 
race construction,'  in  which  the  terraces  diminish  as  they 


28 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


rise;  but  we  have  found  that  each  superior  stratum  occupies 
a  larger  space  than  the  one  immediately  below  it. 

44  6.  An  examination  of  these  strata  has  led  to  the  following 
conclusions.  In  the  lowest  stratum  only  a  few  nearly  paral- 
lel walls  are  preserved,  nothing  permitting  us  to  infer  that 
human  bodies  were  found  there.  The  second  stratum,  which 
is  the  most  interesting,  contains  ruins  of  buildings  of  which 
the  principal  ones  present  an  absolute  analogy  to  the  'palaces' 
of  Tiryns  and  Mycenae.  The  stratum  immediately  above  this 
consists  of  smaller  dwellings,  superimposed  one  above  the 
other,  of  which  many  contain  large  jars  {pithoi). 

44  Finally,  in  the  last  stratum  are  the  foundations  of  build- 
ings belonging  to  the  Graeco-Roman  period,  and  numerous 
fragments  of  architecture. 

44  7.  In  our  presence,  a  large  number  of  pithoi  were  un- 
earthed in  situ,  in  the  third  stratum.  They  were  standing 
upright,  singly  or  in  groups,  several  containing  large  quanti- 
ties of  wheat,  peas,  and  oleaginous  seeds  more  or  less  carbon- 
ized, but  no  human  bones,  either  incinerated  or  not.  The 
surfaces  of  these  pithoi,  moreover,  bore  no  evidence  of  having 
been  subjected  to  extraordinary  heat. 

44  8.  To  sum  up,  we  declare  that  we  have  not  found  in  any 
portion  of  these  ruins  any  indices  which  point  to  incineration 
of  human  bodies.  The  traces  of  fire  which  are  found  in  sev- 
eral strata  come  chiefly  from  conflagrations.  The  violence  of 
fire  in  the  second  stratum  was  so  great  that  the  sun-dried 
bricks  are  in  part  baked,  and  even  vitrified  on  the  surface. 

44  Finally,  we  desire  to  affirm  that  the  plans  in  the  books 
'Troja'  and  '  Ilios '  are  quite  in  harmony  with  the  facts  we 
have  examined  ;  and  that  we  completely  share  the  views  ex- 
pressed by  Messrs.  Niemann  and  Steffen  in  the  Report  of  the 
Conference  of  December  1  to  6,  1889." 

On  the  invitation  of  Hamdi  Bey,  I  returned  with 
him  as  his  guest  to  Constantinople,  to  examine  his 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


29 


great  discovery  of  sarcophagi  from  Sidon,  and  to  ad- 
vance the  interests  of  our  School.  I  left  Constanti- 
nople for  Athens  on  April  5,  arriving  on  April  7, 
and,  after  making  final  arrangements  at  the  School, 
the  students  all  having  started  on  tours  or  being 
engaged  in  independent  work,  I  left  Athens  on 
April  12. 

I  may  also  mention,  that  while  at  Athens  I  served 
on  a  committee  appointed  by  the  Greek  government 
to  examine  into  the  state  of  the  Theseion,  and  to 
advise  with  regard  to  its  proper  preservation. 

With  regard  to  Delphi,  I  have  to  state  that  my 
first  step  was  to  come  to  a  clear  understanding 
concerning  the  French  claim.  I  satisfied  myself 
completely  that  it  was  right  for  us,  under  existing 
circumstances,  to  endeavor  to  acquire  this  great  honor 
for  our  country  and  for  our  School.  I  first  made 
quite  clear  to  Count  Montholon,  the  French  Min- 
ister at  Athens,  the  state  of  affairs  with  us,  and  in- 
formed him  of  my  intention  to  use  every  effort  to 
acquire  the  privilege  for  our  School,  expressing  the 
hope  that,  seeing  the  propriety  of  our  motives  and 
the  fairness  of  our  proceedings,  he  would  maintain 
friendly  and  courteous  relations  with  the  American 
School  of  Classical  Studies.  I  take  pleasure  in  say- 
ing that  I  have  since  experienced  nothing  but  cour- 
teous and  generous  treatment  at  his  hands,  and  that 
our  relations  with  the  French  School  have  at  no  time 
been  better.    I  had  several  interviews  with  the  Prime 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Minister,  Mr.  Tricoupis,  on  the  subject,  and  received 
from  him  the  promise  that,  if  the  necessary  sum 
(between  430,000  and  450,000  drachmas)  could  be 
raised  for  the  expropriation,  the  government  would 
extend  the  period  for  us  till  the  1st  of  May,  and 
thereafter  till  the  autumn  session  of  the  Chamber. 
This  promise  is  of  course  within  the  reasonable  lim- 
its of  the  power  which  the  government  will  be  able 
to  exert.  We  can  only  hope  that  within  this  interval 
the  necessary  amount  will  be  raised. 

In  speaking  of  this  branch  of  my  work  I  take 
pleasure  in  making  known  to  you  the  considerate 
and  efficient  help  which,  in  every  instance,  I  have  re- 
ceived at  the  hands  of  our  Minister,  Colonel  Loudon 
Snowden,  who  has  shown  himself  a  true  and  discreet 
friend  of  the  School. 

In  looking  back  upon  the  work  of  the  School 
during  the  past  winter,  I  realize  that,  in  spite  of 
the  unfavorable  circumstances  against  which  we  had 
to  contend,  we  have  every  reason  to  be  gratified.  I 
say  this  on  the  ground  of  assurances  I  have  had 
from  competent  judges,  such  as  my  archaeological 
colleagues,  and  from  the  visible  evidences  of  appre- 
ciation which  can  arise  only  out  of  a  belief  in  our 
usefulness. 

I  am  glad  to  refer  again  to  what  I  said  last  year 
with  regard  to  the  kind  interest  shown  in  the  School 
by  all  the  Greek  authorities,  to  which  I  must  add  this 
year  the  emphatic  manifestations  of  interest  on  the 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


31 


part  of  his  Majesty  the  King,  and  of  their  Royal  High- 
nesses the  Crown  Prince  and  Crown  Princess. 

As  regards  the  recommendations  which,  on  the 
ground  of  this  years  experience,  might  be  made,  the 
greatest  need  of  the  School  —  a  need  which  will  natu- 
rally and  necessarily  be  felt  for  some  time  before  we 
can  approach  the  full  consummation  of  its  power  for 
good  —  is  to  be  found  in  the  really  adequate  prepara- 
tion of  our  graduates  at  home,  not  only  for  higher 
archaeological  studies,  but  also  for  higher  independent 
work  in  the  philological  and  historical  departments  of 
classical  learning.  But  of  this  our  university  teach- 
ers are  fully  aware,  and  all  are  doing  their  best  to 
advance  our  university  teaching  so  that  it  shall  supply 
the  want;  while  every  year  of  efficient  work  on  the 
part  of  the  School  will,  it  is  hoped,  react  upon  ad- 
vanced teaching  in  America,  and  will,  through  the 
direct  influence  of  former  students  of  the  School,  lead 
to  the  better  preparation  of  future  students  who  shall 
be  sent  to  Athens.  The  number  of  students,  there- 
fore, approaching  adequacy  of  preparation  in  the  more 
special  work  for  which  this  School  affords  opportu- 
nity, will  of  necessity  be  limited  for  the  immediate 
future.  On  the  other  hand,  the  encouragement  of 
the  general  interest  in  classical  antiquity,  as  it  can 
best  be  furthered  by  such  an  institution  at  Athens, 
in  those  not  specially  prepared  for  higher  archaeo- 
logical investigation,  or  not  intending  to  pursue  this 
as  their  chief  vocation  in  life,  has  frequently  been  in- 


32  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

sisted  upon  as  an  important  aim  of  the  School.  And 
in  this  department  much  good  work  can  be  done ; 
some  has  been  done,  and  more,  we  may  hope,  will  be 
done.  For  this  purpose  I  beg  you  to  use  your  efforts 
to  bring  the  School  still  more  directly  into  touch  with 
the  technical  schools,  the  academies  of  architecture 
and  of  art,  in  our  own  country.  The  British  School 
at  Athens  is  thus  immediately  associated  with  such 
institutions  in  England,  the  French  and  German  In- 
stitutes have  long  been  similarly  organized,  and  the 
advantage  to  their  students  has  been  amply  proved. 
We  are  ready  to  welcome  all  students  and  lovers  of 
classical  literature,  and  also  to  tender  our  help  and 
hospitality  to  architects  and  artists. 


CHARLES  WALDSTEIN, 

Director. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ANNUAL  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  fol- 
lowing Report. 

After  my  arrival  at  Athens,  in  August,  1889,  Messrs. 
J.  C.  Roe  and  W.  A.  Hammond,  American  students  at 
Leipzig,  the  latter  having  taken  degrees  at  Harvard 
and  at  Princeton,  came  to  the  School  and  enjoyed  its 
advantages  until  the  1st  of  October. 

After  the  middle  of  September,  the  Hon.  Walker 
Fearn,  Minister  of  the  United  States  to  Greece,  was 
my  guest  for  a  period  of  six  weeks,  during  which  time 
the  School  received  visits  from  all  the  members  of  the 
Diplomatic  Corps  at  Athens, — the  Ministers  of  Great 
Britain,  France,  Russia,  Germany,  Austria,  Italy,  Ser- 
via,  Roumania,  Turkey,  and  Spain,  —  from  Mr.  Tricou- 
pis,  Prime  Minister  of  Greece,  from  all  the  members 
of  the  Cabinet,  from  the  Marshal  of  the  Palace,  and 
other  high  officers  of  the  Court. 

Of  the  students  admitted  by  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee, two  were  obliged  to  return  to  America  after 
they  were  as  far  on  their  way  as  Paris.  Of  the  rest, 
Messrs.  Hunt  and  Shelley  alone  were  present  through- 

3 


34 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


out  the  year.  Besides  those  regularly  admitted,  there 
were  not  a  few  who  put  themselves  in  connection  with 
the  School  and  studied  along  its  lines.  The  first 
of  these  was  our  scholarly  and  gentlemanly  Consul, 
Irving  J.  Manatt,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  who  took  part  in  all 
our  readings  of  classical  authors,  and  added  interest  to 
all  our  exercises.  Dr.  Jabez  Brooks,  also,  Professor  of 
Greek  in  the  University  of  Minnesota,  was  with  us 
from  December  i  until  May,  a  diligent  student  of  Mod- 
ern Greek  and  of  the  topography  and  ancient  ruins  of 
Athens.  F.  B.  Sanborn,  Esq,  of  Concord,  Professor 
Perrin  of  Adelbert  College,  Professor  Hoffman  of  the 
University  of  Indiana,  Professor  Innis  of  St.  Paul, 
Minn.,  and  Mr.  W.  C.  Collar,  Master  of  the  Roxbury 
Latin  School,  were  with  us,  using  our  library  and 
making  extensive  tours  as  students  of  the  topography 
and  antiquities  of  Greece.  President  Gilman  of  Johns 
Hopkins  University  (with  his  family),  and  many  other 
distinguished  Americans  who  were  making  the  tour 
of  Europe  and  the  East,  visited  the  School.  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Schliemann  and  the  Prince  of  Wales,  also,  were 
among  our  visitors.  I  need  scarcely  say  that  all  who 
visited  us  in  the  course  of  the  year  expressed  inter- 
est in  the  aims  of  the  School,  and  admiration  for  its 
building.  The  building,  indeed,  will  always  stand  as  a 
magnificent  monument  of  the  architectural  skill  and 
exquisite  taste  of  its  designer,  Professor  Ware  of  Co- 
lumbia College.  Beautiful  in  itself,  it  is  beautiful  also 
in  its  situation,  commanding  a  full  view  of  Penteli- 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


35 


cus  on  the  north,  of  Hymettus  on  the  east,  of  the 
Aegean  Sea  and  the  mountains  of  Peloponnesus  on 
the  south,  and  of  the  olive  groves  and  Mount  Aega- 
leos  on  the  west. 

In  our  work,  we  followed,  as  far  as  time  and  op- 
portunity permitted,  in  the  track  of  previous  Annual 
Directors.  It  is  due  to  Mr.  Hunt  to  say,  that,  besides 
studying  Pausanias  on  Attica,  and  reading  the  Aga- 
memnon of  Aeschylus,  he  read  the  whole  of  Herod- 
otus and  Thucydides,  and  made  himself  familiar  with 
the  museums  and  the  topography  and  monuments  of 
Athens.  Mr.  Shelley  devoted  himself  chiefly  to  the 
study  of  Modern  Greek,  but  studied  also  the  topogra- 
phy and  antiquities  of  Athens.  In  April,  Mr.  Hunt 
and  Mr.  Shelley  went  on  extensive  tours,  visiting 
many  points  in  Central  Greece. 

After  Professor  Perrin's  return  from  Troy,  where  he 
chanted  the  Iliad  to  the  winds  and  the  sea,  I  made 
a  tour  with  him  and  Mr.  Sanborn  to  Delphi,  going 
by  way  of  Corinth  and  the  Gulf,  and  returning  by 
way  of  Arachova,  Lebadea,  and  Thebes. 

The  library  received  gifts  of  books  from  Professor 
Hatzidakis,  Mr.  Cope  Whitehouse,  Mr.  H.  S.  Washing- 
ton, Mr.  Sanborn,  Miss  E.  Dawes,  Professor  Goodwin, 
and  Miss  M.  Carey  Thomas:  in  all,  sixteen  volumes. 

Before  leaving  the  School  I  devoted  seven  days  ex- 
clusively to  the  interests  of  the  library,  and  saw  to 
it  that  the  books  and  periodicals  were  all  in  their 
proper  places;  that  books  which  had  been  sent  by 


36 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Messrs.  Beck  and  Wilberg  for  examination,  were 
returned,  and  not  charged  to  the  School;  and  that 
the  book  bills,  after  being  corrected,  were  paid  and 
receipted.  To  the  careful  index  of  the  library 
which  was  made  by  Dr.  Tarbell,  I  added  an  index 
of  the  periodicals. 

In  the  course  of  the  year  I  received  a  number 
of  letters,  principally  from  students  of  colleges,  mak- 
ing inquiry  in  regard  to  the  nature  of  the  work  of 
the  School.  In  particular,  the  question  was  asked 
whether  it  is  contemplated  in  the  "  Regulations  of 
the  School, "  that  the  study  of  classical  literature 
shall  be  restricted  and  subordinated  to  archaeological 
ends,  or  whether,  if  the  student  desire  it,  purely 
classical  study  may  be  pursued  without  such  restric- 
tion and  subordination.  I  presume  that  Dr.  D'Ooge 
expresses  the  mind  of  the  Managing  Committee  in 
relation  to  this  question  when  he  says,  in  his  brilliant 
Report  for  i88j-88,  that  "the  character  and  aims 
of  the  student  must  to  a  large  extent  determine  the 
nature  of  the  work  of  the  School." 

Most  of  those  who  have  been  connected  with  the 
School  are  now  engaged  as  teachers  in  our  higher 
institutions  of  learning;  and  it  is  probable  that  the 
majority  of  those  who  may  be  connected  with  it  in 
the  future  will  study  with  a  view  to  the  same  pro- 
fession. For  this  class  of  students  I  would  unite  with 
previous  Directors  in  emphasizing  the  importance  of 
a  mastery  of  Modern  Greek,  and  a  thorough  study  of 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


37 


the  topography  and  antiquities  of  Greece.  For  such 
is  the  correlation  between  topography  and  civiliza- 
tion, that  without  the  fullest  knowledge  of  the  former 
we  cannot  have  the  highest  appreciation  of  the  lat- 
ter. Moreover,  as  no  description  of  a  place,  however 
full  and  vivid,  can  give  the  lively  and  accurate  impres- 
sions which  we  receive  through  the  eye  in  the  place 
itself,  so  we  cannot  have  an  adequate  appreciation  of 
the  civilization,  literature,  and  history  of  a  people  with- 
out studying  the  topography  of  their  country  in  the 
country  itself.  And  if  but  two  or  three  students  re- 
turn annually  from  Athens,  with  a  thorough  knowl- 
edge of  the  topography  and  antiquities  of  Greece, 
and  of  Modern  Greek,  to  engage  in  teaching  the  an- 
cient language  in  such  a  spirit,  and  by  such  methods 
that  it  shall  become  in  the  minds  of  the  young  men 
whom  they  instruct,  not  a  mere  burden  ready  to  drop 
off  or  be  thrown  off,  but  part  of  their  individual  be- 
ing, a  source  of  life  and  strength,  giving  the  faculty 
of  finding  perpetual  delight  in  the  history  of  that  lit- 
erature to  which  all  civilization  owes  so  much,  then 
the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens 
will  deserve  the  gratitude  of  all  our  academic  insti- 
tutions, and  of  all  men  who  prize  above  external  ad- 
vantages "  that  purification  of  the  intellectual  eye 
which  gives  us  to  contemplate  the  infinite  wealth  of 
the  mental  world." 


S.  STANHOPE  ORRIS, 

Annual  Director  for  i88g-go. 


38 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


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THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


OCTOBER,  189a 

The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  founded  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  and  organized  under  the 
auspices  of  some  of  the  leading  American  Colleges,  was  opened  Octo- 
ber 2,  1882.  During  the  first  five  years  of  its  existence  it  occupied 
a  hired  house  on  the  'OSo?  'A/xaAtas  in  Athens,  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Olympieion.  A  large  and  convenient  building  has  now  been  erected 
for  the  School  on  a  piece  of  land,  granted  by  the  generous  liberality  of 
the  Government  of  Greece,  on  the  southeastern  slope  of  Mount  Lyca- 
bettus,  adjoining  the  ground  already  occupied  by  the  English  School. 
This  permanent  home  of  the  School,  built  by  the  subscriptions  of  its 
friends  in  the  United  States,  was  ready  for  occupation  early  in  1888. 

The  new  building  contains  the  apartments  to  be  occupied  by  the 
Director  and  his  family,  and  a  large  room  which  will  be  used  as  a 
library  and  also  as  a  general  reading-room  and  place  of  meeting  for 
the  whole  School.  A  few  rooms  in  the  house  are  intended  for  the 
use  of  students.  These  will  be  assigned  by  the  Director,  under  such 
regulations  as  he  may  establish,  to  as  many  members  of  the  School  as 
they  will  accommodate.  Each  student  admitted  to  the  privilege  of  a 
room  in  the  house  will  be  expected  to  undertake  the  performance  of 
some  service  to  the  School,  to  be  determined  by  the  Director ;  such, 
for  example,  as  keeping  the  accounts  of  the  School,  taking  charge  of 
the  delivery  of  books  from  the  Library  and  their  return,  and  keeping 
up  the  catalogue  of  the  Library. 

The  Library  now  contains  more  than  1,600  volumes,  exclusive  of 
sets  of  periodicals.  It  includes  a  complete  set  of  the  Greek  classics 
and  the  most  necessary  books  of  reference  for  philological,  archaeologi- 
cal, and  architectural  study  in  Greece. 

The  advantages  of  the  School  are  offered  free  of  expense  for  tuition 
to  graduates  of  the  Colleges  co-operating  in  its  support,  and  to  other 


4o 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


American  students  who  are  deemed  by  the  Committee  of  sufficient 
promise  to  warrant  the  extension  to  them  of  the  privilege  of  member- 
ship. It  is  hoped  that  the  Archaeological  Institute  may  in  time  be 
supplied  with  the  means  of  establishing  scholarships,  which  will  aid 
some  members  in  defraying  their  expenses  at  the  School.  In  the 
mean  time,  students  must  rely  upon  their  own  resources,  or  upon 
scholarships  which  may  be  granted  them  by  the  Colleges  to  which 
they  belong.  The  amount  needed  for  the  expenses  of  an  eight 
months'  residence  in  Athens  differs  little  from  that  required  in  other 
European  capitals,  and  depends  chiefly  on  the  economy  of  the 
individual. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  temporary  organization  of  the  School  dur- 
ing its  first  six  years,  which  has  distinguished  it  from  the  older  German 
and  French  Schools  at  Athens,  has  been  the  yearly  change  of  Director. 
This  arrangement,  by  which  a  new  Director  has  been  sent  out  each  year 
by  one  of  the  co-operating  Colleges,  was  never  looked  upon  as  perma- 
nent. The  School  will  henceforth  be  under  the  control  of  a  permanent 
Director,  who  by  continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate  that 
body  of  local  and  special  knowledge  without  which  the  highest  purpose 
of  such  a  school  cannot  be  fulfilled,  while  an  Annual  Director  also  will 
be  sent  out  each  year  by  one  of  the  Colleges  to  assist  in  the  conduct  of 
the  School.  (See  Regulation  V.)  The  School  has  been  able,  even  under 
its  temporary  organization,  to  meet  a  most  pressing  want,  and  to  be  of 
service  to  classical  scholarship  in  America.  It  has  sought  at  first,  and 
it  must  continue  to  seek  for  the  present,  rather  to  arouse  a  lively  inter- 
est in  classical  archaeology  in  American  Colleges  than  to  accomplish 
distinguished  achievements.  The  lack  of  this  interest  has  heretofore 
been  conspicuous  ;  but  without  it  the  School  at  Athens,  however  well 
endowed,  can  never  accomplish  the  best  results.  A  decided  improve- 
ment in  this  respect  is  already  apparent ;  and  it  is  beyond  question 
that  the  presence  in  many  American  Colleges  of  professors  who  have 
been  resident  a  year  at  Athens  under  favorable  circumstances,  as  an- 
nual directors  or  as  students  of  the  School,  has  done  much,  and  will 
do  still  more,  to  stimulate  intelligent  interest  in  classic  antiquity. 

The  address  of  the  Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  is 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  New  Haven,  Conn. ;  that  of  the  Secretary, 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


41 


REGULATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

OCTOBER,  1890. 

1.  The  object  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  is  to 
furnish  an  opportunity  to  study  Classical  Literature,  Art,  and  x\ntiqui- 
ties  in  Athens,  under  suitable  guidance,  to  graduates  of  American 
Colleges  and  to  other  qualified  students  ;  to  prosecute  and  to  aid 
original  research  in  these  subjects ;  and  to  co-operate  with  the  Arch- 
aeological Institute  of  America,  so  far  as  it  may  be  able,  in  conducting 
the  exploration  and  excavation  of  classic  sites. 

II.  The  School  is  in  charge  of  a  Managing  Committee.  This  Com- 
mittee, which  was  originally  appointed  by  the  Archaeological  Institute, 
disburses  the  annual  income  of  the  School,  and  has  power  to  add  to 
its  membership  and  to  make  such  regulations  for  the  government  of 
the  School  as  it  may  deem  proper.  The  President  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute  and  the  Director  and  Annual  Director  of  the  School 
are  ex-officio  members  of  the  Committee. 

III.  The  Managing  Committee  meets  semi-annually, — in  New 
York  on  the  third  Friday  in  November,  and  in  Boston  on  the  third 
Friday  in  May.  Special  meetings  may  be  called  at  any  time  by  the 
Chairman. 

IV.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  is  the  official  representative 
of  the  interests  of  the  School  in  America.  He  presents  a  Report 
annually  to  the  Archaeological  Institute  concerning  the  affairs  of  the 
School. 

V.  1.  The  School  is  under  the  superintendence  of  a  Director. 
The  Director  is  chosen  and  his  salary  is  fixed  by  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee. The  term  for  which  he  is  chosen  is  five  years.  The  Com- 
mittee provides  him  with  a  house  in  Athens  containing  apartments 
for  himself  and  his  family,  and  suitable  rooms  for  the  meetings  of 
the  members  of  the  School,  its  collections,  and  its  library. 

2.  Each  year  the  Committee  appoints  from  the  instructors  of  the 
Colleges  uniting  in  the  support  of  the  School  an  Annual  Director, 
who  resides  ,in  Athens  during  the  ensuing  year  and  co-operates  in 


42 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  conduct  of  the  School.  In  case  of  the  illness  or  absence  of  the 
Director,  the  Annual  Director  acts  as  Director  for  the  time  being. 

VI.  The  Director  superintends  personally  the  work  of  each  mem- 
ber of  the  School,  advising  him  in  what  direction  to  turn  his  studies, 
and  assisting  him  in  their  prosecution.  He  conducts  no  regular 
courses  of  instruction,  but  holds  meetings  of  the  members  of  the 
School  at  stated  times  for  consultation  and  discussion.  He  makes  a 
full  Report  annually  to  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  work  accom- 
plished by  the  School. 

VII.  The  school  year  extends  from  the  ist  of  October  to  the  ist 
of  June.  Members  are  required  to  prosecute  their  studies  during  the 
whole  of  this  time  in  Greek  lands  under  the  supervision  of  the  Direc- 
tor. The  studies  of  the  remaining  four  months  necessary  to  complete 
a  full  year  (the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given)  may  be 
carried  on  in  Greece  or  elsewhere,  as  the  student  prefers. 

VIII.  Bachelors  of  Arts  of  co-operating  Colleges,  and  all  Bachelors 
of  Arts  who  have  studied  at  one  of  these  Colleges  as  candidates  for  a 
higher  degree,  are  admitted  to  membership  in  the  School  on  present- 
ing to  the  Committee  a  certificate  from  the  instructors  in  classics  of 
the  College  at  which  they  have  last  studied,  stating  that  they  are  com- 
petent to  pursue  an  independent  course  of  study  at  Athens  under  the 
advice  of  the  Director.  All  other  persons  who  desire  to  become 
members  of  the  School  must  make  application  to  the  Committee. 
Members  of  the  School  are  subject  to  no  charge  for  tuition.  The 
Committee  reserves  the  right  to  modify  the  conditions  of  member- 
ship. 

IX.  Each  member  of  the  School  must  pursue  some  definite  subject 
of  study  or  research  in  Classical  Literature,  Art,  or  Antiquities,  and 
must  present  a  thesis  or  report  embodying  the  results  of  some  impor- 
tant part  of  his  year's  work.  These  theses,  if  approved  by  the  Direc- 
tor, are  sent  to  the  Managing  Committee,  by  which  each  thesis  is 
referred  to  a  Sub -Committee  of  three,  of  whom  one  is  always  the 
Director  under  whose  supervision  the  thesis  was  prepared.  If  recom- 
mended for  publication  by  this  Committee,  the  thesis  or  report  will' 
be  issued  in  the  Papers  of  the  School. 

X.  All  work  of  excavation,  of  investigation,  or  of  any  other  kind 
done  by  any  student  in  connection  with  the  School  shall  be  regarded 
as  done  for  the  School  and  by  the  School,  and  shall  be  under  the 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


43 


supervision  and  control  of  the  Director,  who  shall  also,  in  conjunc- 
tion with  the  Committee  on  Publications,  supervise  and  control  all 
publication  of  the  results,  giving  full  acknowledgment  for  work  done 
by  the  student. 

XI.  When  any  member  of  the  School  has  completed  one  or 
more  full  years  of  study,  the  results  of  which  have  been  approved 
by  the  Director,  he  receives  a  certificate  stating  the  work  accom- 
plished by  him,  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  School,  the  President 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  and  the  Chairman  and  the  Secretary 
of  the  Managing  Committee. 

XII.  American  students  resident  or  travelling  in  Greece  who 
are  not  regular  members  of  the  School  may,  at  the  discretion  of  the 
Director,  be  enrolled  as  special  students,  and  enjoy  the  privileges 
of  the  School. 

XIII.  i.  All  manuscripts,  drawings,  or  photographs  intended 
for  publication  in  the  Papers  of  the  School  shall  be  sent  to  the 
Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  School,  who  at  his 
convenience  shall  transmit  them  to  the  Committee  on  Publications. 

2.  In  preparing  the  manuscript  for  such  articles,  a  comparatively 
light  quality  of  paper  shall  be  used,  of  convenient  size  ;  the  paper 
for  any  one  article  shall  be  of  one  size  ;  a  margin  of  two  or  three 
inches  in  width  shall  be  kept  at  the  left.  The  writing  shall  be 
clear  and  distinct,  in  particular  for  all  quotations  and  references. 
Especial  care  must  be  taken  in  writing  Greek,  that  the  printer  may 
not  confound  similar  letters,  and  the  accents  shall  be  placed 
strictly  above  the  proper  vowels,  as  in  printing.  All  quotations  and 
references  shall  be  particularly  verified  by  the  author,  after  the  ar- 
ticle is  completed,  by  comparison  with  the  original  sources. 

XIV.  No  communications,  even  of  an  informal  nature,  shall  be 
made  by  students  of  the  School  to  the  public  press,  without  being 
submitted  to  the  Director  in  charge  of  the  School,  and  authorized 
by  him. 

XV.  At  least  two  careful  squeezes  shall  be  taken  as  soon  as 
possible  of  every  inscription  discovered  by  the  School,  —  one  to  be 
sent  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publications,  the  other 
to  be  deposited  in  the  Library  of  the  School. 


44 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL 
OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1882-1890. 

The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee  may  be  had  gratis  on  application  to 
the  Secretary  of  the  Managing  Committee.  The  other  publications  are  for  sale 
by  Messrs  Damrell  Upham,  &  Co.,  283  Washington  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

First,  Second,  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee, 1881-84.    pp.  30. 

Fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,   1884-85.    pp.  30. 

Fifth  and  Sixth  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee,  1885-87. 
pp.  56. 

Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1887-88,  with  the 
Report  of  Professor  D'Ooge  ( Director  in  1886-87)  and  tnat  °f 
Professor  Merriam  (Director  in  1887-88).    pp.  115. 

Eighth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1888-89,  with  the 
Reports  of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director, 
Dr.  Tarbell.    pp.  53. 

Bulletin  I.  Report  of  Professor  William  W.  Goodwin,  Director 
of  the  School  in  1882-83.    pp.  33.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  II.  Memoir  of  Professor  Lewis  P..  Packard,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1883-84,  with  Resolutions  of  the  Committee  and  the 
Report  for  1883-84.    pp.  34.    Price  25  cents. 

Preliminary  Report  of  an  Archaeological  Journey  made  in  Asia 
Minor  during  the  Summer  of  1884.  By  LV-  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 
pp.  45.    Price  25  cents. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  SCHOOL. 

Volume  I.  1882-83.  Published  in  1885.  8vo.  pp.  viii.  and 
262.    Illustrated.    Price  $2.00. 

Contents  ■  — 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R  S  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salamis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


45 


Volume  II.,  1883-84,  containing  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett's  Report  of 
his  Journey  in  Asia  Minor  in  1884,  with  Inscriptions,  and  two  new 
Maps  by  Professor  H.  Kiepert.  Published  in  1888.  8vo.  pp.  344. 
Price  $2.25. 

Volume  III.,  1884-85,  containing  Dr.  Sterrett's  Report  of  the  Wolfe 
Expedition  to  Asia  Minor  in  1885,  with  Inscriptions,  mostly  hitherto 
unpublished,  and  two  new  Maps  by  Professor  Kiepert.  Published  in 
1888.    8vo.  pp.  448.    Price  $2.50. 

Volume  IV.  1885-86.  Published  in  1888.  8vo.  pp.277.  Illus- 
trated.   Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Preliminary  Report,  by  Walter  Miller. 

2.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Supplementary  Report,  by  William  L.  Gushing. 

3.  On  Greek  Versification  in  Inscriptions,  by  Frederic  D.  Allen. 

4.  The  Athenian  Pnyx,  by  John  M.  Crow  ;  with  a  Survey  of  the  Pnyx  and 
Notes,  by  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke. 

5.  Notes  on  Attic  Vocalism,  by  J.  McKeen  Lewis. 


CIRCULAR  OF  INFORMATION  FOR  STUDENTS  WHO 
PROPOSE  TO  JOIN  THE  SCHOOL. 

OCTOBER,  1890. 

Students  in  Athens  will  find  a  knowledge  of  German  and  French 
of  the  utmost  service  in  all  their  work. 

The  books  in  the  following  lists  of  which  the  titles  are  printed  in 
the  larger  type  are  recommended  to  students  as  an  introduction  to  the 
different  branches  of  Greek  Archaeology.  The  more  special  works, 
whose  titles  are  printed  in  smaller  type,  are  recommended  as  books 
of  reference  and  for  students  whose  department  of  special  study  is 
already  determined. 

LIST  OF  BOOKS. 
GENERAL  WORKS. 

Pausanias. 

Collignon :  Manual  of  Greek  Archaeology  (translated  by  J.  H. 
Wright). 


46 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Guhl  and  Koner:  Life  of  the  Ancient  Greeks  and  Romans. 
Baumeister:  Denkmaler  des  klassischen  Altertums. 
C.  O.  Midler:  Ancient  Art  and  its  Remains. 
Tame  :  Philosophie  de  l'Art  en  Grece. 

Hiibner:  Bibliographie  der  klassischen  Altertumswissenschaft. 

S.  Reinach:  Manuel  de  Philologie  classique. 

Stark :  Systematik  und  Geschichte  der  Arch'aologie  der  Kunst. 

C.  T.  Newton  :  Essays  on  Art  and  Archaeology. 

Burnouf :  Memoires  sur  I'Antiquite. 

Boeckh-Frankel :  Die  Staatshaushaltung  der  Athener. 

Smith:  Dictionary  of  Antiquities  (third  edition). 

K.  F.  Hermann  :    Lehrbuch  der  griechischen  Antiquitaten. 

Daremberg  et  Saglio :  Dictionnaire  des  Antiquites. 

Pottier  et  Reinach:  La  Necropole  de  Myrina. 

Milchhofer:  Anfange  der  Kunst  in  Griechenland. 

Beuld:  L'Art  grec  avant  Pe'ricles. 

Diehl:  Excursions  Archeologiques  en  Grece. 

ARCHITECTURE. 
Durm  :  Die  Baukunst  der  Griechen. 

Von  Reber  :  History  of  Ancient  Art  (translated  by  Clarke). 

Penrose    Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture,  2d  ed. 

Michaelis  .  Der  Parthenon. 

Fergusson    The  Parthenon. 

Bohn  •  Die  Propylaeen  der  Akropolis  zu  Athen. 

Boutmy:  Philosophie  de  l'Architecture  en  Grece. 

Papers  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America.  Report  on  the  Investiga- 
tions at  Assos. 

SCULPTURE. 

Mrs.  Lucy  M.  Mitchell :  History  of  Ancient  Sculpture. 
A.  S.  Murray  :  History  of  Greek  Sculpture. 
Overbeck  :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Plastik. 
Overbeck  :  Die  antiken  Schriftquellen  zur  Geschichte  der  bildenden 
Kiinste. 

Brunn:  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Kiinstler. 

Friedrichs-Wolters  :  Bausteine  zur  Geschichte  der  griechisch-romischen  Plastik. 
Waldstein:  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidias. 
Petersen  :  Die  Kunst  des  Pheidias. 
Collignon  .  Phidias 

Heuzey.  Catalogue  des  Terres  Cuites  du  Louvre. 
P.  Paris:  La  Sculpture  Antique 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


47 


VASES. 

Rayet  et  Collignon  :  Histoire  de  la  Ce'ramique  grecque. 
Dumont  et  Chaplain  :  Les  Ceramiques  de  la  Grece  propre. 
Furtwangler  und  Loeschcke  :  Mykenische  Vasen. 

Birch  :  History  of  Ancient  Pottery. 

Von  Rohden  :  Vasenkunde,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler. 
Furtwangler:  Vasensammlung  im  Antiquarium  (Berlin). 
Klein  :  Euphronios. 

Klein  :  Die  griechischen  Vasen  mit  Meistersignaturen. 

COINS. 

Percy  Gardner  :  Types  of  Greek  Coins. 

Head  :  Historia  Numorum. 

Catalogues  of  Coins  of  the  British  Museum. 

EPIGRAPHY. 
Roberts  :  Introduction  to  Greek  Epigraphy. 
Dittenberger :  Sylloge  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Kirchhoff :  Geschichte  des  griechischen  Alphabets. 
Hicks :  Greek  Historical  Inscriptions. 
S.  Reinach  :  Traite  d'Epigraphie  grecque. 

Hinrichs  :  Griechische  Epigraphik,  in  Midler's  Handbuch  der  Altertumswis* 
senschaft,  Vol.  I. 

Cauer  :  Delectus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Collitz  :  Sammlung  der  griechischen  Dialektinschriften. 

Meisterhans  :  Grammatik  der  attischen  Inschriften. 

G.  Meyer :  Griechische  Grammatik. 

Roehl :  Inscriptiones  Graecae  Antiquissimae. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Atticarum. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Loewy  :  Inschriften  griechischer  Bildhauer. 

Reinach  :  Conseils  au  Voyageur  archeologue  en  Grece. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 
Baedeker:  Greece  (latest  edition) . 

Guides  Joanne  :  Athenes  et  ses  environs  (latest  edition). 
Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Atlas  von  Athen. 
Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Karten  von  Attika  (erlauternder  Text). 
Verrall  and  Harrison :  Mythology  and  Monuments  of  Athens. 

Bursian:  Geographie  von  Griechenland. 
Tozer:  Geography  of  Greece. 

Lolling:  Topographie  von  Griechenland,  in  Miiller's  Handbuch,  Vol.  III. 


4» 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Leake :  Travels  in  Northern  Greece. 
Leake  :  Topography  of  Athens. 
Leake  :  Travels  in  the  Morea. 
E.  Curtius :  Peloponnesos. 

Jahn-Michaelis :  Pausaniae  descriptio  arcis  Athenarum,  1880. 

Wachsmuth:  Die  Stadt  Athen  im  Alterthum. 

Hertzberg:  Athen. 

Dyer :  Ancient  Athens. 

Burnouf :  La  Ville  et  l'Acropole  d'Athenes. 

Botticher  :  Die  Akropolis  von  Athen. 

Botticher :  Olympia. 

Pomtow  :  Beitrage  zur  Topographie  von  Delphi. 
(Murray's  Handbook  for  Travellers  in  Greece.) 

MYTHOLOGY. 
Preller :  Griechische  Mythologie. 

Roscher  :  Lexikon  der  griechischen  und  romischen  Mythologie, 
Seeraann  :  Mythologie  der  Griechen  und  Romer. 
Collignon  :  Mythologie  figuree  de  la  Grece. 
Decharme  :  Mythologie  de  la  Grece  antique. 

Welcker :  Griechische  Gotterlehre. 
(Burnouf:  La  Legende  athenienne.) 
(Ruskin:  Queen  of  the  Air.) 

PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin  de  Correspondance  heltenique. 

Mittheilungen  des  deutschen  Archaeologischen  Instituts. 

Jahrbuch  des  deutschen  Archaeologischen  Instituts. 

American  Journal  of  Archaeology. 

Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies. 

'E^/xepis  'ApxcuoA-oyiAoy. 

UpaKTLKa  rrj<i  iv  'AOrjvaLS  'ApxaioAoyi/07?  'Eratptas. 
AeXrtov  'Ap^atoAoyiKov. 

Archaeologisch-epigraphische  Mittheilungen  aus  Oesterreich. 
Revue  Archeologique. 
Gazette  Archeologique. 

MODERN  GREEK. 

Vincent  and  Dickson  :  Handbook  to  Modern  Greek. 
Contopoulos  :  Modern  Greek  and  English  Lexicon. 
Jannarakis  :  Neugriechisch-deutsches  Worterbuch. 


NINTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


49 


TRAVEL  AND  EXPENSES. 

Students  wishing  to  travel  from  the  United  States  to  Athens  with  the  greatest 
economy  of  time  and  money  are  advised  to  sail  from  New  York  to  Havre,  Ant- 
werp, Bremen,  or  Hamburg.  The  cost  of  the  sea  voyage  varies  from  $40  to 
$125.  From  the  port  of  landing  the  journey  to  Athens  may  be  made  for  about 
$100  (first  class)  or  $65  (second  class),  including  ordinary  expenses.  Three 
routes  are  available  for  the  voyage  to  Athens  upon  the  Mediterranean,  —  from 
Marseilles,  by  the  Messageries  Maritimes  steamers,  or  by  the  Fraissinet  or 
Florio-Rubattino  line;  from  Brindisi,  by  Greek  or  Italian  steamers  or  the  Aus- 
trian Lloyd  ;  from  Trieste,  by  the  Austrian  Lloyd.  Before  securing  passage 
by  any  of  these  lines,  care  should  be  taken  to  ascertain  that  the  Greek  Govern- 
ment has  not  established  a  quarantine  against  the  port  of  departure.  Quaran- 
tined ports  are  to  be  avoided  if  possible,  as  the  delay  on  landing  from  them  is 
tedious  and  costly. 

The  quickest  route  is  by  steamer  from  Brindisi  to  Patras  (a  little  more  than 
twenty-four  hours),  and  thence  by  rail  to  Athens  (about  eight  hours).  The 
routes  through  the  Gulf  of  Corinth  and  around  Peloponnesus  are  very  attractive 
in  good  weather. 

It  is  not  advisable  to  attempt  to  sail  directly  from  New  York  to  the  Piraeus 
during  the  summer  months,  on  account  of  the  danger  of  quarantine.  The  voy- 
age by  this  route  (by  the  Florio  steamers),  which  is  to  be  recommended  at  other 
seasons,  takes  about  three  weeks,  and  costs  $150  (first  class). 

At  the  large  hotels  in  Athens,  board  and  lodging  can  be  obtained  for  $14  per 
week;  at  small  hotels  and  in  private  families  for  $5  50  per  week  and  upward. 
A  limited  number  of  students  may  have  rooms,  without  board,  in  the  new  School 
building.  The  figures  here  given  represent  maximum  estimates,  and  careful 
economy  may  reduce  actual  expenses  below  them.  The  student  should  go  well 
supplied  with  clothing  and  similar  necessities  for  his  stay,  as  all  such  articles 
are  expensive  in  Athens ;  and  in  providing  these  he  must  not  count  too  much 
on  a  warm  climate  during  the  winter.  He  should  encumber  himself  with  as  few 
books  as  possible  in  travelling ;  the  School  library,  which  now  contains  more 
than  sixteen  hundred  volumes,  provides  all  the  books  that  are  most  essential  for 
study  in  Greece. 

Members  of  the  School  are  required  to  study  in  Athens,  or  in  such  Greek  lands 
as  the  Director  of  the  School  may  approve,  between  October  1  and  June  I. 


4 


^rrjjacolojgrtal  Institute  ai  %mtxxm. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1890-91. 
WHttij  tfje  Reports  of 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  Ph.D.,  Litt.D.,  L.H.D.,  Director, 

AND 

RUFUS  B.  RICHARDSON,  Ph.D.,  Annual  Director. 


CAMBRIDGE: 
JOHN   WILSON  AND  SON. 
Emtattg  Press. 
1891. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


planagmg  (Committee. 

1890-91. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  {Chairman),  Yale  University,  New  Haven, 
Conn. 

H.  M.  Baird,  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 

I.  T.  Beckwith,  Trinity  College,  Hartford,  Conn. 

Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York  City. 

Miss  A.  C.  Chapin,  Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Mass. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York  City. 

O.  M.  Fernald,  Williams  College,  Williamstown,  Mass. 

Henry  Gibbons,  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 

William  W.  Goodwin,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

William  G.  Hale,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 

Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 

William  A.  Lamberton,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Miss  Abby  Leach,  Vassar  College,  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y. 

Seth  Low  (ex  officio :  President  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of 

America),  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary),  Cottage  Lawn,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Augustus  C.  Merriam  (Chairman  of  Committee  on  Publications), 

Columbia  College,  640  Madison  Ave.,  New  York  City. 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Charles  Eliot  Norton,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
Bernadotte  Perrin,  Adelbert  College  of  W estern  Reserve  University, 
Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  {Treasurer),  7  East  42d  St.,  New  York  City. 
Rufus  B.  Richardson  {ex  officio :  Annual  Director  of  the  School), 

Dartmouth  College,  Hanover,  N.  H. 
William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 
Fitz  Gerald  Tisdall,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 
James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 
Charles  Waldstein  {ex  officio  :  Director  of  the  School),  Cambridge, 

England. 

William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
John  Williams  White,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 


lExeatttrje  Committee. 

1890-91. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  {Chairman). 

William  W.  Goodwin. 

Thomas  W.  Ludlow  {Secretary) . 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  {Treasurer). 

William  R.  Ware. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


5 


©tation  of  ti)e  School. 

1882-  1883. 

Director :  William  Watson  Goodwin,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  D.C.  L.,  Eliot 
Professor  of  Greek  Literature  in  Harvard  University. 

1883-  1884. 

Director :  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Ph.  D.,  Hillhouse  Professor  of  Greek 

in  Yale  University. 
Secretary :  J.  R.  Sitlington  Sterrett,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek 

in  the  University  of  Texas. 

1884-  1885. 

Director:  James  Cooke  Van  Benschoten,  LL. D,  Seney  Professor 
of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  Wesleyan  University. 

1885-  1886. 

Director :  Frederic  De  Forest  Allen,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Classical 
Philology  in  Harvard  University. 

1886-  1887. 

Director :  Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in 
the  University  of  Michigan. 

1887-  1888. 

Director :  Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  Archae- 
ology and  Epigraphy  in  Columbia  College. 

1888-  1889. 

Director:  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H. D.,  Reader  in 
Archaeology  at  the  University  of  Cambridge,  England. 

Annual  Director :  Frank  Bigelow  Tarbell,  Ph.D.,  Instructor  in 
Harvard  University. 

1889-  1890. 

Director:  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 

Annual  Director :  S.  Stanhope  Orris,  Ph.D.,  L.  H.  D.,  Evving  Pro- 
fessor of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  the  College  of 
New  Jersey. 

1890-  1891. 

Director :  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 
Annual  Director:  Rufus  Byram  Richardson,  Ph.D.,  Professor  of 
Greek  in  Dartmouth  College. 


6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


(^operating  (Mleges. 

1890-91. 


ADELBERT  COLLEGE   OF  WESTERN 

RESERVE  UNIVERSITY. 
AMHERST  COLLEGE. 
BROWN  UNIVERSITY. 
COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK. 
COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 
COLUMBIA  COLLEGE. 
CORNELL  UNIVERSITY. 
DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 
HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 
JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 


TRINITY  COLLEGE. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW 
YORK. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  MISSOURI. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 
VASSAR  COLLEGE. 
WESLEYAN  UNIVERSITY. 
WELLESLEY  COLLEGE. 
WILLIAMS  COLLEGE. 
YALE  UNIVERSITY. 


^Trustees  of  tfje  School, 

James  Russell  Lowell*  (President). 

Edward  J.  Lowell  {Treasurer). 

William  W.  Goodwin  (Secretary). 

Martin  Brimmer. 

Henry  Drisler. 

Basil  M.  Gildersleeve. 

Henry  G.  Marquand. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 

Henry  C.  Potter. 

William  M.  Sloane. 

John  Williams  White. 


lExecuttue  (JTommi'ttee  cf  tfje  ftrnsteeg. 

James  Russell  Lowell.* 
William  W/  Goodwin. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton. 


*  Died  August  12,  1891. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


7 


Stutonte.* 

LOUIS  BEVIER  (i882-83),t 

Associate  Professor  in  Rutgers  College,  New  Brunswick,  N.  J. 

WALTER  RAY  BRIDGMAN  (1883-84), 

Professor  in  Lake  Forest  University,  Lake  Forest,  111. 

CARLETON  LEWIS  BROWN  SON  (1890-). 

CARL  DARLING  BUCK  (1887-89), 

Student  in  the  University  cf  Leipzig. 

N.  E.  CROSBY  (1886-87), 

Instructor  in  the  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 

JOHN  M.  CROW  (1882-83), 

Professor  in  Iowa  College,  Grinnell,  Iowa.    Died  Sept.  28,  1890. 

WILLIAM  LEE  CUSHING  (1885-87), 

Head  Master  of  the  Westminster  School,  Dobbs  Ferry,  N.  Y. 

MORTIMER  LAMSON  EARLE  (1887-88), 

Instructor  in  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 

THOMAS  H.  ECKFELDT  (1884-85), 

Principal  of  the  Friends'  School,  New  Bedford,  Mass. 

A.  F.  FLEET  (1887-88), 

Superintendent  of  the  Missouri  Military  Academy,  Mexico,  Mo. 

ANDREW  FOSS UM  (1890-91), 

Instructor  in  the  Drisler  School,  New  York  City. 

HAROLD  NORTH  FOWLER  (1882-83), 

Professor  in  Phillips  Academy,  Exeter,  N.  H. 

JOHN  WESLEY  GILBERT  (1890-9O. 

HENRY  T.  HILDRETH  (1885-86), 

Professor  in  Wooster  University,  Wooster,  Ohio, 

W.  IRVING  HUNT  (1889-90), 

Tutor  in  Greek,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn. 

GEORGE  BENJAMIN  HUSSEY  (i887-88),t 

Instructor  in  the  University  of  Nebraska,  Lincoln,  Neb. 

FRANCIS  DEMETRIUS  KALOPOTHAKES  (1888-89), 
Student  in  the  University  of  Berlin. 

JOSEPH  McKEEN  LEWIS  (1885-87). 
Died  April  29,  1887. 

GONZALEZ  LODGE  (i888-89),t 

Associate  Professor  in  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Mawr,  Pa. 

*  The  year  of  residence  at  the  School  is  placed  in  a  parenthesis  after  the  name. 

Italics  indicate  students  of  the  year  1890-91 
t  Not  present  during  the  entire  year. 


8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


WALTER  MILLER  (1885-86), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Mo. 

WILLIAM  J.  McMURTRY  (1886-87), 

Professor  in  Yankton  College,  Yankton,  South  Dakota. 

Miss  EMILY  NORCROSS,  (1888-89), 

Instructor  in  Smith  College,  Northampton,  Mass. 

Miss  ANNIE  S.  PECK  (1885-86), 

865  North  Main  Street,  Providence,  R.  I. 

JOHN  PICK  A  RD  (1890-91), 

Student  in  the  University  of  Munich. 

DANIEL  QUINN  (1887-89), 

Professor  in  the  Catholic  University  of  America,  Washington,  D.  C. 

JOHN  CAREW  ROLFE  (1888-89), 

Assistant  Professor  in  the  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

WILLIAM  J.  SEELYE  (1886-87), 

Professor  in  Wooster  University,  Wooster,  Ohio. 

JOHN  P.  SHELLEY  (1889-90), 

Professor  in  Grove  College,  Grove  City,  Pa. 

PAUL  SHOREY  (1882-83), 

Associate  Professor  in  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Mawr,  Pa. 

Miss  EMILY  E    SLATER  (1888-89). 

Instructor  at  Science  Hill,  Shelby ville,  Kentucky. 

J.  R.  SITLINGTON  STERRETT  (1882-83), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Texas,  Austin,  Texas. 

FRANKLIN  H.  TAYLOR  (1882-83), 

Instructor  in  St.  Paul's  School,  Concord,  N.  H. 

OLIVER  JOS.  THATCHER  (1887-88), 

Professor  in  Alleghany  Theological  Seminary,  Alleghany,  Pa. 

S.  B.  P.  TROWBRIDGE  (1886-88), 
"Architect,  New  York  City. 

HENRY  STEPHENS  WASHINGTON  (1888-91). t 

JAMES  R.  WHEELER  (1882-83), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vt. 

ALEXANDER  M.  WILCOX  (1883-84), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Kansas,  Lawrence,  Kan. 

FRANK  E.  WOODRUFF  (1882-83)^ 

Professor  in  Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,  Me. 

THEODORE  L.  WRIGHT  (1886-87), 

Professor  in  Beloit  College,  Beloit,  Wisconsin. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Archceo  logical  Institute  of  America  :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
the  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  Ameri- 
can School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  for  the  year 
from  October  i,  1890,  to  October  1,  1891  ;  and  also 
the  Reports  of  the  Director,  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein, 
and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Professor  Rufus  B.  Rich- 
ardson, of  Dartmouth  College. 

During  the  past  year  the  following  persons  have 
been  enrolled  as  members  of  the  School :  — 

Carleton  Lee  Brownson,  A.  B.  Yale,  Soldiers'  Memorial 
Fellow  of  Yale. 
Andrew  Fossum,  Ph.  D.  Johns  Hopkins. 
John  Wesley  Gilbert,  A.  B.  Brown. 
John  Pickard,  A.  B.  Dartmouth. 

In  addition  to  these  just  named,  Mr.  Henry  S. 
Washington,  A.  M.  Yale,  as  in  the  two  preceding 
years,  spent  part  of  the  year  in  Greece  in  connection 
with  the  School. 


IO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Professor  Drisler  of  Columbia  College,  Professor 
Farnam  of  Yale  University,  and  Professor  McLain 
of  Wabash  College,  visited  Athens  and  the  School 
during  the  spring.  Miss  Harris,  Miss  Potter,  and 
Mr.  F.  W.  Goodrich  of  Wesleyan  University  were 
admitted  to  the  ordinary  privileges  of  the  School. 

The  Reports  of  the  Director  and  the  Annual  Direc- 
tor give  an  account  of  the  regular  work  of  the  School. 
In  addition  to  the  lectures,  the  instruction,  and  the 
guidance  of  the  officers  of  the  School,  our  students 
as  heretofore  enjoyed  the  privilege  of  attending  the 
meetings  of  the  German  Archaeological  Institute  and 
the  lectures  of  Dr.  Dorpfeld,  Mr.  Penrose,  and  Dr. 
Ernest  Gardner.  The  discourses  of  that  veteran 
archaeologist,  Mr.  Penrose,  upon  the  Parthenon,  were 
particularly  enjoyed. 

The  School  was  honored  at  its  first  open  meeting  of 
the  year  by  the  presence  of  the  King  and  Queen  of 
Greece,  and  of  their  Royal  Highnesses  the  Duke  and 
Duchess  of  Sparta. 

For  the  first  time  since  the  completion  of  its  build- 
ing, the  School  was  favored  with  the  presence  of  the 
wife  of  an  Annual  Director,  and  to  Mrs.  Richardson 
is  due  the  renewal  and  extension  of  the  social  life 
of  the  School  which  was  so  delightful  during  some 
of  its  earlier  years. 

The  sixth  volume  of  the  Papers  of  the  School  will 
contain  detailed  accounts  of  the  excavations  conducted 
by  the  School  during  the  past  year. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


I  I 


Dr.  Waldstein's  present  Report  gives  the  most  im- 
portant facts  with  regard  to  the  excavations  of  1891  at 
Eretria,  under  his  own  direction,  assisted  by  Professor 
Richardson.  The  discoveries  there  are  of  moment  in 
several  respects.  The  "  Philosopher's  tomb/'  as  it  has 
been  called,  is  interesting  in  itself,  and  will  become 
far  more  so  if  it  is  proved  to  be  the  burial  place  of 
the  great  Aristotle.  The  theatre  at  Eretria  presents 
several  novelties,  of  which  the  most  notable  is  the 
underground  passage  leading  from  the  centre  of  the 
orchestra  to  the  stage  building.  This  seems  to  be 
intended  for  the  use  of  actors  who  were  to  appear 
suddenly  before  the  audience,  like  the  Shade  of  Da- 
rius in  the  Persians  of  -^Eschylus,  or  to  disappear 
suddenly,  as  the  Chorus  and  Prometheus  himself  in 
the  Prometheus  of  .^Eschylus. 

On  the  discovery  at  Eretria  of  the  subterranean 
passage  from  the  orchestra  to  the  greenroom,  curi- 
osity was  awakened  anew  with  regard  to  the  similar 
passage  in  the  theatre  at  Sicyon.1  During  this  last 
summer,  Mr.  Earle,  at  the  suggestion  of  Professor 
Merriam  and  under  a  special  appropriation  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute,  conducted  further  investiga- 
tions at  Sicyon  in  order  to  determine  the  use  of  this 
passage  (v7rovofjLo<;y  as  it  has  been  styled).  This  seems 
to  have  been  intended  to  serve  both  as  a  conduit  for 
water  and  as  a  passage  for  actors. 

1  See  the  report  by  Mr.  W.  L.  Earle,  in  the  seventh  volume  of  the 
American  Journal  of  Archaeology. 


12 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


The  excavations  at  Plataea  were  continued,  under 
the  care  and  at  the  expense  of  Mr.  H.  S.  Washington, 
who  has  maintained  his  connection  with  the  School 
for  three  years,  and  who  took  an  active  part  in  the 
excavations  of  the  previous  year.  His  fortunate  dis- 
covery of  the  deme  of  Plothea  in  1889  had  whet- 
ted his  appetite  for  developing  "  the  science  of  the 
spade."  He  discovered  this  spring  the  remains  of  an 
ancient  temple,  —  possibly  that  of  Hera. 

The  Director  of  the  School  has  secured  from  the 
Greek  government  the  choice  among  several  important 
and  promising  sites  for  exploration  and  excavation. 
This  work  of  excavation  is  valuable  for  the  School  in 
several  respects.  It  not  only  brings  to  the  knowledge 
of  the  archaeological  world  objects  and  information 
which  may  settle  vexed  questions,  or  at  least  help  to 
give  them  definite  settlement ;  it  also  provides  stimu- 
lus to  the  members  of  the  School,  and  (most  important 
of  all,  perhaps)  absolutely  new  archaeological  material 
to  be  examined  and  discussed.  Nothing  else  could 
give  so  good  training  in  independent  research  in  this 
department.  Owing  to  a  misunderstanding,  Dr.  Wald- 
stein  did  not  use  at  Eretria  the  appropriation  of  one 
thousand  dollars  by  the  Archaeological  Institute  for 
excavation  ;  so  at  least  that  sum,  and  the  Committee 
hope  a  still  larger  one,  will  be  available  for  that  work 
in  the  spring  of  1892. 

Soon  after  the  publication  of  the  Ninth  Report, 
official  information  was  received  that  the  privilege  of 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


13 


excavating  on  the  site  of  Delphi  had  been  granted  to 
the  French.  While  we  regret  the  loss  of  the  opportu- 
nity, which  seemed  fairly  within  our  reach,  to  bring  to 
the  light  of  day  the  remains  of  that  distinguished  seat 
of  Greek  religion,  yet  we  wish  our  friendly  rivals,  the 
French,  the  highest  success  in  their  undertaking,  and 
trust  that  the  work  may  be  speedily  accomplished  to 
the  satisfaction  of  all  who  are  interested  in  classical 
studies.  The  disposition  of  the  Greek  government 
toward  our  School  remains  most  friendly,  and  we  are 
again  indebted  to  the  Ephor  General  of  Antiquities, 
Mr.  Kabbadias,  for  many  kindly  offices.  Simply  for 
the  training  of  our  students  in  the  most  immediate 
future,  the  proffered  sites  of  the  Heraeum,  Sparta,  and 
Messene  may  be  nearly  as  valuable  as  Delphi  would 
have  been. 

Professor  William  Carey  Poland  of  Brown  Univer- 
sity was  unanimously  elected  Annual  Director  of  the 
School  for  the  year  1891-92,  and  is  just  entering  upon 
his  duties,  after  visiting  the  principal  Museums  of 
Europe  on  his  way  to  Greece.  Professor  Poland  has 
gained  distinction  for  his  tact  and  general  success  in 
administration,  and  as  a  former  student  of  archaeol- 
ogy under  Ernst  Curtius,  has  paid  special  attention 
to  departments  of  study  which  will  be  important  and 
valuable  in  his  work  at  Athens. 

At  the  May  meeting  in  Cambridge,  the  Com- 
mittee adopted  unanimously  the  following  impor- 
tant resolution  :  — 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Resolved,  that  after  October  I,  1892,  the  School  shall  have 
a  permanent  officer  in  residence  at  Athens  during  the  entire 
school  year,  from  October  1  to  June  1. 

Further  action  on  this  matter  was  deferred  to  the 
November  meeting  of  the  Committee. 

The  Committee  reports  with  pleasure  that  two  addi- 
tional institutions  of  learning  have  during  the  past 
year  accepted  invitations  to  assist  in  the  support  of 
the  School,  —  the  University  of  Vermont  and  Mt. 
Holyoke  College. 

Professor  Rufus  B.  Richardson,  Ph.  D.,  of  Dart- 
mouth College,  has  been  elected  member  of  the 
Managing  Committee,  on  the  expiration  of  his  ex 
officio  membership  as  Annual  Director. 

Professor  James  R.  Wheeler,  Ph.  D.,  has  been 
elected  to  represent  the  University  of  Vermont  in 
this  Committee. 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Mead,  President  of  Mt.  Holyoke 
College,  has  been  elected  a  member  of  the  Managing 
Committee  to  represent  the  institution  over  which 
she  presides. 

Among  the  colleges  which  are  associated  in  the 
support  of  the  School  are  now  three  colleges  for 
women,  —  Mt.  Holyoke,  Vassar,  and  Wellesley,  —  in 
addition  to  Cornell  University  and  the  University 
of  Michigan,  where  young  women  are  received  as 
students.  Already  the  School  has  numbered  three 
women  among  its  regular  students,  and  has  extended 
special  privileges  to  others.    The  hope  is  cherished 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


15 


that  provision  may  be  made  for  the  greater  comfort 
and  convenience  of  the  work  of  young  American 
women  pursuing  philological  studies  in  Greece. 
Thoughtful  attentions  to  these  wards  of  the  School 
are  among  the  unnumbered  kindnesses  of  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Kalopothakes. 

The  University  of  Missouri  withdraws  from  the 
company  of  institutions  which  support  the  School ; 
but  the  publications  of  the  School  will  continue  to 
be  sent  to  that  University,  and  its  students  will  be 
admitted  to  the  School. 

Considerable  sums  have  been  spent  during  the 
past  year  on  the  grounds  and  building  of  the  School 
in  Athens.  The  house  is  made  more  convenient, 
and  the  grounds  more  attractive.  The  cost  of  repairs 
is  more  than  would  seem  reasonable  to  one  who 
did  not  consider  the  extremes  of  the  Athenian  cli- 
mate, —  the  extraordinary  dryness  of  the  summer 
(no  spot  on  the  continent  of  Europe  being  more 
sunny),  and  the  moist,  chilly  winters.  The  inter- 
change of  these  conditions  works  destruction  to  ordi- 
nary modern  buildings  and  furniture. 

The  well  known  German  architect  residing  in 
Athens,  Mr.  Eduard  Ziller,  has  consented  to  act  as 
supervising  architect  for  the  School. 

In  view  of  their  many  freely  given  services  in 
connection  with  the  improvements  of  the  building 
and  grounds,  the  thanks  of  the  Committee  have  been 
voted  to  the  Rev.  Dr.  Kalopothakes,  to  Professor 


1 6  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

Moschou,  and  to  Mr.  Arthur  McDowall,  U.  S.  Vice 
Consul  at  the  Piraeus. 

The  income  of  the  School  is  slightly  larger  than 
ever  before.  About  five  thousand  dollars  which  had 
been  given  for  the  excavation  of  Delphi  was  trans- 
ferred with  the  consent  of  the  givers  to  the  Endow- 
ment Fund  of  the  School.  This  fund,  in  the  hands  of 
the  Treasurer  of  the  Trustees,  now  amounts  to  about 
$54,000.  The  value  of  the  building  and  library  at 
Athens,  together  with  the  ground,  which  was  the  gift 
of  the  Greek  government,  would  amount  to  about 
$46,000.  Thus  the  entire  property  of  the  School  is 
almost  exactly  $100,000. 

The  debt  which  the  Committee  contracted  for  the 
building  is  almost  extinguished.  Only  a  few  hundred 
dollars  remains  to  be  paid. 

The  Committee  hope  that  the  Endowment  Fund 
may  be  completed  soon,  and  that  the  School  may  not 
need  to  ask  for  such  heavy  contributions  from  the 
supporting  colleges.  For  the  present,  however,  its 
entire  income  is  needed  for  the  most  efficient  and 
economical  administration  of  the  School,  and  we  take 
pleasure  in  the  anticipation  of  new  accessions  to  the 
supporting  colleges  in  the  near  future. 

The  publication  of  the  fifth  volume  of  the  Papers 
of  the  School,  embracing  the  reports  of  the  work  done 
at  Sicyon,  Icaria,  Plataea,  etc.,  is  expected  in  the  early 
months  of  1892. 

On  the  whole,  the  academic  year  of  1890-91  has 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


17 


been  one  of  prosperity  for  the  School.  Distinct  pro- 
gress has  been  made.  Every  year  sees  the  work  of 
the  School  on  a  surer  foundation. 

Every  year  Greece  is  brought  nearer  to  the  course 
of  ordinary  travel,  and  becomes  more  accessible.  Now 
the  traveller  can  leave  Olympia  in  the  morning,  and 
dine  in  Athens  on  the  evening  of  that  day  ;  he  can 
leave  Athens  in  the  morning,  visit  Mycenae  and  Tiryns, 
and  reach  Nauplia  in  the  evening.  The  inconve- 
niences of  travel  in  Greece  are  greatly  lessened  ;  the 
comforts  of  sojourn  and  travel  are  increased.  Many 
famous  sites  have  been  made  accessible,  and  have 
been  better  cleared  for  observation.  The  museums 
of  Greece  now  contain  most  important  and  unique 
material  for  the  study  of  classical  antiquities.  And 
while  the  advantages  and  conveniences  of  residence 
in  Greece  are  increased,  the  charms  of  the  ruins,  the 
climate,  and  the  mountains  remain  the  same.  The 
importance  to  a  classical  student  of  a  residence  in 
Greece  is  sure  to  become  more  and  more  manifest. 


THOMAS  D.  SEYMOUR, 

Chairman, 

New  Haven,  Conn.,  October  1,  1891. 


REPORT  OF  THE  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  beg  to  submit  to  you  the  follow- 
ing statement  as  to  the  work  of  the  School  for  the 
period  of  the  last  year  during  which  I  have  had  ac- 
tive charge  of  its  management. 

I  arrived  at  Athens  on  December  16,  and  found 
the  School  in  a  very  satisfactory  state,  owing  to  the 
zeal  and  tact  of  my  colleague  for  this  year,  Professor 
Richardson.  Of  the  work  of  the  School  during  the 
period  in  which  he  was  in  charge  you  will  have  an 
account  in  his  own  Report.  During  the  time  in 
which  I  had  the  benefit  of  his  co-operation,  owing 
to  his  cordial  spirit,  our  relations  were  throughout 
of  the  most  friendly  and  pleasant  character.  Four 
regular  students  were  attached  to  the  School :  Messrs. 
Brownson  of  Yale  University,  Fossum  of  Johns  Hop- 
kins University,  Gilbert  of  Brown  University,  and 
Pickard  of  Dartmouth  College.  These  proved  them- 
selves serious  and  enthusiastic  students.  Besides 
these  regular  students,  several  others,  recommended 
to  us  in  the  proper  way,  took  an  active  part  in  our 
work.    Among  these  I  may  mention  Mr.  Goodrich, 


20 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


of  the  Wesleyan  University,  while  several  women 
were  regular  attendants  at  all  the  lectures  and  exer- 
cises of  the  School.  Toward  the  close  of  my  stay  at 
Athens,  Mr.  Washington,  a  former  student,  returned 
to  Athens  and  joined  us,  and  undertook  work  of 
which  I  shall  have  to  say  a  few  words  in  the  course 
of  this  Report.  There  were  also  a  number  of  visitors 
to  whom  it  was  an  honor  to  us  to  extend  hospitality. 
Among  these  I  must  mention  Professor  Drisler  of 
Columbia  College,  and  Mr.  Whitelaw  Reid,  the  United 
States  Minister  at  Paris. 

The  first  days  after  my  arrival  were  given  chiefly 
to  the  work  connected  with  our  endeavors  to  obtain 
the  concession  to  excavate  Delphi.  This  question  is 
now  definitively  settled  in  a  manner  known  to  you 
all,1  and  it  cannot  serve  any  purpose  to  dwell  upon  the 
details  of  what  took  place.  It  will  suffice  to  say  that 
owing  to  the  applications  which  preceded  the  change 
of  government  in  the  autumn  of  last  year,  and  to 
some  delicate  questions  of  policy  which  it  would  be 
impossible  to  enumerate,  the  ministry  in  power  before 
the  present  one  had  not  grasped  with  absolute  clear- 
ness the  interpretation  which  we  were  led  to  put  upon 
the  engagement  to  our  School.  As  furthermore  the 
French  government  had  distinctly  manifested  its  de- 
sire and  intention  to  excavate  Delphi  several  years 
ago,  and  a  conditional  engagement  on  the  part  of 
the  Greek  government  had  then  been  made  to  it, 

1  See  Revue  des  Etudes  Grecques  for  May  and  June,  1891,  p.  189. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


21 


the  present  government  thought  it  right  to  recog- 
nize the  claim  of  France  as  prior  to  our  own,  and 
has  accordingly  bestowed  this  concession  upon  the 
French  School  at  Athens.  In  the  interests  of  science, 
and  in  generous  feeling  to  our  French  colleagues,  we 
wish  them  every  success  in  this  undertaking ;  and 
I  am  happy  to  say  that  the  relations  between  the 
French  School,  under  the  present  Director,  M.  Ho- 
molle,  and  your  Directors  and  students,  have  never 
been  more  cordial. 

I  began  my  lectures  in  the  Library  of  the  School, 
as  well  as  the  peripatetic  ones  in  the  various  Mu- 
seums, on  December  22,  and  continued  them  to  the 
end  of  my  stay,  except  when  interrupted  by  the  work 
of  excavation  or  exploration.  I  left  Greece  on  April 
11.  There  were  fourteen  of  these  lectures.  I  was 
also  available  to  the  students  for  consultation  in  their 
work,  and  suggested  to  them  a  number  of  subjects  for 
original  papers.  To  this  course  of  instruction  were 
added  less  formal  evening  talks  on  archaeological 
subjects,  such  as  the  difference  between  archaic  and 
archaistic  art.  There  were  also  evening  meetings  at 
which  the  students  read  papers.  At  one  of  these, 
Mr.  Pickard  gave  a  general  account  of  the  construc- 
tion of  Greek  theatres,  and  Mr.  Gilbert  read  his  paper 
on  "  The  City  Demes  of  Attica." 

Archaeologists  at  Athens  were  much  moved  by  the 
sudden  death  of  Dr.  Schliemann,  and  our  School  took 
an  official  part  both  in  the  ceremonies  of  his  burial 


22 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


and  in  the  official  recognition  made  of  the  services  of 
this  enthusiastic  student  of  the  Hellenic  past.  The 
opening  meeting  of  the  School,  which  took  place 
on  January  6,  was  a  memorial  meeting  to  Dr.  Schlie- 
mann.  At  this  meeting  I  gave  some  account  of  his 
archaeological  work,  and  attempted  to  form  an  esti- 
mate of  his  services  to  archaeology.  This  was  fol- 
lowed by  a  paper  on  Damophon  of  Messene  and  the 
Sculptures  from  Lycosura,  for  which  purpose  the 
Greek  authorities  had  kindly  sent  to  the  School  casts 
from  the  colossal  figures  which  have  been  recently 
discovered.  Professor  Richardson  read  his  paper 
on  the  inscription  which  we  found  last  year  in  our 
excavations  at  Plataea.  Both  these  papers  will  be 
handed  to  you  for  publication.  Besides  the  promi- 
nent archaeologists,  Greek  and  foreign,  the  students 
and  Directors  of  the  other  Schools  at  Athens,  and 
many  other  people  of  distinction,  the  School  was 
honored  on  this  occasion  by  the  presence  of  their 
Majesties  the  King  and  Queen  of  the  Hellenes,  and 
their  Royal  Highnesses  the  Crown  Prince  and  Crown 
Princess. 

The  second  public  meeting  of  the  School  was  held 
on  January  20,  when  Mr.  Fossum  read  a  paper  on 
a  Statuette  in  the  National  Museum  of  Athens  and 
Eirene  and  Plutus,  while  I  contributed  papers  on  the 
following  subjects:  (1)  Myron  and  Polycletus,  with 
regard  to  Pliny,  N.  H.,  xxiv.  19,  Primus  hie  multipli- 
casse  veritatem,  etc.    (2)  An  Account  of  a  Visit  to 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


23 


CEniadae  in  Acarnania.  (3)  Remarks  on  a  Praxitelean 
Statue  in  the  National  Museum  of  Athens. 

During  my  absence  at  Eretria,  Professor  Richard- 
son read  a  paper  on  the  Battlefields  of  Marathon  and 
Thermopylae,  and  Mr.  Brownson  one  on  the  Poros 
Sculptures  on  the  Acropolis,  and  their  relation  to 
Vase  Painting. 

The  fourth  public  meeting  took  place  on  March  16, 
when  I  gave  a  Report  on  the  Excavations  at  Eretria, 
and  Professor  Richardson  reported  on  the  work  which 
had  been  done  in  the  theatre  there,  and  the  inscrip- 
tions there  found. 

At  the  fifth  public  meeting,  on  March  27,  I  made 
a  preliminary  statement  with  regard  to  the  supposed 
tomb  of  Aristotle  at  Eretria,  Mr.  Fossum  reported  on 
the  stage-building  at  Eretria,  and  Mr.  Pickard  read 
his  paper  on  Dionysus  eV  Aifivais. 

As  regards  excavations,  I  have  pleasure  in  report- 
ing an  unusually  successful  campaign.  Last  summer 
the  Ephor  General  of  Antiquities,  Mr.  Kabbadias, 
granted  us  the  site  of  Eretria  in  Eubcea.  From 
the  historical  interest  of  the  place,  as  well  as  from 
the  appearance  of  numerous  interesting  articles  in  the 
Athenian  market  of  antiquities,  which  could  ulti- 
mately be  traced  to  Eretria,  this  site  appeared  most 
desirable.  On  February  1,  I  left  Athens  for  Eretria, 
having  been  preceded  by  a  few  days  by  Mr.  Fossum, 
who,  I  may  say  at  once,  with  great  perseverance,  re- 
mained at  Eretria  till  we  closed  the  excavations  on 


24 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


March  20.  I  began  excavating  within  the  modern 
town,  where  Mr.  Condoyanni  had  kindly  authorized 
me  to  dig  on  his  property.  This  site  soon  proved 
devoid  of  promise ;  and  so,  having  started  Mr.  Fossum 
at  the  theatre,  I  returned  to  my  work  in  Athens. 
On  February  18,  I  again  left  for  Eretria,  accom- 
panied by  Professor  Richardson  and  Mr.  Brownson. 
The  weather  being  extremely  unfavorable,  we  all  had 
to  suffer  considerable  hardship.  On  February  26,  we 
were  joined  by  Messrs.  Pickard  and  Gilbert.  It  will 
be  seen  that  the  whole  School  had  practically  mi- 
grated to  Eretria,  and  I  was  glad  to  be  able  to  give 
all  the  regular  students  an  opportunity  of  taking  an 
active  share  in  the  work  of  excavation. 

The  work  of  excavation  and  exploration  was  dis- 
tributed in  the  following  manner.  Mr.  Fossum  super- 
vised the  excavation  of  the  very  interesting  and  large 
skene  of  the  theatre,  while  Mr.  Brownson  had  charge 
of  the  work  in  the  orchestra  and  koilon.  Mr.  Pickard, 
who  had  the  energetic  co-operation  of  Mr.  Gilbert, 
undertook  the  survey  and  careful  study  of  all  the 
ancient  walls  of  the  city  and  acropolis,  and  will  pro- 
duce a  plan  and  an  account  which  I  have  no  doubt 
will  be  of  great  topographical  and  historical  value. 
One  point,  for  instance,  is  definitively  settled  by  our 
investigations,  namely,  that  the  older  and  the  newer 
Eretria  certainly  occupy  the  same  site.  Professor 
Richardson  undertook  the  department  of  epigraphy, 
and  has  promised  to  deal  with  the  interesting  light 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


25 


thrown  by  our  archaeological  investigations  upon  this 
important  centre  of  the  ancient  Greek  world. 

We  were  in  hopes  of  being  able  to  discover  the 
Temple  of  Amarynthian  Artemis,  which  could  not  but 
supply  important  finds  in  art  and  epigraphy.  But  we 
have  not  yet  been  able  to  fix  this  site. 

At  the  time,  I  was  not  aware  of  the  grant  of 
money  for  excavation  which  had  been  made  by  the 
Institute  for  this  year  and  for  the  previous  year. 
The  money  which  I  had  at  my  disposal  was  the  sum 
of  five  hundred  dollars,  which  had  been  furnished 
to  me  by  personal  friends,  and  which  I  had  kept 
over  from  two  years  ago.  As  the  theatre  of  Ere- 
tria  required  a  considerable  amount  of  digging,  and 
as  the  incidental  expenses  were  comparatively  high, 
I  felt  bound  to  deal  very  cautiously  with  the  fund 
I  had  in  hand.  I  did  not  feel  justified  in  expend- 
ing the  limited  School  money  on  excavations  of 
doubtful  results  ;  and  as  an  offer  was  made  me  by 
a  land-owner  to  dig  over  graves  on  his  property,  and 
I  was  desirous  of  studying  the  methods  of  ancient 
interment  and  finding  some  white  lekythoi,  of  which 
fine  specimens  had  previously  been  found  at  Eretria, 
I  decided  to  carry  on  this  part  of  the  exploration 
on  my  own  responsibility. 

I  have  already  alluded  to  the  hardships  we  had 
to  undergo  owing  to  the  inclemency  of  the  weather, 
and  I  feel  that  the  enthusiasm  and  perseverance  of 
my  fellow  workers  deserves  special  notice.  When, 


26 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


for  instance,  after  three  days  of  heavy  snow,  a  foot 
and  a  half  lying  on  the  ground,  our  workmen  refused 
to  dig,  and  only  three  extra  men  could  be  found,  Pro- 
fessor Richardson  and  the  students  volunteered  to 
join  in  the  actual  work  of  digging  on  the  site  on 
which  subsequently  the  "  grave  of  Aristotle "  was 
found,  and  did  so  with  a  vigor  which  astonished 
the  natives. 

It  is  of  course  too  soon  to  make  any  attempt  at 
giving  an  adequate  account  of  the  results  of  these 
excavations.  But  I  may  enumerate  these  results  in 
a  few  words.  The  theatre  proves  to  be  one  of  singu- 
lar interest,  and  will  furnish,  perhaps,  important  evi- 
dence bearing  upon  questions  which  now  exercise  the 
minds  of  specialists.  But  it  would  be  quite  prema- 
ture to  venture  upon  any  conclusions  from  the  evi- 
dence as  yet  available.  It  will  even  be  a  matter  of 
considerable  intricacy  to  decide  upon  the  date  of  the 
theatre.  A  fragmentary  inscription  referring  to  it, 
found  in  digging  at  the  skene,  certainly  appears  to  go 
back  to  the  fourth  century  before  Christ.  But  I  think 
I  may  say  now  that  there  are  traces  of  three  distinct 
periods  in  the  walls  and  construction  of  the  skene 
alone. 

In  some  ways,  the  theatre  seems  to  present  close 
analogy  to  those  of  Epidaurus  and  the  Amphiareion 
of  Oropos.  A  very  striking  feature  in  the  skene 
is  the  well  preserved  archway  through  the  middle. 
Still  more  striking  is  an  underground  passage,  with 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  2  J 

• 

steps  leading' down  to  it  from  the  inside  of  the 
logeion,  running  toward  the  centre  of  the  orchestra, 
where  again  steps  lead  up  into  the  orchestra.  This 
may  be  an  important  key  to  certain  questions.  Much 
light  has  already  been  gained,  but  we  may  hope  that 
next  year's  work  will  produce  still  more.  Meanwhile 
I  venture  to  refer  to  the  estimate  I  have  heard  ex- 
pressed by  Dr.  Dorpfeld  as  to  the  great  importance 
of  the  results  of  these  excavations. 

The  graves  investigated  have  yielded  a  compara- 
tively rich  harvest  in  objects  of  art  and  other  antiqui- 
ties,—  among  them  articles  of  jewelry  and  some  white 
lekythoi  of  singular  perfection.  These  objects  ought 
certainly  to  be  published  with  adequate  illustration. 
Great  interest  has  naturally  been  manifested  in  the 
discovery  of  the  tomb  which,  it  has  been  conjectured, 
may  have  contained  the  remains  of  the  philosopher 
Aristotle.  It  was  my  intention  to  sift  this  question 
carefully  before  venturing  upon  any  announcement; 
but  as  the  news  had  spread  rapidly  through  the  Eu- 
ropean and  American  press,  and  as  I  feared  exag- 
gerated accounts,  I  sent  a  letter  to  "  The  Nation,"  in 
which  I  endeavored  to  set  forth  the  facts  as  soberly 
as  possible.  This  letter  has  since  been  published ; 
but  as  more  or  less  accurate  reports  were  still  circu- 
lating throughout  Europe,  I  thought  it  right  to 
make  use  of  an  opportunity  which  offered  itself, 
upon  my  return  to  London,  to  make  another  pre- 
liminary statement  in  the  May  number  of  "  The  Nine- 


28 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


teenth  Century."  As  a  question  of  this  kind  is  of 
so  great  interest  to  so  large  a  number  of  people,  I 
do  not  think  it  right  to  withhold  information  longer 
than  necessary,  and  I  shall  endeavor  to  give  wider 
publicity  to  the  facts  when  I  think  that  they  are 
sufficiently  confirmed.  I  may  now  state  that  the  in- 
vestigations I  have  since  been  able  to  make  certainly 
do  not  run  counter  to  the  attribution  of  this  tomb  to 
the  great  philosopher,  but  tend  rather  to  confirm  it. 

Professor  Richardson  and  I  returned  to  Athens  on 
March  9,  and  I  went  again  to  Eretria  on  March  16 
to  make  final  investigations  about  this  tomb,  though 
no  further  evidence  bearing  on  the  main  point  had 
been  forthcoming.  I  found,  however,  a  marble  statu- 
ette of  great  interest,  which  also  I  hope  to  publish  in 
due  course  of  time.  I  must  add  that  Mr.  Washington, 
with  his  wonted  energy  and  enthusiasm,  volunteered 
to  continue  the  excavations  at  Plataea  at  his  own  ex- 
pense, and  started  to  do  so  in  the  month  of  April.  I 
have  since  heard  from  him  that,  though  he  was  not 
successful  in  finding  any  further  traces  of  ancient 
buildings  on  the  site  of  Church  I.  as  shown  on  the 
plan,  (see  Volume  V.  of  the  Papers  of  the  School,) 
he  has  come  upon  what  proves  to  be  a  very  interesting 
ancient  building  of  poros  stone,  37.55  meters  long 
inside  by  9.80  meters  wide,  surrounded  by  a  wide 
platform  detached  from  the  building,  built  of  huge 
blocks  of  poros  stone  and  paved  with  coarse  marble. 
These  remains  are  on  the  terrace  above  the  "votive 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


29 


cutting  "  marked  in  the  map  of  our  excavation  of  last 
year.  Mr.  Washington  also  found  here  a  number  of 
bronze  articles,  parts  of  tools,  fibulae,  bracelets,  etc., 
but  no  inscriptions.    His  full  report  will  follow. 

For  next  year  we  have  the  opportunity  to  undertake 
work  on  a  very  large  scale.  We  shall  have  to  com- 
plete the  excavations  at  the  theatre  and  about  certain 
graves  at  Eretria,  while  I  have  succeeded  in  obtaining 
from  the  Greek  government  a  concession  (which  will 
have  to  be  confirmed  by  the  Chamber)  of  the  right  to 
excavate  for  seven  years  on  two  sites  to  be  chosen 
by  me  out  of  five  which  I  suggested.  In  order  to 
decide  upon  this  choice,  I  left  Athens  on  April  1,  ac- 
companied by  Mr.  Brownson,  and  examined  the  site 
of  the  Heraeum  of  Argos  and  Argos  itself,  Tegea, 
Sparta,  Messene,  and  Elis.  I  was  told  of  difficulties 
w7hich  might  arise  in  the  expropriation  of  private 
property  at  Sparta,  but  I  have  convinced  myself 
on  tl;e  spot  that  these  will  not  be  serious  ;  while, 
on  the  other  hand,  from  the  nature  of  the  soil,  as 
well  as  from  the  indications  of  what  has  already  been 
found  there,  I  am  bound  to  consider  Sparta  one  of 
the  most  hopeful  sites  in  Greece.  With  regard  to 
the  other  sites,  the  difficulty  lies  in  choosing  between 
Messene  and  Elis.  Elis  is  a  priori  the  most  prom- 
ising, but  Messene  seems  from  the  configuration  of 
the  soil  to  be  preferable.  Near  the  village  of  Mav- 
romati,  within  the  city  walls,  it  appears  that  the  an- 
cient Agora  is  well  covered  with  a  thick  layer  of  soil 


30 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


washed  down  by  the  stream  from  the  hill  of  Ithome. 
Elis  also  looks  well,  but  bears  traces  of  frequent 
devastation.  On  the  whole  I  find  it  difficult  to  de- 
cide between  these  two  sites,  one  of  which,  certainly, 
we  should  choose.  If  I  should  ultimately  succeed 
in  gaining  the  concession,  I  propose  to  begin  early 
next  season  to  dig  at  Eretria  and  at  the  Heraeum  of 
Argos,  where  the  excavations  of  Bursian  and  Rhan- 
gabe,  many  years  ago,  certainly  require  completion. 
Later  in  the  season,  Sparta  should  be  tried,  and 
either  Messene  or  Elis.  The  students  who  have 
been  with  us  this  year  seem  so  much  roused  by  the 
interest  of  the  work  that  three  of  them  have  already 
expressed  their  desire  to  return  to  it,  and  they  will 
certainly  be  useful  in  taking  charge  of  some  parts  of 
the  excavations. 

Finally,  I  can  only  hope,  as  regards  the  working 
of  the  School  in  Athens,  that  we  may  be  as  suc- 
cessful next  year  as  we  have  been  in  the  year  just 
past.  - 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN. 

King's  College,  Cambridge, 
May  9,  1891. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ANNUAL  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  fol- 
lowing Report. 

After  spending  a  week  in  Corfu,  I  arrived  in  Ath- 
ens on  September  30.  As  the  four  students,  Messrs. 
Brownson,  Fossum,  Gilbert,  and  Pickard,  arrived  at 
the  same  time,  the  work  of  the  School  commenced  at 
once.  During  nearly  the  whole  of  October  we  went 
together  every  morning,  visiting  all  the  remains  of  an- 
cient Athens,  taking  with  us  helpful  books  from  the 
library,  and,  returning  at  noon,  devoted  the  rest  of 
the  day  to  such  supplementary  reading  and  discussion 
as  the  various  monuments  invited.  We  held  no  set 
meetings  in  connection  with  this  work,  but  out  of  it 
grew  Mr.  Pickard's  paper  on  the  Limnae,  and  Mr. 
Gilbert's  on  the  City  Demes. 

One  feature  of  the  School  work  made  quite  promi- 
nent this  year  has  been  the  securing  of  an  acquaintance 
with  the  soil  of  Greece  outside  of  Athens.  After  two 
visits  to  Salamis,  and  a  tour  of  three  days  to  Mara- 
thon and  Rhamnus,  we  made  a  long  tour,  mostly  on 
foot,  lasting  ten  days,  including  Acro-Corinth,  Delphi, 
Amphissa,  Thermopylae,  Elatea,  Chaeronea,  Orchome- 


32 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


nus,  Lebadea,  Thebes,  Thespiae,  Leuctra,  and  Platasa. 
Besides  this,  with  some  members  of  the  School,  I 
have  visited  Phyle,  Eleusis,  and  Sunium,  as  well  as 
nearly  every  point  of  historical  interest  in  Thessaly 
and  Peloponnesus.  Mr.  Gilbert  left  Athens  to  study 
in  Berlin,  early  in  April ;  but  the  other  students, 
together  with  the  Annual  Director,  accompanied  Dr. 
Dorpfeld  on  his  tour  with  the  members  of  the  Ger- 
man Archaeological  Institute  through  Peloponnesus. 
This  courtesy  shown  us  by  the  head  of  the  German 
Institute  was  but  the  culmination  of  his  kindness  in 
allowing  us  to  attend  all  his  lectures  on  the  monu- 
ments of  Athens,  as  he  explained  them  on  the  spot. 
When  the  members  of  the  School  who  have  been  in 
attendance  this  year  come  to  speak  on  the  geography 
of  Greece,  they  will  be  sure  to  be  interested  themselves, 
and  probably  will  succeed  in  interesting  others. 

As  regards  the  literary  side  of  our  work,  two  books 
have  been  our  constant  companions,  Pausanias  and 
Herodotus.  All  the  volumes  of  Pausanias  in  the  li- 
brary will  probably  need  rebinding;  and,  as  we  often 
came  to  the  discussion  of  Herodotus's  battle  topogra- 
phy, there  are  certain  well  worn  pages  in  our  copies 
of  that  author. 

For  a  period  of  about  six  weeks  before  the  arrival 
of  Dr.  Waldstein,  on  December  16,  we  had  one  exer- 
cise a  week,  of  from  two  to  three  hours'  duration,  for 
the  reading  of  classic  authors.  We  read  in  this  way, 
besides  considerable  portions  of  Herodotus,  the  Per- 
sians of  ^Eschylus,  and  Plutarch's  Pericles. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


33 


During  the  same  period  we  had  another  exercise 
weekly  in  epigraphy,  which  we  supplemented  as  far  as 
time  allowed  by  the  study  of  inscriptions  in  Athens. 

The  arrival  of  Dr.  Waldstein  put  a  stop  to  these 
occupations,  and  under  his  guidance  we  devoted  our- 
selves to  the  Museum  of  Sculpture.  Of  this  he  will 
speak  himself.  It  may  be  mentioned,  that  we,  in  an- 
ticipation of  this,  had  done  very  little  work  in  the 
museums.  Dr.  Gardner,  however,  the  Director  of  the 
British  School,  had  kindly  invited  us  to  several  lec- 
tures of  his  on  vase-paintings,  and  subsequently  had 
taken  us  through  the  collection  of  vases,  illustrating 
by  examples  what  he  had  already  spoken  of  in  the 
lectures. 

During  Dr.  Gardner's  absence  of  several  months 
in  the  winter,  we  were  privileged  not  only  to  have  the 
veteran  and  venerable  archaeologist,  Mr.  Penrose,  for 
our  neighbor,  but  also  to  hear  his  talks  on  the  Parthe- 
non, which  no  man  perhaps  understands  and  loves 
better  than  he.  The  relations  between  the  two  neigh- 
bor schools,  both  socially  and  otherwise,  have  been 
a  very  pleasant  element  during  the  year. 

Of  the  social  side  of  the  year  in  our  delightful 
School  building,  perhaps  it  hardly  becomes  me  to 
speak ;  but  I  may  say  that  probably  in  no  year  since 
the  establishment  of  the  School  have  more  of  its 
friends  presented  themselves  at  its  doors  than  in  this 
year.  The  meeting  and  greeting  of  so  many  of  them 
has  been  extremely  pleasant.     To  mention  names 


34 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


would  be  to  make  invidious  distinctions.  It  is  not 
out  of  place,  however,  to  speak  of  the  kindness  and  ge- 
nial presence  of  the  American  Minister,  Mr.  Snowden, 
who  has  been  often  with  us.  To  the  Consul  and  Vice 
Consul,  Messrs.  Manatt  and  McDowall,  we  are  also 
indebted  for  friendly  offices.  Dr.  Schliemann  having 
now  passed  away,  mention  may  be  made  of  him  as  a 
friendly  visitor,  and  of  the  fact  that  it  was  at  his  home 
first  of  all  that  my  wife  and  I  were  entertained  after 
our  arrival  in  Athens.  Last,  but  not  least,  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Kalopothakes  must  be  named  as  the  same  un- 
wearied benefactors  of  the  School  that  they  have  been 
in  the  past.  To  those  who  know  what  that  means, 
this  is  praise  enough. 

Besides  the  four  students  in  attendance  during  the 
whole  year,  Mr.  F.  W.  Goodrich,  of  Wesleyan  Uni- 
versity, has  lived  in  the  School  building  during  two 
periods  of  several  weeks  each,  and  has  attended  the 
public  exercises  held  at  that  time.  Miss  Potter  and 
Miss  Harfis  also  have  attended  all  our  public  exer- 
cises, and  have  done  considerable  reading  with  the 
help  of  our  library. 

The  additions  to  the  library  have  been  largely  in 
the  continuation  of  periodicals  and  serials  already 
subscribed  for.  A  considerable  sum  has  been  ex- 
pended on  binding.  Very  few  books  have  been  pre- 
sented to  the  library  this  year.  Among  these  may 
be  mentioned :  Lepsius,  Griechische  Marmorstudien, 
presented  by  the  German  Archaeological  Institute ; 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  35 


Sakellarius,  Td  KvirpiaKa,  by  Dr.  Waldstein  ;  J.  R. 
Stuart,  Description  of  some  Ancient  Monuments  of 
Lydia  and  Phrygia ;  and  Tozer,  Islands  of  the  ^gean, 
by  Mr.  H.  S.  Washington. 

Of  the  excavations  at  Eretria  in  February  and 
March,  Dr.  Waldstein  will  report,  as  they  were  under 
his  personal  direction.  I  paid  especial  attention  to 
the  inscriptions  discovered,  and  to  the  walls  and  to- 
pography of  Eretria. 

I  cannot  speak  too  warmly  of  my  pleasant  associa- 
tion with  Dr.  Waldstein  during  the  whole  period  of 
his  presence  in  Greece.  Nothing  in  the  course  of 
our  intimate  association  in  Athens  and  in  the  Eretrian 
campaign  occurred  to  prevent  me  from  looking  back 
upon  the  year  as  having  brought  me  into  association 
with  a  delightful  colleague. 

I  cannot  help  feeling  that  the  year  has  been  a 
successful  one  for  the  School.  It  was  painful  to 
wTatch  the  opportunity  of  excavating  Delphi  slipping 
from  our  grasp,  but  even  what  was  done  at  Eretria 
was  interesting  and  stimulating.  It  may  be  predicted 
with  absolute  certainty  that  our  four  students  will  go 
back  in  due  time  to  America,  if  not  trained  archae- 
ologists, at  least  with  an  interest  in  the  Greek  lands, 
and  the  life  and  monuments  of  ancient  Greece,  which 
will  make  them  infectious  centres  of  interest  wher- 
ever they  pitch  their  tents. 

RUFUS  B.  RICHARDSON, 

Annual  Director  for  1890-91. 


36 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


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i2 


THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


OCTOBER,  1891. 

The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  founded  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  and  organized  under  the 
auspices  of  some  of  the  leading  American  Colleges,  was  opened  Octo- 
ber 2,  1882.  During  the  first  five  years  of  its  existence  it  occupied 
a  hired  house  on  the  'OSos  'A^aXtas  in  Athens,  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Olympieion.  A  large  and  convenient  building  has  now  been  erected 
for  the  School  on  a  piece  of  land,  granted  by  the  generous  liberality  of 
the  Government  of  Greece,  on  the  southeastern  slope  of  Mount  Lyca- 
bettus,  adjoining  the  ground  already  occupied  by  the  English  School. 
This  permanent  home  of  the  School,  built  by  the  subscriptions  of  its 
friends  in  the  United  States,  was  ready  for  occupation  early  in  1888. 

The  new  building  contains  the  apartments  to  be  occupied  by  the 
Director  and  his  family,  and  a  large  room  which  will  be  used  as  a 
library  and  also  as  a  general  reading-room  and  place  of  meeting  for 
the  whole  School.  A  few  rooms  in  the  house  are  intended  for  the 
use  of  students.  These  will  be  assigned  by  the  Director,  under  such 
regulations  as  he  may  establish,  to  as  many  members  of  the  School  as 
they  will  accommodate.  Each  student  admitted  to  the  privilege  of  a 
room  in  the  house  will  be  expected  to  undertake  the  performance  of 
some  service  to  the  School,  to  be  determined  by  the  Director ;  such, 
for  example,  as  keeping  the  accounts  of  the  School,  taking  charge  of 
the  delivery  of  books  from  the  Library  and  their  return,  and  keeping 
up  the  catalogue  of  the  Library. 

The  Library  now  contains  more  than  1,600  volumes,  exclusive  of 
sets  of  periodicals.  It  includes  a  complete  set  of  the  Greek  classics 
and  the  most  necessary  books  of  reference  for  philological,  archaeologi- 
cal, and  architectural  study  in  Greece. 

The  advantages  of  the  School  are  offered  free  of  expense  for  tuition 
to  graduates  of  the  Colleges  co-operating  in  its  support,  and  to  other 


3S 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


American  students  who  are  deemed  by  the  Committee  of  sufficient 
promise  to  warrant  the  extension  to  them  of  the  privilege  of  member- 
ship. It  is  hoped  that  the  Archaeological  Institute  may  in  time  be 
supplied  with  the  means  of  establishing  scholarships,  which  will  aid 
some  members  in  defraying  their  expenses  at  the  School.  In  the 
mean  time,  students  must  rely  upon  their  own  resources,  or  upon 
scholarships  which  may  be  granted  them  by  the  Colleges  to  which 
they  belong.  The  amount  needed  for  the  expenses  of  an  eight 
months'  residence  in  Athens  differs  little  from  that  required  in  other 
European  capitals,  and  depends  chiefly  on  the  economy  of  the 
individual. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  temporary  organization  of  the  School  dur- 
ing its  first  six  years,  which  has  distinguished  it  from  the  older  German 
and  French  Schools  at  Athens,  has  been  the  yearly  change  of  Director. 
This  arrangement,  by  which  a  new  Director  has  been  sent  out  each  year 
by  one  of  the  co-operating  Colleges,  was  never  looked  upon  as  perma- 
nent. The  School  will  henceforth  be  under  the  control  of  a  permanent 
Director,  who  by  continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate  that 
body  of  local  and  special  knowledge  without  which  the  highest  purpose 
of  such  a  school  cannot  be  fulfilled,  while  an  Annual  Director  also  will 
be  sent  out  each  year  by  one  of  the  Colleges  to  assist  in  the  conduct  of 
the  School.  (See  Regulation  V.)  The  School  has  been  able,  even  under 
its  temporary  organization,  to  meet  a  most  pressing  want,  and  to  be  of 
service  to  classical  scholarship  in  America.  It  has  sought  at  first,  and 
it  must  continue  to  seek  for  the  present,  rather  to  arouse  a  lively  inter- 
est in  classical  archaeology  in  American  Colleges  than  to  accomplish 
distinguished  achievements.  The  lack  of  this  interest  has  heretofore 
been  conspicuous ;  but  without  it  the  School  at  Athens,  however  well 
endowed,  can  never  accomplish  the  best  results.  A  decided  improve- 
ment in  this  respect  is  already  apparent ;  and  it  is  beyond  question 
that  the  presence  in  many  American  Colleges  of  professors  who  have 
been  resident  a  year  at  Athens  under  favorable  circumstances,  as  an- 
nual directors  or  as  students  of  the  School,  has  done  much,  and  will 
do  still  more,  to  stimulate  intelligent  interest  in  classic  antiquity. 

The  address  of  the  Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  is 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  New  Haven,  Conn. ;  that  of  the  Secretary, 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


39 


REGULATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

OCTOBER,  1891. 

1.  The  object  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  is  to 
furnish  an  opportunity  to  study  Classical  Literature,  Art,  and  Antiqui- 
ties in  Athens,  under  suitable  guidance,  to  graduates  of  American 
Colleges  and  to  other  qualified  students ;  to  prosecute  and  to  aid 
original  research  in  these  subjects ;  and  to  co-operate  with  the  Arch- 
aeological Institute  of  America,  so  far  as  it  may  be  able,  in  conducting 
the  exploration  and  excavation  of  classic  sites. 

II.  The  School  is  in  charge  of  a  Managing  Committee.  This  Com- 
mittee, which  was  originally  appointed  by  the  Archaeological  Institute, 
disburses  the  annual  income  of  the  School,  and  has  power  to  add  to 
its  membership  and  to  make  such  regulations  for  the  government  of 
the  School  as  it  may  deem  proper.  The  President  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute  and  the  Director  and  Annual  Director  of  the  School 
are  ex-officio  members  of  the  Committee. 

III.  The  Managing  Committee  meets  semi-annually, — in  New 
York  on  the  third  Friday  in  November,  and  in  Boston  on  the  third 
Friday  in  May.  Special  meetings  may  be  called  at  any  time  by  the 
Chairman. 

IV.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  is  the  official  representative 
of  the  interests  of  the  School  in  America.  He  presents  a  Report 
annually  to  the  Archaeological  Institute  concerning  the  affairs  of  the 
School. 

V.  1.  The  School  is  under  the  superintendence  of  a  Director. 
The  Director  is  chosen  and  his  salary  is  fixed  by  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee. The  term  for  which  he  is  chosen  is  five  years.  The  Com- 
mittee provides  him  with  a  house  in  Athens  containing  apartments 
for  himself  and  his  family,  and  suitable  rooms  for  the  meetings  of 
the  members  of  the  School,  its  collections,  and  its  library. 

2.  Each  year  the  Committee  appoints  from  the  instructors  of  the 
Colleges  uniting  in  the  support  of  the  School  an  Annual  Director, 
who  resides  in  Athens  during  the  ensuing  year  and  co-operates  in 


40 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  conduct  of  the  School.  In  case  of  the  illness  or  absence  of  the 
Director,  the  Annual  Director  acts  as  Director  for  the  time  being. 

VI.  The  Director  superintends  personally  the  work  of  each  mem- 
ber of  the  School,  advising  him  in  what  direction  to  turn  his  studies, 
and  assisting  him  in  their  prosecution.  He  conducts  no  regular 
courses  of  instruction,  but  holds  meetings  of  the  members  of  the 
School  at  stated  times  for  consultation  and  discussion.  He  makes  a 
full  Report  annually  to  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  work  accom- 
plished by  the  School. 

VII.  The  school  year  extends  from  the  ist  of  October  to  the  ist 
of  June.  Members  are  required  to  prosecute  their  studies  during  the 
whole  of  this  time  in  Greek  lands,  under  the  supervision  of  the  Direc- 
tor. The  studies  of  the  remaining  four  months  necessary  to  complete 
a  full  year  (the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given)  may  be 
carried  on  in  Greece  or  elsewhere,  as  the  student  prefers. 

VIII.  Bachelors  of  Arts  of  co-operating  Colleges,  and  all  Bachelors 
of  Arts  who  have  studied  at  one  of  these  Colleges  as  candidates  for 
a  higher  degree,  are  admitted  to  membership  in  the  School  on  pre- 
senting to  the  Committee  a  certificate  from  the  instructors  in  classics 
of  the  College  at  which  they  have  last  studied,  stating  that  they 
are  competent  to  pursue  an  independent  course  of  study  at  Athens 
under  the  advice  of  the  Director.  All  other  persons  who  desire 
to  become  members  of  the  School  must  make  application  to  the 
Committee.  Members  of  the  School  are  subject  to  no  charge  for 
tuition.  The  Committee  reserves  the  right  to  modify  the  conditions 
of  membership. 

IX.  Every  member  of  the  School  must  pursue  some  definite  sub- 
ject of  study  or  research  in  Classical  Literature,  Art,  or  Antiquities, 
and  must  present  a  paper  embodying  the  results  of  some  important 
part  of  his  year's  work.  These  papers,  if  approved  by  the  Director, 
shall  be  sent  to  the  Managing  Committee,  in  accordance  with  the 
provisions  of  Regulation  XII.  If  recommended  for  publication  by 
the  Committee  on  Publications  also,  the  paper  will  be  issued  in  the 
Papers  of  the  School. 

X.  All  work  of  excavation,  of  investigation,  or  of  any  other  kind 
done  by  any  student  in  connection  with  the  School,  shall  be  regarded 
as  done  for  the  School  and  by  the  School,  and  shall  be  under  the 
supervision  and  control  of  the  Director,  who  shall  also,  in  conjunction 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


41 


with  the  Committee  on  Publications,  supervise  and  control  all  publica- 
tion of  the  results,  giving  full  acknowledgment  for  work  done  by  the 
student. 

XL  No  communications,  even  of  an  informal  nature,  shall  be 
made  by  students  of  the  School  to  the  public  press,  without  being 
submitted  to  the  Director  in  charge  of  the  School,  and  authorized 
by  him. 

XII.  *  1.  All  manuscripts,  drawings,  or  photographs  intended  for 
publication  in  the  Papers  of  the  School,  after  approval  by  the  Director, 

,  shall  be  sent  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the 
School,  who  at  his  convenience  shall  transmit  them  to  the  Committee 
on  Publications. 

2.  In  preparing  the  manuscript  for  such  articles,  a  comparatively 
light  quality  of  paper  shall  be  used ;  the  paper  for  any  one  article 
shall  be  of  one  size ;  a  margin  of  two  or  three  inches  in  width  shall  be 
kept  at  the  left.  The  writing  must  be  clear  and  distinct,  in  particular 
for  all  quotations  and  references.  Especial  care  must  be  taken  in 
writing  Greek,  that  the  printer  may  not  confound  similar  letters,  and 
the  accents  must  be  placed  strictly  above  the  proper  vowels,  as  in 
printing.  All  quotations  and  references  must  be  particularly  verified 
by  the  author,  after  the  article  is  completed,  by  comparison  with  the 
original  sources. 

3.  At  least  two  careful  squeezes  shall  be  taken  as  soon  as  possible 
of  every  inscription  discovered  by  the  School ;  of  these  one  shall  be 
sent  at  once  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publications,  the 
other  deposited  in  the  Library  of  the  School. 

XIII.  When  any  member  of  the  School  has  completed  one  or 
more  full  years  of  study,  the  results  of  which  have  been  approved 
by  the  Director,  he  receives  a  certificate  stating  the  work  accom- 
plished by  him,  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  School,  the  President 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  and  the  Chairman  and  the  Secretary 
of  the  Managing  Committee. 

XIV.  American  students  resident  or  travelling  in  Greece  who  are 
not  regular  members  of  the  School  may,  at  the  discretion  of  the  Direc- 
tor, be  enrolled  as  special  students,  and  enjoy  the  privileges  of  the 
School. 

*  Failure  to  comply  with  the  provisions  of  Regulation  XII.  will  be  sufficient 
ground  for  the  rejection  of  any  paper. 


4? 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL 
OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1 882-1 890. 

The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee  may  be  had  gratis  on  application  to 
the  Secretary  of  the  Managing  Committee.  The  other  publications  are  for  sale 
by  Messrs.  Damrell,  Upham,  &  Co.,  283  Washington  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

First,  Second,  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee, 1881-84.    pp.  30. 

Fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1884-85.    pp.  30. 

Fifth  and  Sixth  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee,  1885-87.  pp.  56. 

Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1887-88,  with  the  Re- 
port of  Professor  D'Ooge  (Director  in  1886-87)  an^  that  of  Professor 
Merriam  (Director  in  1887-88).    pp.  115. 

Eighth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1888-89,  w*tn  tue  R-e~ 
ports  of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director, 
Dr.  Tarbell.    pp.  53. 

Ninth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1889-90,  with  the  Reports 
of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Professor 
Orris,    pp.  49. 

Bulletin  I.  Report  of  Professor  William  W.  Goodwin,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1882-83.    PP-  33-    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  II.  Memoir  of  Professor  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1883-84,  with  Resolutions  of  the  Committee  and  the 
Report  for  1883-84.    pp.  34.    Price  25  cents. 

Preliminary  Report  of  an  Archaeological  Journey  made  in  Asia 
Minor  during  the  Summer  of  1884.  By  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett.  pp.  45. 
Price  25  cents. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  SCHOOL. 

Volume  I.  1882-83.  Published  in  1885.  8vo.  pp.  viii  and  262. 
Illustrated.    Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R.  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier. 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salamis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


43 


Volume  II.,  1883-84.  containing  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett's  Report  of 
his  Journey  in  Asia  Minor  in  1884,  with  Inscriptions,  and  two  new 
Maps  by  Professor  H.  Kiepert.  Published  in  1888.  8vo.  pp.  344. 
Price  $2.25. 

Volume  III.,  1884-85,  containing  Dr.  Sterrett's  Report  of  the  Wolfe 
Expedition  to  Asia  Minor  in  1885,  with  Inscriptions,  mostly  hitherto 
unpublished,  and  two  new  Maps  by  Professor  Kiepert.  Published  in 
1S88.    8vo.  pp.  448.    Price  $2.50. 

Volume  IV.  1885-86.  Published  in  1888.  8vo.  pp.277.  Illus- 
trated.   Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Preliminary  Report,  by  Walter  Miller. 

2.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Supplementary  Report,  by  William  L.  Cushing. 

3.  On  Greek  Versification  in  Inscriptions,  by  Frederic  D.  Allen. 

4.  The  Athenian  Pnyx,  by  John  M.  Crow  ;  with  a  Survey  of  the  Pnyx  and 
Notes,  by  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke. 

5.  Notes  on  Attic  Vocalism,  by  J.  McKeen  Lewis. 


CIRCULAR  OF  INFORMATION  FOR  STUDENTS  WHO 
PROPOSE  TO  JOIN  THE  SCHOOL. 

OCTOBER,  1891. 

Students  in  Athens  will  find  a  knowledge  of  German  and  French 
of  the  utmost  service  in  all  their  work. 

The  books  in  the  following  lists  of  which  the  titles  are  printed  in 
the  larger  type  are  recommended  to  students  as  an  introduction  to  the 
different  branches  of  Greek  Archaeology.  The  more  special  works, 
whose  titles  are  printed  in  smaller  type,  are  recommended  as  books 
of  reference  and  for  students  whose  department  of  special  study  is 
already  determined. 

LIST  OF  BOOKS. 
GENERAL  WORKS. 

Pausanias. 

Collignon :  Manual  of  Greek  Archaeology  (translated  by  J.  H. 
Wright). 


44 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Guhl  and  Koner :  Life  of  the  Ancient  Greeks  and  Romans. 
Baumeister:  Denkmaler  des  klassischen  Altertums. 
C.  O.  Miiller:  Ancient  Art  and  its  Remains. 
Taine  :  Philosophie  de  l'Art  en  Grece. 

Hiibner :  Bibliographie  der  klassischen  Altertumswissenschaft. 

S.  Reinach :  Manuel  de  Philologie  classique. 

Stark  :  Systematik  und  Geschichte  der  Archaologie  der  Kunst. 

C.  T.  Newton  :  Essays  on  Art  and  Archaeology. 

Burnouf  :  Memoires  sur  l'Antiquite. 

Boeckh-Frankel :  Die  Staatshaushaltung  der  Athener. 

Smith:  Dictionary  of  Antiquities  {third  edition). 

K.  F.  Hermann ;    Lehrbuch  der  griechischen  Antiquitaten. 

Daremberg  et  Saglio  :  Dictionnaire  des  Antiquites. 

Pottier  et  Reinach :  La  Necropole  de  Myrina. 

Milchhofer:  Anfange  der  Kunst  in  Griechenland. 

Beuld:  LArt  grec  avant  Pdricles. 

Diehl:  Excursions  Archeologiques  en  Grece. 

ARCHITECTURE. 
Durm  :  Die  Baukunst  der  Griechen. 

Von  Reber  :  History  of  Ancient  Art  (translated  by  Clarke). 

Penrose    Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture,  2d  ed. 

Michaelis.  Der  Parthenon. 

Fergusson'  The  Parthenon. 

Bohn  •  Die  Propylaeen  der  Akropolis  zu  Athen. 

Boutmy :  Philosophie  de  l'Architecture  en  Grece. 

Papers  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America.  Report  on  the  Investiga- 
tions at  Assos. 

SCULPTURE. 

Mrs.  Lucy  M.  Mitchell :  History  of  Ancient  Sculpture. 

A.  S.  Murray  :  History  of  Greek  Sculpture. 

Overbeck  :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Plastik. 
'  Overbeck  :  Die  antiken  Schriftquellen  zur  Geschichte  der  bildenden 
Kiinste. 

Brunn :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Kunstler. 

Friedrichs-  Wolters  :  Bausteine  zur  Geschichte  der  griechisch-romischen  Plastik. 
Waldstein:  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidias. 
Petersen:  Die  Kunst  des  Pheidias. 
Collignon.  Phidias. 

Heuzey.  Catalogue  des  Terres  Cuites  du  Louvre. 
P.  Paris :  La  Sculpture  Antique. 


» 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


45 


VASES. 

Rayet  et  Collignon  :  Histoire  de  la  Ceramique  grecque. 
Dumont  et  Chaplain  :  Les  Ceramiques  de  la  Grece  propre. 
Furtwangler  und  Loeschcke  :  Mykenische  Vasen. 

Birch  :  History  of  Ancient  Pottery. 

Von  Rohden  :  Vasenkunde,  in  Baumeister's  Denkm'aler. 
Furtwangler:  Vasensammlung  im  Antiquarium  (Berlin). 
Klein  :  Euphronios. 

Klein :  Die  griechischen  Vasen  mit  Meistersignaturen. 

COINS. 

Percy  Gardner  :  Types  of  Greek  Coins. 
Head  :  Historia  Numorum. 

Catalogues  of  Coins  of  the  British  Museum. 

EPIGRAPHY. 
Roberts  :  Introduction  to  Greek  Epigraphy. 
Dittenberger :  Sylloge  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Kirchhoff :  Geschichte  des  griechischen  Alphabets. 
Hicks  :  Greek  Historical  Inscriptions. 
S.  Reinach  :  Traite  d'fipigraphie  grecque. 

Hinrichs  :  Griechische  Epigraphik,  in  Miiller's  Handbuch  der  Altertumswis- 
senschaft,  Vol.  I. 

Cauer :  Delectus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Collitz:  Sammlung  der  griechischen  Dialektinschriften. 

Meisterhans  :  Grammatik  der  attischen  Inschriften. 

G.  Meyer :  Griechische  Grammatik. 

Roehl :  Inscriptiones  Graecae  Antiquissimae. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Atticarum. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

Loewy  :  Inschriften  griechischer  Bildhauer. 

Reinach  :  Conseils  au  Voyageur  archeologue  en  Grece. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 
Baedeker:  Greece  (latest  edition) . 
Guides  Joanne  :  Athenes  et  ses  environs  (latest  edition). 
Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Atlas  von  Athen. 

Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Karten  von  Attika  (erlauternder  Text). 
Verrall  and  Harrison :  Mythology  and  Monuments  of  Athens. 

Bursian:  Geographie  von  Griechenland. 
Tozer:  Geography  of  Greece. 

Lolling:  Topographie  von  Griechenland,  in  Miiller's  Handbuch,  Vol.  III. 


46  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Leake:  Travels  in  Northern  Greece. 
Leake  :  Topography  of  Athens. 
Leake  :  Travels  in  the  Morea. 
E.  Curtius:  Peloponnesos. 

Jahn-Michaelis  :  Pausaniae  descript'io  arcis  Athenarum,  1880. 

Wachsmuth  :  Die  Stadt  Athen  im  Alterthum. 

Hertzberg:  Athen. 

Dyer:  Ancient  Athens. 

Burnouf :  La  Ville  et  l'Acropole  d'Athenes. 

Botticher :  Die  Akropolis  von  Athen. 

Botticher:  Olympia. 

Pomtow  :  Beitrage  zur  Topographie  von  Delphi. 

Neumann  und  Partsch  :  Physikalische  Geographie  von  Griechenland. 

MYTHOLOGY. 
Preller :  Griechische  Mythologie. 

Roscher  :  Lexikon  der  griechischen  und  romischen  Mythologie. 
Seemann  :  Mythologie  der  Griechen  und  Romer. 
Collignon  :  Mythologie  figuree  de  la  Grece. 
Decharme  :  Mythologie  de  la  Grece  antique. 

Welcker :  Griechische  Gotterlehre. 
Dyer :  The  Gods  in  Greece. 
(Ruskin  :  Queen  of  the  Air.) 

PERIODICALS. 
Bulletin  de  Correspondance  helle'nique. 
Mittheilungen  des  deutschen  Archaeologischen  Instituts. 
Jahrbuch  des  deutschen  Archseologischen  Instituts. 
American  Journal  of  Archaeology. 
Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies. 
'E^/xc/hs  'Apxaj.oA.oyi/07. 

"UpaKTLKa  rr}<s  iv  1 KOrjvat^  'Ap^aioAoytK^?  'Eraipia?. 
AcXtlov  'Ap^aioAoyiKov. 

Arcbgeologisch-epigraphische  Mittheilungen  aus  Oesterreich. 
Revue  Archeologique. 
Gazette  Archeologique. 

MODERN  GREEK. 
Vincent  and  Dickson  :  Handbook  to  Modern  Greek. 
Contopoulos  :  Modern  Greek  and  English  Lexicon. 
Jannarakis :  Neugriechisch-deutsches  Worterbuch. 


TENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


47 


TRAVEL  AND  EXPENSES. 

Students  wishing  to  travel  from  the  United  States  to  Athens  with  the  greatest 
economy  of  time  and  money  are  advised  to  sail  from  New  York  to  Havre,  Ant- 
werp, Bremen,  or  Hamburg.  The  cost  of  the  sea  voyage  varies  from  $40  to 
$125.  From  the  port  of  landing  the  journey  to  Athens  may  be  made  for  about 
$100  (first  class)  or  $65  (second  class),  including  ordinary  expenses.  Three 
routes  are  available  for  the  voyage  to  Athens  upon  the  Mediterranean,  —  from 
Marseilles,  by  the  Messageries  Maritimes  steamers,  or  by  the  Fraissinet  or 
Florio-Rubattino  line;  from  Brindisi,  by  Greek  or  Italian  steamers  or  the  Aus- 
trian Lloyd  ;  from  Trieste,  by  the  Austrian  Lloyd.  Before  securing  passage 
by  any  of  these  lines,  care  should  be  taken  to  ascertain  that  the  Greek  Govern- 
ment has  not  established  a  quarantine  against  the  port  of  departure.  Quaran- 
tined ports  are  to  be  avoided  if  possible,  as  the  delay  on  landing  from  them  is 
tedious  and  costly. 

The  quickest  route  is  by  steamer  from  Brindisi  to  Patras  (a  little  more  than 
twenty-four  hours),  and  thence  by  rail  to  Athens  (about  eight  hours).  The 
routes  through  the  Gulf  of  Corinth  and  around  Peloponnesus  are  very  attractive 
in  good  weather. 

It  is  not  advisable  to  attempt  to  sail  directly  from  New  York  to  the  Piraeus 
during  the  summer  months,  on  account  of  the  danger  of  quarantine.  The  voy- 
age by  this  route  (by  the  Florio  steamers),  which  is  to  be  recommended  at  other 
seasons,  takes  about  three  weeks,  and  costs  $150  (first  class). 

At  the  large  hotels  in  Athens,  board  and  lodging  can  be  obtained  for  $14  per 
week  ;  at  small  hotels  and  in  private  families  for  $5  50  per  week  and  upward. 
A  limited  number  of  students  may  have  rooms,  without  board,  in  the  new  School 
building.  The  figures  here  given  represent  maximum  estimates,  and  careful 
economy  may  reduce  actual  expenses  below  them.  The  student  should  go  well 
supplied  with  clothing  and  similar  necessities  for  his  stay,  as  all  such  articles 
are  expensive  in  Athens ;  and  in  providing  these  he  must  not  count  too  much 
on  a  warm  climate  during  the  winter.  He  should  encumber  himself  with  as  few 
books  as  possible  in  travelling  ;  the  School  library,  which  now  contains  more 
than  sixteen  hundred  volumes,  provides  all  the  books  that  are  most  essential  for 
study  in  Greece. 

Members  of  the  School  are  required  to  study  in  Athens,  or  in  such  Greek  lands 
as  the  Director  of  the  School  may  approve,  between  October  1  and  June  1. 


Ijcjjisolojgiral  Institute  of  %mmtK. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1891-92. 
Wit!}  tjje  ffieporte  of 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  Ph.D.,  Litt.D.,  L. H. D.,  Director, 

AND 

WILLIAM  C.  POLAND,  M.  A.,  Animal  Director. 


CAMBRIDGE : 
JOHN    WILSON    AND  SON. 
Slmtorsttg  $ress. 
1893. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


ifftanaguuf  Committee. 

1891-92. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  (Chairman),  Yale  University,  New  Haven, 
Conn. 

H.  M.  Baird,  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 

I.  T.  Beckwith,  Trinity  College.  Hartford,  Conn. 

Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York  City. 

Miss  A.  C.  Chapin,  Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Mass. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York  City. 

O.  M.  Fernald,  Williams  College,  Williamstown,  Mass. 

Henry  Gibbons,  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 

William  W.  Goodwin,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

William  G.  Hale,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 

Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 

William  A.  Lamberton,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Miss  Abby  Leach,  Vassar  College,  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y. 

Seth  Low  (ex  officio:  President  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of 

America),  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary),  Cottage  Lawn,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Mead,  Mt.  Holyoke  College,  South  Hadley,  Mass. 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Augustus  C.  Merriam  {Chairman  of  Committee  on  Publications), 
Columbia  College,  640  Madison  Ave.,  New  York  City. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

Bernadotte  Perrin,  Adelbert  College  of  Western  Reserve  University, 
Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer),  7  East  42d  St.,  New  York  City. 
William  Carey  Poland  {ex  officio :  Annual  Director  of  the  School), 

Brown  University,  9  Lloyd  St.,  Providence,  R.  I. 
Rufus  B.  Richardson,  Dartmouth  College,  Hanover,  N.  H. 
William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 
Fitz  Gerald  Tisdall,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 
James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 
Charles  Waldstein  (ex  officio :  Director  of  the  School) ,  Cambridge, 

England. 

William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
James  R.  Wheeler,  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vt. 
John  Williams  White,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 


lExccuttbe  (£ommtttee. 
1G91-92. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  (Chairman). 

William  W.  Goodwin. 

Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary). 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer). 

William  R.  Ware. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


5 


©faction  of  tfjc  Reboot. 

1882-  1883. 

Director :  William  Watson  Goodwin,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  D.C.  L.,  Eliot 
Professor  of  Greek  Literature  in  Harvard  University. 

1883-  1884. 

Director:  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Ph.D.,  Hillhouse  Professor  of  Greek 

in  Yale  University.     (Died  Oct.  26,  1884.) 
Secretary :  J.  R.  Sitlington  Sterrett,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek 

in  Amherst  College. 

1884-  1885. 

Director:  James  Cooke  Van  Benschoten,  LL.  D.,  Seney  Professor 
of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  Wesleyan  University. 

1885-  1886. 

Director :  Frederic  De  Forest  Allen,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Classical 
Philology  in  Harvard  University. 

1886-  1887. 

Director  :  Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in 
the  University  of  Michigan. 

1887-  1888. 

Director :  Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  Archae- 
ology and  Epigraphy  in  Columbia  College. 

1888-  1889. 

Director :  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D.,  Reader  in 
Archaeology  in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  England. 

Annual  Director :  Frank  Bigelow  Tarbell,  Ph.  D.,  Associate  Pro- 
fessor of  Greek  in  the  University  of  Chicago. 

1889-  1890. 

Director :  Charles  Waldstein/  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 

Annual  Director :  S.  Stanhope  Orris,  Ph.D.,  L.  H.  D.,  Ewing  Pro- 
fessor of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  the  College  of 
New  Jersey. 

1890-  1891. 

Director :  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 
Annual  Director:  Rufus  Byam  Richardson,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of 
Greek  in  Dartmouth  College. 

1891-  1892. 

Director  :  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 
Annual  Director  :  William  Carey  Poland,  M.  A.,  Professor  of  the 
History  of  Art  in  Brown  University. 


6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


(£o-'Operatm 

ADELBERT  COLLEGE   OF  WESTERN 

RESERVE  UNIVERSITY. 
AMHERST  COLLEGE. 
BROWN  UNIVERSITY. 
COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK. 
COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 
COLUMBIA  COLLEGE. 
CORNELL  UNIVERSITY. 
DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 
HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 
JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 
MT.  HOLYOKE  COLLEGE. 


3  Colleges. 

TRINITY  COLLEGE. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  ' 
YORK. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  MISSOURI. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  PENNSYLVANIA 
UNIVERSITY  OF  VERMONT. 
VASSAR  COLLEGE. 
WESLEYAN  UNIVERSITY. 
WELLESLEY  COLLEGE. 
WILLIAMS  COLLEGE. 
YALE  UNIVERSITY. 


trustees  of  tjje  Sefjool 

Charles  Eliot  Norton  (President) . 

William  W.  Goodwin  (Secretary). 

Gardiner  M.  Lane  (Treasurer). 

Martin  Brimmer. 

Henry  Drisler. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve. 

Edward  J.  Lowell. 

Henry  G.  Marquand. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 

Henry  C.  Potter. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour. 

William  M.  Sloane. 

Samuel  D.  Warren. 

John  Williams  White. 


lExecuttbe  Committee  of  tfje  trustees. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 
Martin  Brimmer. 
William  W.  Goodwin. 
Samuel  D.  Warren. 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


1 


Students  * 

\ 

LOUIS  BEVIER  (x 882-83), t  A.  B.  (1878)  and  A.  M.  (Rutgers  College),  Ph.  D.  (Johns  Hopkins 
University,  1881), 

Associate  Professor  in  Rutgers  College,  New  Brunswick,  N.  J. 

WALTER  RAY  BRIDGMAN  (1883-84),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1881), 

Professor  in  Lake  Forest  University,  Lake  Forest,  111. 
CARLE  TON  LEWIS  BROWNSON  (1890-92),  A.  B.  (Yale  University,  1887), 

Tutor  in  Greek  and  Latin,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn. 
CARL  DARLING  BUCK  (1887-89),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1886),  Ph.  D.  (Yale  University,  1889), 

Assistant  Professor  in  the  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 
N.  E  CROSBY  (1886-87),  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1883),  A.  M.  (Columbia  College,  1885), 

Instructor  in  the  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 
JOHN  M.  CROW  (1882-83),  A.  B  (Waynesbury  College),  Ph.  D.  (Syracuse  University), 

Professor  in  Iowa  College,  Grinnell,  Iowa.    Died  Sept.  28,  1890. 
WILLIAM  LEE  CUSHING  (1885-87),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1872),  A.  M.  (Yale  College, 
1882), 

Head  Master  of  the  Westminster  School,  Dobbs  Ferry,  N  Y. 

HERBERT  FLETCHER  DE  COU  (1891-92),  A.  B.  (University  of  Michigan,  18S8),  A.  M. 
(University  of  Michigan,  1890), 

Instructor  in  Greek  and  Sanskrit  in  the  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

MORTIMER  LAMSON  EARLE  (1887-88),  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1886),  A.  M.  (Columbia 
College,  1887),  Ph.  D.  (Columbia  College,  1889), 

Instructor  in  Greek,  Barnard  College,  New  York  City. 

THOMAS  H.  ECKFELDT  (1884-85),  A.  B.  (Wesleyan  University,  1881), 
Principal  of  the  Friends'  School,  New  Bedford,  Mass. 

A.  F.  FLEET  (1887-88),  A.  M.,  LL.  D  , 

Superintendent  of  the  Missouri  Military  Academy,  Mexico,  Mo. 

ANDREW  FOSSUM  (1890-91),  A.  B.  (Luther  College,  1882),  Ph.  D.  (Johns  Hopkins  Univer- 
sity, 1887), 

Professor  of  Greek  in  St.  Olaf  College,  Northfield,  Minn. 

HAROLD  NORTH  FOWLER  (1882-83),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1880),  Ph.  D.  (University 
of  Bonn,  1885), 

Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University  of  Texas,  Austin,  Tex. 

JOHN  WESLEY  GILBERT  (1890-91),  A.  B.  (Brown  University,  1888),  A.  M.  (Brown  Univer- 
sity, 1891), 

Professor  in  the  Payne  Institute,  Augusta,  Ga. 

HENRY  T.  HILDRETH  (1885-86),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1885), 
Assistant  Professor  of  Greek  in  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 

W.  IRVING  HUNT  (1889-90),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1886),  Ph.  D.  (Yale  University,  1892), 
Tutor  in  Greek,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn. 

*  The  year  of  residence  at  the  School  is  placed  in  a  parenthesis  after  the  name.  Italics 
indicate  students  of  the  year  1891-92. 
t  Not  present  during  the  entire  year. 


s 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


GEORGE  BENJAMIN  HUSSEY  (i887-88),t  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1884),  Ph.  D  (Johns 

Hopkins  University,  1S87), 

Instructor  in  the  University  of  Nebraska,  Lincoln,  Neb. 

FRANCIS  DEMETRIUS  KALOPOTHAKES  (1888-89),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1888), 
Student  in  the  University  of  Berlin. 

JOSEPH  McKEEN  LEWIS  (1885-87),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1883). 
Died  April  29,  1887. 

GONZALEZ  LODGE  (i888-89),t  A.  B.  (Johns  Hopkins  University,  1883),  Ph.  D.  (Johns  Hop- 
kins University,  1886), 

Associate  Professor  in  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Mawr,  Pa. 

FREDERIC  ELDER  METZGER  (1891-92),  A.  B.  (Pennsylvania  College,  1888), 
No.  119  North  Potomac  Street,  Hagerstown,  Md. 

WALTER  MILLER  (1885-86),  A.  B.  (University  of  Michigan,  1884),  A.  M.  (University  of 
Michigan), 

Professor  in  the  Leland  Stanford  Junior  University,  Palo  Alto,  Cal. 

WILLIAM  J.  McMURTRY  (1886-87),  A.  B.  (Olivet  College,  1881),  A.  M.  (University  of 
Michigan,  1882), 

Professor  in  Yankton  College,  Yankton,  South  Dakota. 

BARKER  NEWHALL  (1891-92),  A.  B.  (Haverford  College,  1887),  A.  M.  (Haverford  Col- 
lege, 1890),  Ph.  D.  (Johns  Hopkins  University,  1891), 

Instructor  in  Greek,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R  I. 

Miss  EMILY  NORCROSS,  (18S8-89),  A.  B.  (Wellesley  College,  1880),  A.  M.  (Wellesley  Col- 
lege, 1884), 

Assistant  in  Latin,  Smith  College,  Northampton,  Mass. 

Mr*s  ANNIE  S.  PECK  (1885-86),  A.  B.  (University  of  Michigan,  1878),  A.  M.  (University  of 
Michigan,  1881), 

No.  865  North  Main  Street,  Providence,  R.  I. 

JOHN  PICKARD  (.890-91),  A.  B  (Dartmouth  College,  1883),  A.  M.  (Dartmouth  College,  1886), 
Ph.  D.  (University  of  Munich,  1892), 

Associate  Professor  in  the  University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Mo. 

Rev.  DANIEL  QUINN  (1887-89),  A.  B.  (Mt.  St.  Mary's  College), 

Professor  in  the  Catholic  University  of  America,  Washington,  D.  C. 

JOHN  CAREW  ROLFE  (1888-89),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1881),  A.  M.  (Cornell  Univer- 
sity, 1884),  Ph.  D.  (Cornell  University,  1885), 

Acting  Professor  in  the  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

WILLIAM  J.  SEELYE  (1886-87),  A.  B.  (Amherst  College,  1879),  A.  M.  (Amherst  College, 

1882), 

Professor  in  Wooster  University,  Wooster,  Ohio. 

JOHN  P.  SHELLEY  (1889-90),  A.  B.  (Findlay  University,  1889), 
Professor  in  Grove  College,  Grove  City,  Pa. 

PAUL  SHOREY  (1882-83),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1878)  Ph.  D.  (University  of  Munich, 
1884), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  Ill- 
Miss  EMILY  E.  SLATER  (1888-89),  A.  B.  (Wellesley  College,  1888), 
Professor  in  Mt.  Holyoke  College,  South  Hadley,  Mass. 

J.  R.  SITLINGTON  STERRETT  (1882-83),  Ph.  D.  (University  of  Munich,  1880), 
Professor  in  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


9 


FRANKLIN  H.  TAYLOR  (1882-83),  A.  B.  (Wesleyan  University), 
Instructor  in  St.  Paul's  School,  Concord,  N.  H. 

OLIVER  JOS.  THATCHER  (1887-88),  A.  B.  (Wilmington  College,  1878),  B.  D.  (Union  Theo- 
logical Seminary,  1885), 

Professor  in  Alleghany  Theological  Seminary,  Alleghany,  Pa. 

S.  B.  P.  TROWBRIDGE  (1886-88),  A.  B.  (Trinity  College,  1883),  Ph.  B.  (Columbia  College, 
1886), 

Architect,  New  York  City. 

HENRY  STEPHENS  WASHINGTON  (i888-92),t  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1886),  A.  M. 
(Yale  University,  1888), 

Student  in  the  University  of  Leipzig. 

JAMES  R.  WHEELER  (1882-83),  A.  B.  (University  of  Vermont,  1880),  Ph.  D.  (Harvard 
University,  1885). 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vt. 

ALEXANDER  M.  WILCOX  (1883-84),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1877),  Ph.  D.  (Yale  College, 
1880), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Kansas,  Lawrence,  Kan. 

FRANK  E.  WOODRUFF  (1882-83)^  A.  B.  (University  of  Vermont,  1875),  B.  D.  (Union 
Theological  Seminary,  188 1), 

Professor  in  Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,  Me. 

THEODORE  L.  WRIGHT  (1886-87),  A.  B.  (Beioit  College,  1880),  A.  M.  (Harvard  University, 
1884), 

Professor  in  Beioit  College,  Beioit,  Wisconsin. 

CLARENCE  HOFFMAN  YOUNG  (1891-92),  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1888),  A.  M.  (Co- 
lumbia College,  1889),  Ph.  D.  (Columbia  College,  1891), 
Instructor  in  Greek,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Archczological  Institute  of  America :  — 

Gentlemen, —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
the  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  Ameri- 
can School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  for  the  year 
from  October  i,  1891,  to  October  1,  1892;  and  also  the 
Reports  of  the  Director,  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein,  and  of 
the  Annual  Director,  Professor  William  Carey  Poland, 
of  Brown  University. 

During  the  past  year  the  following  persons  have 
been  enrolled  as  members  of  the  School :  — 

Carleton  Lee  Brownson,  A.  B.  Yale  University  (1887),  Sol- 
diers' Memorial  Fellow  of  Yale,  a  member  of  the  School  also 
in  1890-91. 

Herbert  Fletcher  De  Cou,  A.  B.  University  of  Michigan 
(1888),  Elisha  Jones  Fellow  of  the  same  University. 

Frederick  Elder  Metzger,  A.  B.  Pennsylvania  College  (1888). 

Barker  Newhall,  A.  B.  Haverford  College  (1887),  Ph.  D. 
Johns  Hopkins  University  (1 891). 

Clarence  Hoffman  Young,  A.  B.  Columbia  College  (1888), 
A.  M.  (1889),  Ph.D.  (i890?  Prize  Fellow  and  Alumni  Prize- 
man of  the  same  College. 


1  2 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


In  addition  to  these,  Mr.  Henry  Stephens  Wash- 
ington (Yale,  1886),  as  in  the  three  preceding  years, 
spent  a  portion  of  the  year  in  Greece  in  connec- 
tion with  the  School,  and  conducted  excavations  at 
Phlius. 

Mr.  Thomas  A.  Fox,  an  architect  of  Boston,  a  for- 
mer member  of  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technol- 
ogy, was  admitted  to  the  School  as  a  special  student, 
and  rendered  important  services  in  the  excavations  at 
the  Heraion,  having  charge  (with  Mr.  Brownson)  of 
the  surveys  and  measurements  for  the  plans  of  the 
ruins  and  the  vicinity. 

Professor  L.  H.  El  well  of  Amherst,  Professor  H. 
M.  Reynolds  of  Yale,  and  Professor  Edward  D.  Bos- 
worth  (Yale,  '83)  of  Oberlin,  spent  portions  of  the  year 
in  Greece,  and  took  occasional  part  in  the  exercises 
of  the  School,  and  joined  in  archaeological  excursions. 
Miss  Chapin,  Professor  of  Greek  in  Wellesley  College, 
and  a  member  of  our  Committee,  visited  the  School 
later  in  the  season. 

The  Reports  of  the  Director  and  of  the  Annual 
Director  give  an  interesting  account  of  the  work 
of  the  School  during  the  year,  and  especially  of  the 
excavations. 

The  generous  appropriation  of  $2,500  by  the  Ar- 
chaeological Institute  of  America  for  excavations  in 
Greece,  under  the  supervision  of  the  School,  afforded 
the  means  for  the  employment  of  a  larger  number  of 
men  and  carts  than  had  been  at  our  disposal  in  pre- 
vious years.    The  Director  of  the  School  believes  that 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


13 


such  use  of  "a  large  mass  of  workmen  is  now  shown 
to  be  economical,  and  more  satisfactory  than  a  small 
body  of  laborers. 

In  addition  to  the  extensive  excavations  at  the 
Heraion,  of  which  the  Director  has  published  a  pre- 
liminary account  in  the  Thirteenth  Report  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute,  and  in  the  Third  Bulletin  of 
the  School,  and  the  work  at  Sparta,  which  is  of  topo- 
graphical importance,  further  investigation  was  made 
of  the  underground  passage  in  the  theatre  at  S  icy  on, 
and  of  the  theatre  at  Eretria,  besides  the  work  already 
mentioned  at  Phlius  by  Mr.  Washington. 

At  Athens  the  relations  between  the  different  na- 
tional schools  of  archaeology  and  classical  studies  have 
been  closer  than  ever  before,  and  we  have  renewed 
occasion  for  acknowledgment  of  courtesies  and  favors 
from  our  friends  in  Greece. 

The  University  of  Chicago  has  joined  the  colleges 
associated  in  the  active  support  of  the  School,  and 
will  be  represented  on  the  Managing  Committee  by 
Professor  Hale,  who  has  been  a  member  of  this  Com- 
mittee since  May,  1885. 

Professor  B.  I.  Wheeler  succeeds  Professor  Hale 
as  the  representative  of  Cornell  University  on  this 
Committee. 

At  the  November  meeting  of  1 891,  in  accordance 
with  their  previous  resolution,  "  that  after  October  1, 
1892,  the  School  shall  have  a  permanent  officer  in 
residence  in  Athens  during  the  entire  school  year, 
from  October  1  to  June  1,"  the  Committee  elected 


14 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Professor  Frank  Bigelow  Tarbell,  Ph.  D.,  to  be  the 
chief  executive  officer  of  the  School,  with  the  title  of 
Secretary,  for  a  term  of  five  years,  beginning  Octo- 
ber i,  1892.  Professor  Tarbell's  accurate  and  pene- 
trating scholarship,  his  experience  as  an  instructor  of 
Greek,  —  eleven  years  at  Yale  and  three  years  at  Har- 
vard,—  and  his  successful  administration  of  the  School 
as  Annual  Director  in  1888-89,  gave  him  peculiar  quali- 
fications for  the  post  to  which  your  Committee  elected 
him.  At  the  May  meeting  of  the  Committee,  how- 
ever, Professor  Tarbell  asked  to  be  released  from  his 
engagement  at  the  close  of  the  school  year,  1892-93, 
that  he  might  accept  a  chair  in  the  University  of 
Chicago,  to  which  he  had  been  called. 

The  Committee  also  elected  Dr.  Waldstein  Profes- 
sor of  Ancient  Art,  and  by  their  direction  a  sub-com- 
mittee, with  Professor  Norton  as  chairman,  prepared 
the  following  resolutions  to  show  their  appreciation  of 
Dr.  Waldstein's  eminent  services :  — 

"The  term  of  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein's  appointment  as  Di- 
rector of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens 
being  about  to  expire, — 

"  Resolved,  That  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  School 
desire  to  express  to  Dr.  Waldstein  their  grateful  sense  of  the 
high  value  of  the  services  he  has  rendered  to  the  School  dur- 
ing these  three  years. 

"  Resolved,  That  they  are  aware  that  the  School  owes  much 
to  him  for  unofficial  as  well  as  for  official  services,  and  that  for 
these  they  offer  him  their  warm  acknowledgments  and  thanks, 
while  they  recognize  that  to  him  is  largely  due  the  favorable 
regard  in  which  the  School  is  now  held  by  the  government 
of  Greece  and  the  learned  community  at  Athens. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


*5 


"Resolved,  'That  the  Committee  trust  that  Dr.  Waldstein 
may  retain  a  close  connection  with  the  School  as  its  Profes- 
sor of  Ancient  Art,  and  that  the  pupils  may  continue  to  have 
the  benefit  of  his  animating  and  able  instruction." 

The  Council  will  remember  that  Dr.  Waldstein's 
engagements  at  the  University  of  Cambridge  have 
prevented  him  from  residing  in  Greece  more  than 
about  three  months  of  the  school  year. 

The  School  having  henceforth  a  permanent  execu- 
tive officer,  residing  in  Greece  through  the  entire 
school  year,  the  principal  duties  of  the  representative 
of  the  supporting  colleges  in  America  naturally  fall 
into  the  department  of  instruction  rather  than  into 
that  of  administration ;  and  the  Committee  voted  to 
give  the  title  of  Professor,  instead  of  Annual  Director, 
to  the  instructor  sent  out  annually  from  this  country. 
The  duties  of  the  office  are  somewhat  changed.  The 
responsibility  and  burden  of  care  will  be  less,  but  the 
dignity  and  importance  of  the  position  will  remain 
essentially  the  same. 

Professor  I.  T.  Beckwith  of  Trinity  College  was 
invited  to  serve  as  Professor  of  the  Greek  Language 
and  Literature  for  the  year  1892-93. 

When  Professor  Beckwith  felt  constrained  to  de- 
cline this  invitation,  Professor  John  Williams  White 
was  elected  to  the  position.  But  in  the  last  week  before 
sailing,  Professor  White  was  detained  by  the  illness, 
followed  by  the  death,  of  Mrs.  White's  mother. 

Professor  James  R.  Wheeler  of  the  University  of 


i6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Vermont  kindly  consented  in  September,  on  brief 
notice,  to  sail  for  Athens  to  serve  as  Professor  of  the 
Greek  Language  and  Literature  for  the  year  1892-93. 
His  archaeological  studies  and  his  life  in  Athens  as  a 
member  of  the  School  during  the  first  year  of  its  or- 
ganization, in  1882-83,  have  prepared  him  to  be  par- 
ticularly useful  at  this  time,  and  the  Committee  feel 
under  heavy  obligations  to  him  for  undertaking  this 
service,  at  some  personal  inconvenience,  owing  to  the 
brief  time  allowed  for  making  arrangements  for  his 
absence  from  home. 

Professor  White  has  accepted  the  Committee's  in- 
vitation to  serve  the  School  as  Professor  during  the 
year  1893-94.  To  no  one  else  is  the  School  more 
indebted  for  its  prosperity  and  its  very  existence,  and 
his  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  constitution  of  the 
School  and  its  early  history  unite  with  his  tact  and 
exceptional  attainments  to  make  him  a  peculiarly  valu- 
able support  to  the  administration  of  the  School  as  it 
enters  upon  its  new  era  under  a  permanent  Director. 

Professor  Benjamin  Ide  Wheeler  of  Cornell  Univer- 
sity has  been  elected  Professor  of  the  Greek  Language 
and  Literature  for  the  year  1894-95. 

The  office  of  chief  executive  officer  of  the  School 
becoming  vacant  through  Professor  Tarbell's  resigna- 
tion, the  Committee  unanimously  elected  Professor 
Rufus  Byam  Richardson  (Yale,  1869),  of  Dartmouth 
College,  to  be  Director  of  the  School  for  a  term  of 
five  years,  beginning  October  1,   1893.  Professor 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


17 


Richardson's  "successful  administration  of  the  School 
as  Annual  Director  in  1890-91  is  fresh  in  the  minds 
of  scholars  at  Athens,  as  well  as  of  the  Committee. 
His  knowledge  of  the  equipment  and  needs  of  Ameri- 
can students,  gained  from  his  experience  of  twenty 
years  as  teacher  at  Yale,  Indiana,  and  Dartmouth, 
together  with  his  long  residence  in  Germany  and 
acquaintance  with  German  scholarship,  and  his  fa- 
miliarity with  the  work  to  be  done  in  Greece,  all 
combine  to  give  assurance  of  an  able  and  altogether 
successful  administration.  The  charms  of  life  and 
study  in  Greece  are  manifest  from  Professor  Rich- 
ardson's consent  to  leave  his  honorable  post  at  Dart- 
mouth, where  he  has  been  esteemed  and  his  instruc- 
tion admired  and  enjoyed. 

For  the  early  years  of  its  existence  the  School  could 
promise  no  regular  instruction  to  its  students.  It  sup- 
plied them  with  a  pleasant  head-quarters  and  a  valuable 
library  for  their  use,  and  the  Director  gave  advice  and 
direction  to  their  studies.  Something  was  done  in 
the  way  of  instruction,  but  as  long  as  the  whole  care 
of  the  School  rested  on  the  Director,  and  the  students 
differed  so  widely  in  their  preparation  for  study  in 
Greece,  few  definite  courses  of  lectures  could  be  given. 
More  and  more,  however,  opportunities  have  opened 
before  our  students  in  the  lectures  and  meetings  of 
our  own  and  the  other  national  Schools,  and  in  archae- 
ological excursions  and  giri.  Henceforth,  with  a  Di- 
rector resident  in  Greece  throughout  the  entire  school 


i8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  A  THE  AS. 


year,  and  two  Professors,  the  School  expects  to  supply 
more  regular  instruction.  Dr.  Waldstein's  lectures 
on  Art  will  be  continued  next  year,  except  as  they 
may  be  interrupted  by  the  care  of  excavations ;  and 
other  courses  will  be  conducted,  as,  for  example,  on 
Greek  topography  as  related  to  ancient  history,  on 
old  Greek  life  as  illustrated  by  the  monuments,  on  the 
light  thrown  upon  ancient  literature  from  what  may 
be  seen  to-day  in  Greece,  etc. 

The  Fifth  Volume  of  the  Papers  of  the  School  was 
published  last  July.  The  table  of  contents  is  printed 
on  pages  51  and  52  of, this  Report. 

Arrangements  are  making  for  taking  casts  from  the 
principal  objects  of  art  which  have  been  found  in  the 
course  of  the  excavations  conducted  by  the  School. 
At  the  close  of  this  Report  (page  58)  may  be  found 
a  list  of  casts  from  objects  found  at  the  Heraion  of 
Argos  in  the  spring  of  1892,  which  may  be  obtained 
from  the  chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publication. 

The  chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publication  can 
furnish  also  the  photographs  catalogued  on  pp.  53-58, 
taken  by  Dr.  Clarence  H.  Young,  a  member  of  the 
School  during  the  year  1891-92. 

The  Annual  Director  mentions  gifts  of  books  which 
have  been  received  for  the  library  of  the  School. 
Thanks  are  due  also  to  Mr.  Henry  S.  Washington 
for  his  gift  of  more  than  a  hundred  photographs, 
which  he  had  taken  in  Greece  and  in  Asia. 

The  last  instalment  has  now  been  paid  on  the  debt 
of  the  School  for  its  building. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  19 

The  summary  of  the  financial  statements  for  the 
first  ten  years  of  the  School's  existence  (page  44)  shows 
receipts  of  $45,887.89,  and  expenses  of  $454°3-53> 
leaving  a  balance  of  $483.36.  This  account  does  not 
include  the  gifts  of  more  than  $25,000  for  the  build- 
ing, nor  that  of  the  land  by  the  Greek  government, 
nor  the  special  gifts  of  staircase,  windows,  mantel- 
pieces, etc.,  as  enumerated  on  page  42  of  the  Eighth 
Report.  The  permanent  Endowment  Fund  of  the 
School  is  now  a  trifle  more  than  $50,000. 

The  list  of  former  students  of  the  School,  with  ac- 
count of  their  present  occupation,  grows  more  and 
more  interesting.  Twenty-six  colleges  and  universi- 
ties have  been  represented  at  the  School  by  their  stu- 
dents. The  list  contains  the  names  of  eight  graduates 
of  Yale;  seven  of  Harvard;  four  each  of  Columbia, 
Johns  Hopkins,  and  the  University  of  Michigan  ;  three 
of  the  University  of  Munich;  two  each  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Vermont,  Wellesley,  and  Wesleyan ;  one  each 
of  Amherst,  Beloit,  University  of  Bonn,  Brown,  Cor- 
nell, Dartmouth,  Findlay,  Haverford,  Luther,  Mt.  St. 
Mary's,  Olivet,  Pennsylvania  College,  Rutgers,  Syra- 
cuse, Trinity,  Waynesburg,  and  Wilmington.  These 
former  students  are  now  scattered  in  twenty-one  States 
and  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  are  teaching  in 
twenty-five  colleges  and  universities,  and  five  schools 
and  academies,  —  from  Maine  to  California,  from  Ver- 
mont to  Texas, —  besides  those  who  are  studying  in 
Germany.     In  addition  to  these  colleges,  some  of 


20 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


whose  instructors  have  studied  in  connection  with  the 
School  at  Athens,  the  Greek  Professors  of  four  other 
institutions  have  resided  at  Athens  as  Directors  or 
Annual  Directors  of  the  School.  Others  have  been 
received  as  special  students,  for  shorter  periods  of 
time.  Others  while  in  Athens  for  a  few  weeks  have 
been  aided  by  the  use  of  the  School's  library,  and 
have  been  stimulated  and  guided  by  intercourse  with 
those  who  were  in  pursuit  of  the  same  general  ends. 
Thus  the  influence  of  the  School  upon  classical 
instruction  in  this  country  is  great  already,  and  is 
increasing  year  by  year. 

Many  students  of  the  School  have  had  some  ma- 
turity of  age  and  scholarship  before  going  to  Athens. 
Of  the  students  of  the  year  1891-92,  every  one  was 
at  least  three  years  past  his  degree  of  A.  B.,  and  had 
pursued  graduate  studies  in  this  country  before  en- 
tering upon  his  connection  with  the  School.  The 
Director  calls  attention  to  the  improved  preparation 
of  the  students  for  their  work  in  Greece. 

The  advantage  to  architects  of  study  in  Greece  is 
not  yet  generally  appreciated,  and  your  Committee 
repeat  the  expression  of  their  hope  that  fellowships 
may  be  established  for  the  encouragement  of  archi- 
tectural students  at  Athens. 

THOMAS  D.  SEYMOUR, 

Chairman. 

New  Haven,  Conn.,  January  1,  1893. 


REPORT  OF  THE  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  tlie  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens:  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  beg  to  submit  the  following  Report 
of  the  work  of  the  School  during  the  past  winter,  for 
the  period  during  which  I  had  the  active  management 
of  its  affairs. 

I  arrived  on  Greek  soil  on  December  2 1  of  last  year, 
and  at  once  made  arrangements  to  finish  the  excava- 
tions of  the  theatre  of  Sikyon,  from  the  completion 
of  which  Dr.  Earle  was  prevented  by  ill  health  last 
summer.  Professor  Merriam  had  previously  suggested 
to  me  that,  since  Dr.  Young,  who  has  been  a  member 
of  the  School  for  this  past  year,  was  personally  asso- 
ciated with  Dr.  Earle,  and  had  been  in  correspondence 
with  him,  Dr.  Young  should  be  intrusted  with  the  task 
of  continuing  these  excavations.  At  the  same  time  I, 
thought  it  desirable — from  the  experience  which  Mr. 
Brownson  had  acquired  at  Eretria  in  excavating  thea- 
tres and  especially  underground  passages  such  as  the 
one  we  were  proposing  to  work  at — to  ask  my  col- 
league, Professor  Poland,  to  request  Mr.  Brownson  and 
Dr.  Young  to  meet  me  at  Kiato,  the  railway  station 
for  Sikyon,  on  December  2 2d.    Upon  meeting,  we  at 


22 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


once  proceeded  to  Vasiliko,  and  on  the  following  day 
(December  23)  set  to  work  with  our  excavations.  I 
found  that  there  was  really  more  work  to  be  done  than 
I  had  at  first  anticipated,  and,  after  determining  the 
main  lines  which  the  excavation  was  to  take,  I  left  it 
in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Brownson  and  Dr.  Young,  who 
completed  the  task  after  a  week's  excavation.  Besides 
the  clearing  of  the  underground  passage,  some  addi- 
tional work  was  done  at  the  stage  structure,  and  some 
interesting  facts  were  found  to  supplement  the  good 
work  which  Dr.  Earle  had  done ;  and  I  believe  that 
now  the  excavation  of  this  theatre,  begun  under  Pro- 
fessor D'Ooge  by  Mr.  McMurtry,  and  continued  under 
Professor  Merriam  by  Dr.  Earle,  can  be  said  to  be 
completed.  I  hope  that  the  publication  by  Mr.  Brown- 
son  and  Dr.  Young  of  the  work  they  have  brought 
to  so  satisfactory  a  termination  will  be  in  your  hands 
before  a  very  long  time  has  passed. 

I  arrived  at  Athens  on  December  24,  and  there 
found  the  School,  as  regards  both  the  work  of  the 
students  and  the  building  itself,  in  the  very  best  or- 
der, under  the  charge  of  my  colleague,  Professor 
Poland.  I  may  at  once  say  that  this  year  again  I 
have  the  strongest  reason  for  gratification  at  the  help- 
ful  efficiency  of  my  colleague,  while  his  personal  geni- 
ality and  considerateness  have  made  it  a  winter  upon 
which  I  shall  look  back  with  unmixed  pleasure.  The 
regular  students  were  Mr.  Brownson,  Mr.  De  Cou, 
Mr.  Metzger,  Dr.  Newhall,  and    Dr.  Young.  All 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


23 


these  gentlemen  had  had  some  previous  preparation 
in  archaeological  study,  either  at  home  or  in  some 
German  university,  and  I  could  not  help  feeling 
from  the  very  outset  how  hopeful  a  sign  this  improve- 
ment in  the  preparation  of  the  students  was,  and  how 
much  it  facilitated  our  efforts  in  enabling  them  to  use 
to  the  greatest  advantage  the  time  which  they  were  to 
spend  on  Greek  soil.  I  trust  it  will  not  seem  ungrate- 
ful if  I  express  the  hope  that,  as  the  School  continues 
its  work,  so  will  the  standard  of  preparation  on  the 
part  of  its  students  become  higher.  I  think,  for  in- 
stance, that  it  would  be  well  to  advise  the  graduates 
from  our  colleges  who  intend  to  become  members  of 
the  School  to  avail  themselves  of  such  part  of  the 
summer  semester  as  they  can  attend  at  one  of  the 
German  universities,  and  to  study  the  European  mu- 
seums during  the  greater  part  of  August  and  Septem- 
ber, before  they  enter  the  School  in  the  autumn. 

I  began  my  regular  lectures  at  the  School  and  in 
the  Museums  on  December  30,  and  continued  them 
through  the  month  of  January  and  part  of  Febru- 
ary, with  some  few  interruptions  owing  to  an  attack 
of  influenza.  In  all  I  gave  fourteen  such  lectures. 
They  were  attended  not  only  by  our  students,  but 
by  associates  and  other  friends  and  visitors  of  the 
School,  to  whom  we  were  glad  to  extend  our  hospi- 
tality. Among  these  Professor  Bosworth  followed 
our  regular  work  for  the  greater  part  of  the  year ; 
while  Mr.  Williams  (late  United  States  Consul  at 


24 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Hamburg),  Professor  Elvvell,  Professor  Reynolds,  and 
several  others,  took  a  regular  part  in  our  exercises  and 
lectures.  Among  the  ladies,  too,  Miss  Kalopothakes 
and  Miss  Manatt  (daughter  of  the  United  States  Con- 
sul at  Athens)  were  regular  attendants  ;  while  later 
in  the  season  Miss  Chapin,  a  member  of  your  Com- 
mittee, as  well  as  several  other  ladies  interested  in 
archaeology,  availed  themselves  of  the  help  which  our 
library  could  afford.  Early  in  January,  Mr.  Fox  —  a 
practical  architect,  and  for  some  time  a  student  of  the 
Boston  Institute  of  Technology  —  accepted  my  invita- 
tion  to  become  a  special  member  of  the  School,  and, 
as  I  shall  have  more  special  occasion  to  mention  when 
dealing  with  our  excavation,  proved  very  helpful  in 
the  prosecution  of  our  work,  continuing  with  us  for 
the  remainder  of  the  season.  He  is  in  fact  at  this 
moment  still  in  Greece,  and  still  connected  with  the 
School.  Mr.  H.  S.  Washington  also  joined  us  again 
towards  the  close  of  February,  while  his  brother, 
Mr.  C.  M.  Washington,  accompanied  him  to  Phlius 
in  March,  and  took  part  with  him  in  the  excava- 
tions there. 

Our  meetings,  too,  were  well  attended.  In  addition 
to  the  Directors  and  members  of  the  other  Schools, 
and  the  resident  Greek  and  foreign  archaeologists,  we 
were  honored  by  members  of  the  Diplomatic  Corps, 
—  among  them  our  own  Minister,  Colonel  Snowden, 
who  was  a  constant  friend  and  visitor,  and  the  Ger- 
man and  Russian  Ministers,  as  well  as  several  Greek 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


25 


officials.  The  opening  meeting  took  place  on  Janu- 
ary 7.  At  this  meeting  I  read  a  paper  on  the  "  Mourn- 
ing Athene,"  and  Professor  Poland  commented  upon 
an  interesting  metrical  epitaph,  found  at  Athens, 
hitherto  unpublished  and  unknown.  Our  next  meet- 
ing, on  February  1,  was  held  in  memory  of  the  late 
Mr.  Alexander  Rhangabe,  whose  death  was  deeply 
regretted  by  all  the  members  of  the  School  and  the 
community  of  Athens,  as  well  as  by  the  archaeological 
and  literary  world  abroad.  For  some  years  past  he 
had  been  a  constant  attendant  of  our  meetings,  and 
had  called  at  the  School  but  a  few  days  before  his 
death.  We  all  felt  that  in  the  death  of  this  eminent 
statesman  and  archaeologist,  whose  fame  as  a  poet 
and  scholar  will  outlive  even  the  distinctions  won  as  a 
Cabinet  Minister  in  Greece  and  as  the  representative 
of  his  country  in  the  United  States,  Berlin,  and  else- 
where, we  had  lost  a  true  friend.  At  this  meeting  I 
delivered  an  obituary  address  on  "  The  Life  and  Work 
of  Rhangabe,"  and  expressed  the  hope  that  the  work 
of  excavation  at  Argos,  which  we  were  about  to  under- 
take, would  be  a  greater  memorial  to  him  than  all 
words,  in  carrying  to  a  successful  end  the  excavations 
of  the  Heraion  of  Argos  which  he  had  begun  in  1854. 
Dr.  Young  then  read  a  report  on  the  excavations  of  the 
theatre  of  Sikyon,  and  Mr.  De  Cou  read  a  paper  on  the 
monument  of  Lysicrates.  Mr.  De  Cou  had  made  the 
surprising  discovery  that  all  the  well  known  text-books 
and  the  later  writers  on  the  interesting  reliefs  of  this 


26 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


monument  had  based  their  estimate  of  this  work  on 
inaccurate  representations  of  the  sequence  of  figures 
in  the  relief.  He  had  traced  the  error  back  to  the 
fact  that  all  had  copied  their  illustrations  from  the 
publication  of  Stuart  and  Revett,  1762- 1830,  in  which 
original  publication  two  of  the  sheets  containing  the 
drawings  must  have  become  misplaced,  thus  reversing 
the  order  of  the  figures.  The  deductions  he  could 
thus  establish  from  a  correct  knowledge  of  this  relief 
concerning  the  laws  of  symmetry  in  composition  as 
here  maintained,  seem  to  me  of  the  greatest  impor- 
tance. At  the  close  of  the  meeting  I  read  some 
archaeological  notes  on  Herondas  IV.  At  the  third 
and  last  meeting,  on  February  12,  Professor  Poland 
gave  a  report  on  the  excavations  at  Eretria,  and 
Mr.  Brownson  read  a  paper  on  the  underground  pas- 
sage in  the  theatres  of  Eretria  and  Sikyon.  Dr. 
Newhall  gave  an  account  of  the  Heraion  of  Argos 
based  upon  the  literary  traditions  concerning  the 
temple  and  the  religious  ceremonies  in  connection  with 
Hera,  as  well  as  the  facts  so  far  as  archaeological  in- 
vestigation presented  them  up  to  that  moment ;  and, 
finally,  I  read  a  short  paper  on  the  additional  evi- 
dence concerning  the  interpretation  of  the  relief  of 
the  Mourning  Athene  from  the  Acropolis  contained 
in  certain  vase  figures. 

The  relations  of  our  School  and  its  members  to 
the  other  Schools  during  the  past  year  have  been,  if 
anything,  more  cordial  and  intimate  than  heretofore 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


27 


Besides  the  close  intercourse  which  has  ever  obtained 
between  our  own  School  and  the  German  Institute 
and  English  School,  I  am  happy  to  state  that  our 
intercourse,  both  archaeological  and  social,  with  the 
French  School  and  its  efficient  and  courteous  Director, 
M.  Homolle,  has  been  of  the  warmest  nature.  At  two 
of  the  meetings  of  the  French  School  I  took  an  active 
part  in  reading  papers,  —  once  on  the  final  state  of  the 
question  concerning  "  The  Tomb  of  Aristotle,"  and 
again  on  a  certain  relief  from  Oenoe,  recently  brought 
to  the  Museum  of  Argos.  My  intention  of  also  read- 
ing a  paper  before  the  German  School  was  not  carried 
out,  owing  to  the  necessity  of  my  absence  from  Athens 
at  the  time  of  their  meeting.  It  is  hoped  by  us  all  that, 
as  hitherto  we  have  constantly  been  present  at  each 
other's  meetings,  so  in  the  future  we  shall  also  take  an 
active  part  in  these  meetings  in  exchanging  papers 
and  in  joining  work  as  far  as  possible.  I  need  hardly 
add  that  Dr.  Dorpfeld  and  Mr.  Gardner  have  as  usual 
extended  their  sympathy  and  hospitality  to  the  Direc- 
tors and  the  students  of  the  School  in  a  most  liberal 
manner. 

I  now  come  to  the  excavations  of  the  School  during 
the  past  season.  It  will  be  impossible  for  me  at  this 
time  to  give  an  adequate  report  of  the  work  done. 
The  plans  of  the  excavations,  which  are  in  the  hands  of 
Mr.  Brownson  and  Mr.  Fox,  are  not  yet  completed  ; 
nor  does  it  appear  that  all  the  work  of  excavation 
itself,  as  we  hope  this  year  will  show,  has  as  yet 


28 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


reached  an  end.  It  has  been  a  year  exceptionally  full, 
of  work,  and  1  may  venture  to  say  successful  work; — ■ 
exceptionally  not  only  for  our  School,  but  in  its  extent, 
variety,  and  results  for  all  of  the  Schools  at  Athens. 
With  some  of  these  results  you  have  already  been 
made  acquainted.  I  hope  in  the  course  of  the  next 
month  to  be  able  to  submit  a  fuller  report  for  publica- 
tion ;  while  I  also  hope  to  put  into  your  hands  a  selec- 
tion of  eight  autotype  plates,  with  a  short  descriptive 
text,  which  will  give  to  you  a  more  adequate  picture 
of  some  of  the  most  interesting  finds  made  at  Argos. 

The  full  and  final  report  of  this  year's  work  will  re- 
quire much  more  time  for  adequate  exposition.  The 
autotype  plates  to  which  I  have  just  referred  are  now 
in  the  hands  of  the  photographer  Rhomai'des  at  Ath- 
ens (who  came  to  Argos  to  take  the  photographs), 
and  I  hope  that  within  two  months  they  may  be  ready 
for  transmission  to  you.  For  the  production  of  these 
I  have  taken  the  risk  upon  my  own  shoulders,  and  I 
should  be  very  grateful  if  I  could  be  in  part  relieved 
from  this  risk.  Every  copy  will  contain  eight  quarto 
plates  with  one  or  two  sheets  of  descriptive  letter- 
press. I  present  a  similar  request  to  the  President  of 
the  Archaeological  Institute.  Such  an  issue  will,  I 
hope,  for  the  present  satisfy  our  friends,  will  meet  the 
desire  of  the  archaeological  world,  and  will  give  us  time 
to  elaborate  carefully  the  results  of  the  excavations. 

I  will  now  attempt  to  give  you  a  brief  summary  of 
the  excavations  during  this  year.     Of  the  work  at 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


29 


Sikyon  I  have  already  spoken,  and  hope  soon  to  be 
able  to  report  more  fully. 

On  January  10,  Professor  Poland  started  for  Ere- 
tria  together  with  Mr.  Brownson  and  Mr.  Fox.  They 
had  set  themselves  the  task  of  continuing  the  work 
at  the  theatre,  while  I  proposed  to  join  them  as  soon 
as  I  had  recovered  from  an  attack  of  influenza,  and 
also  of  doing  some  further  work  at  the  graves.  This 
intention  I  was  unable  to  carry  out,  because  both  of 
health  and  of  some  difficulties  which  the  Greek  au- 
thorities found  in  sending  the  proper  officials ;  and  as 
I  felt  that  the  work  at  the  theatre  was  in  such  good 
hands,  I  did  not  join  the  expedition.  I  shall  leave  it 
to  Professor  Poland  and  his  associates  to  report  more 
fully  on  these  excavations. 

On  February  13,  I  started  for  Argos,  accompanied 
by  Mr.  Brownson  and  Mr.  Fox.  Before  we  began 
active  work  we  were  joined  by  Mr.  De  Cou  and  Dr. 
Newhall.  On  March  4,  Professor  Poland  also  joined 
us,  and  took  charge  of  the  work  for  a  week,  during 
which  time  I  accompanied  Mr.  Washington  to  Phlius, 
and  then  returned  to  Athens.  To  the  hearty  co- 
operation of  all  these  gentlemen  the  success  of  our 
work  is  largely  due. 

We  began  our  work  at  the  Heraion  in  an  ex- 
plorative manner,  to  test  the  nature  of  the  several 
sites  there  grouped.  At  first  we  employed  sixty-three 
men  and  three  carts,  and  rose  to  one  hundred  and 
eighty  men  and  twenty-six  carts.     We  were  excep- 


3° 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


tionally  favored  by  good  weather;  in  the  first  month 
we  lost  only  one  half-day  from  bad  weather.  Our 
chief  energies  were  concentrated  on  the  second  tem- 
ple ;  but  we  dug  trenches  also  on  the  site  of  the 
earlier  temple,  where  we  came  upon  its  pavement, 
consisting  of  flat  polygonal  stones,  and  also  upon  a 
continuous  layer  of  charred  wood,  —  an  interesting- 
confirmation  of  the  record  of  the  burning  of  the 
temple.  We  found  ruins  of  what  may  prove  to  be 
early  Greek  baths,  and  of  a  stoa.  At  a  depth  of  be- 
tween ten  and  fifteen  feet,  on  the  slope  at  the  west  end 
of  the  second  temple,  we  came  upon  a  curious  layer 
of  black  earth  in  which  we  found  a  great  number  of 
archaic  bronze  objects,  amber  beads,  some  gold  and 
silver  rings,  terra-cotta  ornaments,  fragments  of  early 
vases,  bone  needles,  stone  seals,  etc.  The  terra- 
cotta plaques  are  almost  unique  in  character,  while 
the  vases  make  a  valuable  addition  to  our  knowledge 
of  early  ornamental  ceramic  art. 

We  were  fortunate  enough  to  find  a  large  number 
of  the  marble  sculptured  ornaments  of  the  second 
temple  in  a  more  or  less  fragmentary  condition.  The 
scenes  enumerated  by  Pausanias  seem  to  have  been 
distributed  as  follows.  At  the  east  end,  the  Birth  of 
Zeus  in  the  pediment,  and  the  Gigantomachia  below 
it  in  the  metopes  ;  at  the  west  end,  the  Departure  for 
Troy  in  the  pediment,  and  below  it  the  Destruction  of 
Troy.  We  were  still  more  fortunate  in  discovering 
two  well  preserved  heads,  about  two  thirds  life-size, 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


31 


which  belonged  to  the  metopes,  and  also  a  well  pre- 
served male  torso  from  one  of  the  metopes.  Finally, 
immediately  in  front  of  the  west  end  of  the  temple,  we 
had  the  great  fortune  of  finding  the  marble  head  of 
Hera,  of  which  you  have  already  heard.  This  head, 
of  at  least  life-size,  is  recognized  by  all  who  have  seen 
it  as  the  best  preserved  specimen  of  a  female  head 
from  the  fifth  century  before  Christ. 

I  left  Argos  for  Sparta  on  March  15,  and  on  March 
18  besfan  excavations  on  the  site  of  the  so  called 
Leonidaion,  which  proves  to  be  a  small  temple  in 
antis.  Extensive  trenches  showed  that  the  site,  which 
has  been  considered  that  of  the  ancient  agora,  con- 
tains no  remains  of  antiquity. 

The  most  important  discovery  during  the  excava- 
tions at  Sparta  was  that  of  the  ruins  of  a  circular 
building,  which  no  doubt  is  that  mentioned  by  Pausa- 
nias  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Skias. 

I  conducted  excavations  also  on  the  site  of  Amy- 
clae,  but  found  that  Tsountas  had  already  laid  bare  all 
of  promise  there. 

In  addition  to  the  work  I  have  mentioned,  I  must 
briefly  state  that  Messrs.  H.  S.  and  C.  M.  Washington 
carried  on  excavations  at  the  site  of  the  ancient  Phlius, 
and  will  soon  report  upon  their  work. 

Professor  Merriam  requested  that  I  should  procure 
for  Dr.  Young  permission  to  excavate  at  his  own 
expense  on  the  site  at  Koukounari  in  Attica,  where 
Mr.  Washington  had  thought  of  excavating  in  pre- 


32 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


vious  years.  I  have  now  procured  permission  from 
the  government  for  excavations  on  this  site,  and  have 
arranged  with  Mr.  Washington  and  Dr.  Young  that 
they  should  undertake  the  work,  they  bearing  the 
expense. 

It  will  be  seen  from  this  brief  report  that  the  past 
season,  as  far  as  excavations  go,  has  been  one  of  un- 
usual activity,  and  it  only  remains  for  me  to  hope  that 
the  results  of  this  work  will  justify  the  efforts  made 
by  our  friends  at  home  in  providing  the  means  for 
these  undertakings.  I  beg  to  record  my  special 
thanks  to  the  members  of  the  Archaeological  Insti- 
tute, as  well  as  to  Mr.  J.  Taylor  Johnston,  for  the 
liberal  financial  support  given  this  year  to  our 
excavations. 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN. 

May  7,  1892. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ANNUAL  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens :  — 

Gentlemen, —  In  accordance  with  the  custom  of 
my  predecessors,  I  respectfully  submit  the  following 
Report. 

I  arrived  in  Athens  and  assumed  direction  of  the 
School  on  Wednesday,  the  30th  of  September,  189 r. 
I  found  that  the  servant  of  the  School,  Constan- 
tinos  Joannides,  had  taken  good  care  of  the  prop- 
erty during  the  vacation.  He  promptly  called  my 
attention  to  certain  needed  repairs.  On  the  3d  of 
October,  at  my  request,  Professor  Ziller,  the  super- 
vising architect  of  the  School,  called  and  made  an 
appointment  for  a  thorough  examination  of  the  house 
to  see  what  repairs  were  needed.  Shortly  afterward 
he  made  the  examination,  accompanied  by  a  carpenter 
and  a  mason,  and  the  work  of  repair  was  begun  at  once. 
These  repairs  extended  over  the  entire  house,  from 
roof  to  basement  floor,  and  included  the  garden  wall. 
The  roof  leaked  badly  in  several  places,  and,  unfor- 
tunately, before  the  repairs  were  made  upon  it  a  rain 
came,  badly  soaking  the  walls  of  the  library  and  of  the 

3. 


34 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


dining-room.  Until  a  radical  repair  of  the  roof  has 
been  made,  a  similar  accident  may  be  expected  at  al- 
most any  time.  The  fault  lies  in  the  construction  of 
the  eaves-troughs,  and  unfortunately  that  fault  can- 
not be  remedied  without  removing  the  roof.  This  will 
make  repairs  rather  expensive.  The  summer  is  the 
only  season  in  which  such  repairs  can  be  made  ;  for 
they  must  be  made  when  there  is  the  least  liability  of 
rain.  Further,  the  repairs  should  be  made  when  the 
Director  can  be  present  to  oversee  them.  That,  at 
least,  is  the  conviction  to  which  my  experience  has 
led  me. 

The  fireplaces  were  all  repaired  in  the  autumn.  In 
fact,  they  were  repaired  twice.  The  first  repair  was 
not  made  properly,  and  we  caused  the  mason  to  do  a 
part  of  his  work  the  second  time.  The  furnace  was 
repaired  by  stopping  its  ventilation  from  the  cellar, 
and  enlarging  the  air-box  which  communicates  with 
the  outer  air.  The  laundry  tubs  were  also  repaired, 
together  with  the  drain  connected  with  them.  I  re- 
gret to  say  that  it  has  been  necessary  to  repair  these 
again  this  spring,  and  to  correct  some  faults  in  the 
work  done  in  the  autumn.  The  garden  wall  w^as  con- 
siderably broken,  and  that  has  been  repaired.  Lately, 
one  half  of  the  gate  was  blown  down,  and  fell  to  pieces. 
It  has  been  put  together  again,  and  it  will  last  for  a 
time;  but  an  iron  gate  should  be  put  in  its  place  as 
soon  as  possible.  I  have  asked  Professor  Ziller  to 
make  a  drawing  of  such  a  gate  as  we  ought  to  have. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


35 


He  has  approved  of  all  repairs  which  have  been  made, 
and  has  visited  the  School  whenever  I  have  requested 
it  to  see  what  repairs  were  needed.  Before  I  leave 
Athens,  I  shall  endeavor  to  put  the  house  in  a  good 
condition  for  the  summer. 

The  condition  of  the  garden  has  improved  slightly. 
The  o-ardener  who  furnished  the  most  of  the  plants 
failed  to  meet  the  expectations  of  those  with  whom  he 
had  made  his  contract.  But  most  of  the  shrubs  which 
he  set  out  are  growing,  and  since  last  September  many 
of  the  vacant  places  have  been  filled  with  roses,  ole- 
anders, laurels,  and  acacias,  at  a  slight  expense.  A 
little  work  of  this  kind  from  year  to  year  will  give 
the  School  in  time  a  good  garden.  The  grounds 
in  the  rear  of  the  house  ought  to  receive  attention 
at  some  time.  I  have  found  it  advisable  to  close  the 
garden  gate,  at  the  bottom  of  the  olive  grove,  for  the 
grounds  on  this  side  are  particularly  subject  to  intru- 
sion. At  night  they  are  often  made  a  pasture  for  some 
roaming  flock  of  sheep  or  goats.  In  time  a  stone 
wall  ought  to  take  the  place  of  the  unsatisfactory  iron 
fence  which  now  surrounds  the  grounds.  Before  many 
years  a  stone  wall  ought  to  be  built  in  place  of  the 
wall  of  sun-dried  brick  in  front  of  the  house. 

If  I  have  given  peculiar  emphasis  to  this  matter  of 
repairs  by  discussing  it  at  such  length  at  the  outset,  I 
can  urge  as  my  reason  for  so  doing  the  fact  that  the 
need  of  these  repairs  was  the  first  thing  forced  on  my 
attention  after  my  arrival  at  Athens,  and  that  it  has 


36 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


not  yet  become  merely  a  memory.  In  this  it  is  quite 
likely  that  I  shall  have  the  sympathy  of  my  predeces- 
sors. The  radical  repairs  at  which  I  have  hinted  will 
have  to  be  made  before  my  successors  will  cease  to  be 
annoyed  by  such  material  discomforts. 

On  arriving  in  Athens,  I  found  that  two  intending 
students  were  already  in  town,  Mr.  De  Cou  and  Mr. 
Metzger.  Soon  after,  Dr.  Newhall  and  Dr.  Young- 
arrived,  and  a  few  days  afterwards  Mr.  Brownson 
came. 

Later  the  Rev.  Professor  Edward  I.  Bosworth  of 
Oberlin  Theological  Seminary,  a  graduate  of  Yale 
University,  became  a  special  student  of  the  School, 
attending  some  of  our  exercises.  In  December  Mr, 
Thomas  A.  Fox,  architect,  of  Boston,  became  a  spe- 
cial student,  and  assisted  us  for  several  months  in  the 
work  of  excavation  and  in  the  drawing  of  plans  neces- 
sitated by  that  work.  Later  Mr.  Henry  Stephens 
Washington,  so  long  associated  with  the  work  of  the 
School,  again  joined  us,  and  shortly  after  conducted  ex- 
cavations at  Phlius. 

Under  my  administration  as  Annual  Director  in 
charge,  the  meetings  began  on  Friday,  the  9th  of  Oc- 
tober. It  was  decided  to  hold  three  meetings  a  week 
for  reading  the  Greek  authors,  discussion,  etc.  Before 
we  entered  fully  and  regularly  on  this  work,  a  few  ex- 
cursions were  undertaken.  In  some  of  these  I  partici- 
pated. I  regret  that  I  could  not  participate  in  all  of 
them;  but  I  found  that  it  was  advisable  for  me  to  re- 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT.  37 

main  in  Athens  while  the  repairs  were  going  on.  With 
some  of  the  members  of  the  School  I  visited  Marathon, 
Rhamnus,  Sicyon,  Oropos,  Eretria,  Laurium,  Sunium, 
Thorikos,  Vari,  Eleusis,  and  Salamis.  Further,  some 
of  the  School  visited  Delphi  and  Boeotia  as  far  east  as 
Thebes,  Pentelicus,  Hymettus,  and  Spata.  These  in 
general  are  the  autumn  excursions.  No  record  has 
been  kept  of  those  made  this  spring  in  Peloponnesus, 
among  the  islands,  and  in  Northern  Greece. 

Our  meetings  continued  until  the  arrival  of  the  Di- 
rector,  Dr.  Waldstein,  in  December.  We  read  in 
these  meetings  the  Persae  of  Aeschylus,  the  Jupiter 
Tragoedus  of  Lucian,  and  the  Hippolytus  of  Euripi- 
des. WTe  were  admitted  to  the  privilege  of  hearing 
Dr.  Dorpfeld's  lectures  on  the  architectural  monuments 
of  Athens,  and  for  some  time  one  meeting  in  the  week 
was  usually  given  to  discussion  in  advance  of  the  top- 
ics on  which  Dr.  Dorpfeld  was  to  speak,  We  had 
occasional  papers  from  the  members  of  the  School. 
Mr.  Brownson  read  us  his  report  on  the  excavations 
at  Eretria  and  his  paper  on  "  The  Relation  of  the  Ar- 
chaic Gable  Reliefs  from  the  Acropolis  to  Vase-Paint- 
ing." Dr.  Young  read  a  paper  on  "Aristotle's  Views 
on  Art,  as  shown  in  the  first  four  Books  of  the  Nicoma- 
chean  Ethics."  Every  member  prepared  papers,  of 
greater  or  less  length,  on  the  various  monuments  of 
Athens,  on  topography,  on  the  inscriptions  connected 
with  the  monuments,  etc.  This  work  was  discon- 
tinued in  part  when  the  students  began  to  find  special 


38  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

work,  every  one  for  himself.  In  all  we  had  eighteen 
meetings. 

This  may  be  the  place  to  acknowledge  the  special 
indebtedness  under  which  we  have  been  placed  by  the 
kindness  of  Dr.  Dorpfeld,  First  Secretary  of  the  Im- 
perial German  Institute.  He  began  his  lectures  on 
the  monuments  of  Athens  at  the  Dipylon  on  Satur- 
day, the  10th  of  last  October,  and  invited  us  to  at= 
tend  that  and  all  his  later  lectures  on  every  Saturday 
through  the  autumn  and  winter.  I  need  not  state 
how  precious  was  this  privilege,  and  how  stimulating 
and  suggestive  we  have  found  his  lectures.  His  lec- 
tures on  the  theatre  furnished  us  with  an  interesting 
theme  for  one  of  our  meetings,  in  which  we  discussed 
the  Agamemnon,  the  Persians,  the  Seven  against 
Thebes,  and  the  Prometheus  of  Aeschylus,  the  Medea 
of  Euripides,  and  the  Birds  of  Aristophanes,  examining 
these  plays  to  discover  how  far  the  theory  of  repre- 
sentation supported  by  Dr.  Dorpfeld  is  substantiated 
by  any  internal  evidence  in  the  plays  themselves. 
This  is  cited  as  an  example  of  the  way  in  which  we 
were  helped  by  these  lectures.  Further,  we  are  in- 
debted to  Dr.  Dorpfeld  and  to  Dr.  Paul  Wolters, 
Second  Secretary  of  the  German  Institute,  to  M.  Th. 
Homolle,  Director  of  the  French  School,  to  Mr.  Ernest 
A.  Gardner,  Director  of  the  British  School,  and  to 
their  colleagues,  for  the  privilege  extended  to  us  of 
attending  their  fortnightly  meetings  and  of  listen- 
ing to  able  archaeological  papers  on  these  occasions. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


39 


Mr.  Gardner,  in  particular,  opened  also  all  his  courses 
of  instruction  to  our  students.  We  need  not  add, 
that  we  continue  to  be  under  constant  obligation 
to  the  Greek  government  for  a  most  liberal  use  af- 
forded us  of  all  the  priceless  treasures  of  ancient  art 
which  it  has  at  its  command.  The  Ephor  General  of 
Antiquities,  Professor  Kabbadias,  has  granted  us  every 
privilege  that  we  could  properly  ask.  The  relations 
of  our  School  officially  and  socially  could  not  be  more 
delightful  than  they  are.  We  continue  to  be  indebted 
as  before  to  our  courteous  and  distinguished  Minister 
of  the  United  States,  Hon.  A.  Loudon  Snowden,  to 
our  sympathetic  and  able  Consuls,  Dr.  Manatt  and 
A.  C.  McDowall,  Esq.,  and  to  our  untiring  and  de- 
voted friends,  the  Rev.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Kalopothakes. 
Others  might  be  named.  Two  I  will  mention,  Mr.  P. 
Skouses  and  Mr.  Syngros,  who  have  allowed  us  gen- 
erously to  use  their  country-houses  at  Bei  and  at 
Oropos.  We  have  many  friends  here,  and  have  great 
reason  to  be  thankful  for  all  the  favors  which  we  re- 
ceive constantly. 

Dr.  Waldstein  arrived  on  the  24th  of  last  De- 
cember. From  that  time  until  his  departure  from 
Athens,  on  the  8th  of  April,  1892,  the  School  has 
been  under  his  direction,  and  he  naturally  will  report 
on  what  was  done  during  that  time.  It  may  be 
proper  here  for  me  to  state  my  belief  that  to  his  able 
direction  during  the  past  is  due  much  of  the  present 
distinction  which  our  School  enjoys.     No  one  can 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


live  in  Athens  for  even  a  short  time  without  learning 
how  warmly  he  is  admired  and  beloved  here.  To  me 
personally  he  ever  has  been  a  kind  friend,  adviser,  and 
official  supporter,  and  I  am  glad  to  find  an  opportunity 
in  this  Report  to  express  my  indebtedness  to  him. 

I  have  had  a  certain  part  in  the  work  of  excavation 
in  which  the  School  has  engaged.  I  superintended 
the  work  done  at  Eretria  in  January,  aided  by  Mr. 
Brownson  and  Mr.  Fox.  The  work  was  carried  on 
under  the  instructions  of  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  consisted 
in  clearing  the  east  half  of  the  orchestra  of  the  theatre, 
the  eastern  parodos,  and  a  few  of  the  seats  on  the  east 
side  of  the  cavea.  I  shall  prepare  a  special  report  for 
publication.  I  reported  on  the  work  at  an  open  meet- 
ing of  the  School  held  soon  after  my  return  from  the 
excavations.  The  main  things  discovered  were  the 
correct  radius  of  the  orchestra,  which  is  9.09  meters 
to  the  outer  face  of  the  curb,  and  the  line  of  the 
later  parodos  wall.  The  completed  circumference  of 
the  orchestra  falls  1.27  meters  before  the  stylobate, 
instead  of  touching  it.  as  represented  in  the  plate 
already  published.  There  were  scarcely  any  stray 
finds  during  the  excavation.  A  short  fragment  of  a 
late  inscription  with  the  letters  A2KAI,  a  tile  with 
EPETPIEflN  in  late  characters  stamped  on  it,  two 
marble  blocks  from  a  building  with  rude  letters  cut 
on  them,  a  few  bits  of  glass  and  of  bronze,  a  frag- 
ment of  an  uninscribed  base,  much  rude  pottery,  some 
column  drums  and  bits  of  moulding,  a  few  terra- 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


41 


cotta  acroter'ia,  and  some  copper  coins,  were  about 
all.  The  coins  I  have  yet  to  subject  to  a  final 
examination. 

I  was  present  at  the  excavations  at  the  Heraion 
from  the  4th  to  the  nth  of  March,  during  which  time 
Dr.  Waldstein  was  in  Athens.  A  fragment  of  a  dedi- 
catory inscription  found  at  that  time  I  understand  is  to 
be  edited  by  Mr.  Brownson,  and  I  will  leave  it  for  him 
to  report.  Dr.  Waldstein,  of  course,  will  report  on  the 
work  of  excavation  at  Argos  and  at  Sparta. 

An  interesting  sepulchral  inscription  came  into  my 
hands  just  before  our  first  open  meeting.  I  reported 
it  at  that  time,  the  7th  of  January,  and  I  shall  soon 
publish  it. 

Besides  those  whose  names  are  mentioned  as  stu- 
dents of  the  School,  we  have  had  the  pleasure  of 
entertaining  to  some  extent  other  colleagues  from 
America.  Among  these  are  Professors  A.  C.  Chapin 
of  Wellesley  College  (a  member  of  your  Committee), 
J.  H.  McDaniels  of  Hobart  College,  H.  M.  Reynolds 
of  Yale  University,  L.  H.  El  well  of  Amherst  College, 
and  W.  G.  Frost  of  Oberlin  College.  All  the  students 
of  the  School  have  left  us,  with  the  exception  of  Dr. 
Young.  Mr.  De  Cou,  Mr.  Metzger,  and  Dr.  Newhall 
probably  are  in  Italy.  Mr.  Brownson  and  Mr.  Fox 
are  in  Germany. 

The  library  has  received  additions  amounting  to 
123  titles  during  the  year,  through  gifts,  purchases, 
and  the  binding  of  periodicals.    We  are  indebted  to 


42 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  kindness  of  the  following  friends  for  gifts  to  the 
library :  'ApxcuoXoyi/o)  'Erai/no,  of  Athens,  Boston 
Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  British  Museum,  Dr.  G.  Con- 
stantinides  (Ephor  of  the  Greek  National  Library), 
Prof.  I.  J.  Manatt,  Dr.  B.  Newhall,  Dr.  C.  Rhomai'des, 
Prof.  A.  A.  Sakellarios,  Mrs.  Sophia  Schliemann, 
Dr.  J.  Svordnos,  Mr.  H.  S.  Washington,  Prof.  B.  I. 
Wheeler,  Prof.  J.  W.  White,  and  Dr.  C.  H.  Young. 

The  full  account  of  our  expenditures  for  the  year  I 
shall  send  to  the  Treasurer  at  the  end  of  the  year.  We 
have  tried  to  practise  a  prudent  economy. 

In  nearing  the  completion  of  my  term  of  office,  I 
can  see  as  I  look  back  where  the  experience  which  I 
have  gained  might  have  made  me  more  useful  if  I  could 
have  had  it  when  I  began  the  year.  I  can  only  say 
that  I  have  tried  to  serve  the  School  with  fidelity,  and 
that  I  have  felt  fully  identified  with  its  interests,  great 
and  small.  From  you,  through  your  official  represent- 
atives, your  Chairman  and  your  Treasurer,  I  have  re- 
ceived most  cordial,  kind,  and  efficient  support,  and  in 
recognition  of  this,  I  tender  to  you  and  to  them  my 
hearty  thanks,  while  I  wish  for  the  School  and  for  all 
those  associated  in  its  future  direction  most  abundant 
prosperity. 

WILLIAM   CAREY  POLAND, 

Annual  Director  for  1891-92. 

Athens,  May  2,  1892. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


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THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


OCTOBER,  1892. 

The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  founded  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America,  and  organized  under  the 
auspices  of  some  of  the  leading  American  Colleges,  was  opened  Octo- 
ber 2,  1882.  During  the  first  five  years  of  its  existence  it  occupied 
a  hired  house  on  the  eOSos  'A/xaAias  in  Athens,  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Olympieum.  A  large  and  convenient  building  was  then  erected  for 
the  School  on  a  piece  of  land,  granted  by  the  generous  liberality  of 
the  government  of  Greece,  on  the  southeastern  slope  of  Mount  Lyca- 
bettus,  adjoining  the  ground  already  occupied  by  the  English  School. 
This  permanent  home  of  the  School,  built  by  the  subscriptions  of  its 
friends  in  the  United  States,  was  ready  for  occupation  early  in  1888. 

The  building  contains  the  apartments  occupied  by  the  Director 
and  his  family,  and  a  large  room  which  is  used  as  a  library,  and 
also  as  a  general  reading-room  and  place  of  meeting  for  the  whole 
School.  A  few  rooms  in  the  house  are  intended  for  the  use  of 
students.  These  are  assigned  by  the  Director,  under  such  regula- 
tions as  he  may  establish,  to  as  many  members  of  the  School  as  they 
will  accommodate.  Each  student  admitted  to  the  privilege  of  a 
room  in  the  house  will  be  expected  to  undertake  the  performance  of 
some  service  to  the  School,  to  be  determined  by  the  Director ;  such, 
for  example,  as  keeping  the  accounts  of  the  School,  taking  charge  of 
the  delivery  of  books  from  the  Library  and  their  return,  and  keeping 
up  the  catalogue  of  the  Library.  No  charge  is  made  to  students  for 
the  use  of  the  rooms  themselves ;  but  a  small  charge  is  made  for  the 
use  of  the  furniture  and  linen  of  the  chamber. 

The  Library  now  contains  more  than  1,700  volumes,  exclusive  of 
sets  of  periodicals.  It  includes  a  complete  set  of  the  Greek  classics, 
and  the  most  necessary  books  of  reference  for  philological,  archaeologi- 
cal, and  architectural  study  in  Greece. 

The  advantages  of  the  School  are  offered  free  of  expense  for  tuition 
to  graduates  of  the  Colleges  co-operating  in  its  support,  and  to  other 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


American  students  who  are  deemed  by  the  Committee  of  sufficient 
promise  to  warrant  the  extension  to  them  of  the  privilege  of  member- 
ship. It  is  hoped  that  the  Archaeological  Institute  may  in  time  be 
supplied  with  the  means  of  establishing  scholarships  which  will  aid 
some  members  in  defraying  their  expenses  at  the  School.  In  the 
mean  time,  students  must  rely  upon  their  own  resources,  or  upon 
scholarships  which  may  be  granted  them  by  the  Colleges  to  which 
they  belong.  The  amount  needed  for  the  expenses  of  an  eight 
months'  residence  in  Athens  differs  little  from  that  required  in  other 
European  capitals,  and  depends  chiefly  on  the  economy  of  the 
individual. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  temporary  organization  of  the  School  dur- 
ing its  first  six  years,  which  distinguished  it  from  the  older  German 
and  French  Schools  at  Athens,  was  the  yearly  change  of  Director. 
This  arrangement,  by  which  a  new  Director  was  sent  out  each  year 
by  one  of  the  co-operating  Colleges,  was  never  looked  upon  as  per- 
manent. The  School  is  now  to  be  under  the  control  of  a  permanent 
Director,  who  by  continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate  that 
body  of  local  and  special  knowledge  without  which  the  highest  purpose 
of  such  a  school  cannot  be  fulfilled,  while  one  or  more  Professors  also 
will  be  sent  out  each  year  by  the  supporting  Colleges  to  assist  in  the 
conduct  of  the  School.  (See  Regulation  V.)  The  School  was  able, 
even  under  its  temporary  organization,  to  meet  a  most  pressing  want, 
and  to  be  of  service  to  classical  scholarship  in  America.  It  sought 
at  first,  and  it  must  continue  to  seek  for  the  present,  rather  to  arouse  a 
lively  interest  in  classical  art  and  archaeology  in  American  Colleges, 
than  to  accomplish  distinguished  achievements.  The  lack  of  this  in- 
terest has  heretofore  been  conspicuous  ;  but  without  it  the  School  at 
Athens,  however  well  endowed,  can  never  accomplish  the  best  results. 
A  decided  improvement  in  this  respect  is  already  apparent ;  and  it  is 
beyond  question  that  the  presence  in  many  American  Colleges  of  Pro- 
fessors who  have  been  resident  a  year  or  more  at  Athens  under  favor- 
able circumstances,  as  Annual  Directors  or  as  students  of  the  School, 
has  done  much,  and  will  do  still  more,  to  stimulate  intelligent  interest 
in  classical  antiquity. 

The  address  of  the  Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  is 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  New  Haven,  Conn.  ;  that  of  the  Secretary, 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


47 


REGULATIONS  OF   THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

OCTOBER,  1892. 

1.  The  object  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  is  to 
furnish  an  opportunity  to  study  Classical  Literature,  Art,  and  Antiqui- 
ties in  Athens,  under  suitable  guidance,  to  graduates  of  American 
Colleges  and  to  other  qualified  students;  to  prosecute  and  to  aid 
original  research  in  these  subjects  ;  and  to  co-operate  with  the  Archae- 
ological Institute  of  America,  so  far  as  it  may  be  able,  in  conducting 
the  exploration  and  excavation  of  classic  sites. 

IX.  The  School  shall  be  in  charge  of.  a  Managing  Committee. 
This  Committee,  originally  appointed  by  the  Archaeological  Institute, 
shall  disburse  the  annual  income  of  the  School,  and  shall  have  power 
to  add  to  its  membership  and  to  make  such  regulations  for  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  School  as  it  may  deem  proper.  The  President  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute  and  the  Director  and  Professors  of  the  School 
shall  be  ex  officio  members  of  the  Committee. 

III.  The  Managing  Committee  shall  meet  semiannually,  —  in  New 
York  on  the  third  Friday  in  November,  and  in  Boston  on  the  third 
Friday  in  May.  Special  meetings  may  be  called  at  any  time  by  the 
Chairman. 

IV.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  shall  be  the  official  repre- 
sentative of  the  interests  of  the  School  in  America.  He  shall  present 
a  Report  annually  to  the  Archaeological  Institute  concerning  the  affairs 
of  the  School. 

V.  1.  The  School  shall  be  under  the  superintendence  of  a  Direc- 
tor. The  Director  shall  be  chosen  and  his  salary  shall  be  fixed  by  the 
Managing  Committee.  The  term  for  which  he  is  chosen  shall  be  five 
years.  The  Committee  shall  place  him  in  charge  of  the  School  build- 
ing at  Athens. 

2.  Each  year  the  Committee  shall  appoint  from  the  instructors  of 
the  Colleges  uniting  in  the  support  of  the  School  one  or  more  Profes- 
sors, who  shall  reside  in  Athens  during  the  ensuing  year  and  co-operate 
in  the  conduct  of  the  School.    In  case  of  the  illness  or  absence  of 


48 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  Director,  the  senior  Professor  shall  act  as  Director  for  the  time 
being. 

VI.  The  Director  shall  superintend  personally  the  work  of  each 
member  of  the  School,  advising  him  in  what  direction  to  turn  his 
studies,  and  assisting  him  in  their  prosecution.  With  the  assistance 
of  the  Professors,  he  shall  conduct  regular  courses  of  instruction,  and 
hold  meetings  of  the  members  of  the  School  at  stated  times  for 
consultation  and  discussion.  He  shall  make  a  full  Report  annually 
to  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  work  accomplished  by  the 
School. 

VII.  The  School  year  shall  extend  from  the  ist  of  October  to  the 
i st  of  June.  Members  shall  prosecute  their  studies  during  the  whole 
of  this  time  in  Greek  lands,  under  the  supervision  of  the  Director. 
The  studies  of  the  remaining  four  months  necessary  to  complete  a  full 
year  (the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given)  may  be  carried 
on  in  Greece  or  elsewhere,  as  the  student  prefers. 

VIII.  Bachelors  of  Arts  of  co-operating  Colleges,  and  all  Bachelors 
of  Arts  who  have  studied  at  one  of  these  Colleges  as  candidates  for  a 
higher  degree,  shall  be  admitted  to  membership  in  the  School  on  pre- 
senting to  the  Committee  a  certificate  from  the  classical  department 
of  the  College  at  which  they  have  last  studied,  stating  that  they 
are  competent  to  pursue  an  independent  course  of  study  at  Athens 
under  the  advice  of  the  Director.  All  other  persons  who  desire 
to  become  members  of  the  School  must  make  application  to  the 
Committee.  Members  of  the  School  are  subject  to  no  charge  for 
tuition.  The  Committee  reserves  the  right  to  modify  the  conditions 
of  membership. 

IX.  Every  member  of  the  School  must  pursue  some  definite  sub- 
ject of  study  or  research  in  Classical  Literature,  Art,  or  Antiquities, 
and  must  present  a  paper  embodying  the  results  of  some  important 
part  of  his  year's  work.  These  papers,  if  approved  by  the  Director, 
shall  be  sent  to  the  Publishing  Committee,  in  accordance  with  the 
provisions  of  Regulation  XII.  If  approved  by  the  Publishing  Com- 
mittee also,  the  paper  shall  be  issued  in  the  Papers  of  the  School. 

X.  All  work  of  excavation,  of  investigation,  or  of  any  other  kind 
done  by  any  student  in  connection  with  the  School,  shall  be  regarded 
as  done  for  the  School  and  by  the  School,  and  shall  be  under  the 
supervision  and  control  of  the  Director, 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


49 


XI.  No  communications,  even  of  an  informal  nature,  shall  be 
made  by  students  of  the  School  to  the  public  press,  which  have  not 
previously  been  submitted  to  the  Director,  and  authorized  by  him. 

XII.  1  i.  All  manuscripts,  drawings,  or  photographs  intended  for 
publication  in  the  Papers  of  the  School,  after  approval  by  the  Director, 
shall  be  sent  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Publishing  Committee,  which 
shall  be  a  standing  sub-committee  of  two  members  of  the  Managing 
Committee. 

2.  Every  article  sent  for  publication  must  be  written  on  compara- 
tively light  paper  of  uniform  size,  with  a  margin  of  at  least  two  inches 
on  the  left  of  each  page.  The  writing  must  be  clear  and  distinct, 
particularly  in  the  quotations  and  references.  Especial  care  must  be 
taken  in  writing  Greek,  that  the  printer  may  not  confound  similar 
letters,  and  the  accents  must  be  placed  strictly  above  the  proper 
vowels,  as  in  printing.  All  quotations  and  references  must  be  care- 
fully verified  by  the  author,  after  the  article  is  completed,  by  com- 
parison with  the  original  sources. 

3.  At  least  two  careful  squeezes  of  every  inscription  discovered  by 
the  School  shall  be  taken  as  soon  as  possible ;  of  these  one  shall  be 
sent  at  once  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publications,  the 
other  shall  be  deposited  in  the  Library  of  the  School. 

XIII.  When  any  member  of  the  School  has  completed  one  or 
more  full  years  of  study,  the  results  of  which  have  been  approved  by 
the  Director,  he  shall  receive  a  certificate  stating  the  work  accom- 
plished by  him,  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  School,  the  President 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  and  the  Chairman  and  the  Secretary 
of  the  Managing  Committee. 

XIV.  American  students  resident  or  travelling  in  Greece  who  are 
not  regular  members  of  the  School  may,  at  the  discretion  of  the  Direc- 
tor, be  enrolled  as  special  students,  and  enjoy  the  privileges  of  the 
School. 

1  Failure  to  comply  with  the  provisions  of  Regulation  XII.  will  be  sufficient 
ground  for  the  rejection  of  any  paper. 


4 


5Q 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL 
OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1882-1892. 

The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee  may  be  had  gratis  on  application  to 
the  Secretary  of  the  Managing  Committee.  The  other  publications  are  for  sale 
by  Messrs.  Damrell,  Upham,  &  Co.,  283  Washington  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

First,  Second,  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee, 1881-84.    pp.  30. 

Fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1884-85.    pp.  30. 

Fifth  and  Sixth  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee,  1885-87. 
pp.  56. 

Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1887-88,  with  the  Re^ 
port  of  Professor  D'Ooge  (Director  in  1886-87)  and  that  of  Professor 
Merriam  (Director  in  1887-88).    pp.  115. 

Eighth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1888-89,  with  the  Re- 
ports of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director, 
Professor  Tarbell.    pp.  53. 

•  Ninth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1889-90,  with  the  Reports 
of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Professor 
Orris,    pp.  49. 

Tenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1890-91,  with  the  Reports 
of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Professor 
Richardson.    pp.  47. 

Eleventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1891-92,  with  the  Re- 
ports of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Pro- 
fessor Poland,    pp.  70. 

Bulletin  I.  Report  of  Professor  William  W.  Goodwin,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1882-83.    pp.  33.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  II.  Memoir  of  Professor  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1883-84,  with  Resolutions  of  the  Committee  and  the 
Report  for  1883-84.    pp.  34.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  III.  Excavations  at  the  Heraion  of  Argos.  By  Dr. 
Waldstein.    4to.    pp.  14.    8  plates.    Price  $3.00. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


51 


Preliminary  Report  of  an  Archaeological  Journey  made  in  Asia 
Minor  during  the  Summer  of  1884.  By  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett.  pp.  45. 
Price  25  cents. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  SCHOOL. 

Volume  I.  1882-83.  Published  in  [885..  8vo,  pp.  viii  and  262. 
Illustrated.    Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R.  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier. 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salarnis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 

Volume  II.,  1883-84,  containing  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett's  Report  of 
his  Journey  in  Asia  Minor  in  1884,  with  Inscriptions,  and  two  new 
Maps  by  Professor  H.  Kiepert.  Published  in  1888.  8vo,  pp.  344. 
Price  $2.25. 

Volume  III.,  1884-85,  containing  Dr.  Sterrett's  Report  of  the  Wolfe 
Expedition  to  Asia  Minor  in  1885,  with  Inscriptions,  mostly  hitherto 
unpublished,  and  two  new  Maps  by  Professor  Kiepert.  Published  in 
1886.    8vo,  pp.  448.    Price  $2.50. 

Volume  IV.  1885-86.  Published  in  t888.  8vo,  pp.  277.  Illus- 
trated.   Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Preliminary  Report,  by  Walter  Miller. 

2.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Supplementary  Report,  by  William  L.  dishing. 

3.  On  Greek  Versification  in  Inscriptions,  by  Frederic  D.  Allen. 

4.  The  Athenian  Pnyx,  by  John  M.  Crow ;  with  a  Survey  of  the  Pnyx  and 
Notes,  by  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke. 

5.  Notes  on  Attic  Vocalism,  by  J.  McKeen  Lewis. 

Volume  V.  1887-91.  Published  in  1892.  8vo,  pp.  314.  With 
41  Cuts,  6  Plans  and  Maps,  and  18  Plates.    Price  $2.25. 

Contents : — 

1.  Excavations  at  the  Theatre  of  Sikyon.  By  W.  J.  McMurtry  and  M.  L. 
Earle. 

2.  Discoveries  in  the  Attic  Deme  of  Ikaria,  1888.    By  Carl  D.  Buck. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


3.  Greek   Sculptured   Crowns  and   Crown-Inscriptions.      By  George  B. 

Hussey. 

4.  The  newly  discovered  Head  of  Iris  from  the  Frieze  of  the  Parthenon. 
By  Charles  Waldstein. 

5.  The  Decrees  of  the  Demotionidai.    By  F.  B.  Tarbell. 

6.  Report  on  Excavations  near  Stamata  in  Attica.  By  Charles  Waldstein 
and  F.  B.  Tarbell. 

7.  Discoveries  at  Anthedon  in  1889.  By  John  C.  Rolfe,  C.  D.  Buck,  and 
F.  B.  Tarbell. 

8.  Discoveries  at  Thisbe  in  1889.    By  J.  C.  Rolfe  and  F.  B.  Tarbell. 

9.  Discoveries  at  Plataia  in  1889.  By  Charles  Waldstein,  F.  B.  Tarbell,  and 
J.  C.  Rolfe. 

10.  An  Inscribed  Tombstone  from  Boiotia.    By  J.  C.  Rolfe. 

11.  Discoveries  at  Plataia  in  1890.  By  Charles  Waldstein,  Henry  S.  Washing- 
ton, and  W.  I.  Hunt. 

12.  The  Mantineian  Reliefs.    By  Charles  Waldstein. 

13.  A  Greek  Fragment  of  the  Edict  of  Diocletian,  from  Plataia.  By  Theodor 
Mommsen. 

14.  Appendix.    By  A.  C.  Merriam. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


53 


LIST  OF  PHOTOGRAPHS  TAKEN  BY  CLARENCE 
H.  YOUNG,  Ph.  D., 

Member  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens. 

Orders  for  the  whole  list,  or  for  any  part  of  it,  may  be  sent  to  Professor  A.  C. 
Merriam,  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publications,  640  Madison  Avenue, 
New  York  City. 

Size  A,  6j  X  8£  inches  20  cents. 

Size  B,  4  X  5  inches  12  cents. 

Poor  negatives  are  marked  by  an  asterisk. 


A. 


ATTICA. 

SUNIUM. 

1.  Cape  Sunium  and  Temple  of  Athena. 

2.  Temple  of  Athena,  from  the  south. 

3.  View  from  cape,  /Egina  in  distance. 

4.  Portion  of  fortification  wall. 

THORICUS. 

5.  General  view  of  theatre. 

6.  Pointed  arch  in  theatre. 

MARATHON. 

7.  Valley  and  village  of  Marathona,  from 

Bei. 

8.  Plain,  south  from  Bei'. 

RHAMNUS. 

9.  Temples  and  walls  of  sacred  pre- 

cinct, from  east. 

10.  Temples  from  east. 

11.  Temples  from  southwest. 

12.  Excavations  on  Acropolis. 

13.  Great  gateway  of  Acropolis. 

14.  East  side  of  Acropolis  with  fortifica- 

tion walls. 

TATOL 

15.  Mt.  Pentelicus  from  inn. 


OROPUS. 

16.  General  view  of  ruins  from  south- 

west. 

17.  Stage  of  theatre. 

18.  Ruins  of  portico  behind  stage  of 

theatre. 

19.  Row  of  statue  bases  and  temple  from 

northwest. 

20.  Great  altar  and  conduit  from  temple. 

21.  General  view  of  ravine  and  ruins 

from  northwest. 

22.  View  to  north  of  ruins. 

PELOPONNESUS. 

SICYON. 

23.  General  view  of  theatre. 

24.  View  of  hyponomos  of  theatre. 

25.  Stage  buildings  of  theatre  and  plain. 

26.  Orchestra  and  west  half  of  seats  of 

theatre. 

27.  Theatre  from    southeast,  showing 

southeast  parodos  and  inclined 
approach  to  stage. 

28.  Arched  passage,  east  side  of  cavea. 

29.  Roman  ruin  in  plain. 

30.  Wall  of  stadium. 


54 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


31   Gorge,  near  Vasiliko,  with  spring 
(possibly  Stazousa  of  Pausanias). 

32.  Gorge  of  Asopus,  near  Sicyon. 

OLYMPIA. 

33.  The  Cladeus  from  the  Museum. 

SAMIKON. 

34.  Southwest  wall  and  tower. 

35.  View  from  Acropolis. 

MESSENE. 

36.  General  view  of  walls  adjoining  Ar- 

cadian Gate. 

37.  Inner  door  of  Arcadian  Gate  with 

central  post. 
33.  Inner  door  and  south  side  of  court, 
Arcadian  Gate. 

39.  Outer  door  and  north  side  of  court, 

Arcadian  Gate. 

40.  Looking  through  the  Arcadian  Gate 

from  outside. 

41.  Wall  and  arched  doorway  behind 

theatre. 

42.  Courtyard   of  Vourkano  Convent, 

Ithome. 

SPARTA. 

43.  General  view  of  theatre  from  east 

retaining  wall. 
44  East  retaining  wall  of  theatre. 

45.  Taygetus  and  east  retaining  wall  of 

theatre. 

46.  Ruin  to  east  of  theatre. 

47.  "Tomb'of  Leonidas." 

48.  49.  Panorama  of  Taygetus  from  Vour- 

liatiko  Khan. 

MANTINEA. 

50.  Ruins  about  theatre  from  northeast. 

51.  Theatre  and  plain  from  top  of  cavea. 

52.  Stage  structure  ax\6\  parodoi  o{  theatre. 

53.  Treasure-house  (?)  and  north  retain- 

ing wall  of  theatre. 

MEGALOPOLIS. 

54.  General  view  of  theatre  and  Ther- 

silion  (?). 

55.  West  retaining  wall  of  theatre. 


56.  Orchestra  and  cavea  of  theatre  from 

northwest. 

57.  Stage  of  theatre. 

58.  Stage  and  orchestra  of  theatre  from 

Thersilion  (?). 

59.  East  side  of  theatre. 

LYCOSURA. 

60.  Temple  and  Acropolis. 

61.  Temple  from  northeast. 

62.  Basis  of  large  statue  in  temple. 

63.  View  from  Acropolis. 

64.  Ruins  to  east  of  temple. 

CENTRAL  GREECE. 

DELPHI. 

65.  Gorge  of  the  Pleistus,  the  Sacred 

Plain,  and  Gulf  of  Crissa,  from  hill 
of  Amphictyonic  Council. 

66.  View  toward  Gulf  of  Crissa,  showing 

hill  of  Amphictyonic  Council- 

67.  Kastri  and  the  Phaedriadae. 

68.  Castalian  Gorge. 

69.  Kastri  from  Arachova  road. 

70.  View  toward  Arachova. 

VARIA. 

71.  Greek  priest  and  family,  Skripou. 

72.  Sanctuary  of  the  Ptoan  Apollo. 

73.  East  wall  of  north  gate,  Goulas. 

74.  Thermopylae  from  the  east. 

ISLANDS. 

75.  East  end  of  temple,  ^Egina. 

SANTORIN. 

76.  Exterior  of  temple. 

77.  Interior  of  temple. 

MUSEUMS. 

NATIONAL  MUSEUM,  ATHENS. 

78.  Archaic  room. 

t79-  Archaic  Apollo  from  Melos. 

t8o.  Male  head  from  Lycosura. 

f8i.  Female  head  from  Lycosura. 

t82.  Smaller  female  head  from  Lycosura. 


t  These  photographs  cannot  be  furnished  until  the  official  publication  of  the  statues. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


55 


t83-  Piece  of  drapery,  ornamented  in  re- 
lief, from  Lycosura. 

t84.  Piece  of  drapery,  ornamented  in  re- 
lief, from  Lycosura  (opposite  side). 

85.  Dionysus  (?)  from  Sicyon. 

86.  Themis  from  Rhamnus. 

87.  Room  of  Poseidon. 

88.  Room  of  funeral  vases  and  grave 

reliefs. 

89.  Grave  relief,  No.  717. 

90.  Grave  reliefs,  Nos.  725-727. 

91.  Grave   reliefs,   Nos.   742-745  and 

783-785- 

92.  Grave  reliefs,  Nos.  829-831. 

93.  Grave  relief,  No.  832. 

94.  Grave  relief,  No.  833. 

95.  Grave   reliefs,   Nos.   896-899  and 

910-913. 


ACROPOLIS  MUSEUM. 

96.  Unfinished  statue  and  bases,  Nos. 

1325-1327. 

97.  Reliefs,  Nos.  1328-1330. 

98.  Reliefs  of  Nike  balustrade. 

*99-  Case  of  archaic  heads,  Nos.  634- 
664. 

OLYMPIA. 

100.  Archaic  head  of  Hera. 

SPARTA. 

ior.  Archaic  reliefs 

102.  Relief  with  female  figure  (good 
period). 

*io3-  Archaic  stele  and  Roman  altar. 


B 


ATTICA. 

ATHENS  AND  ENVIRONS. 

104.  King's  Palace   and  Constitution 

Square. 

105.  The  Pompeion(?)  near  the  Dipy- 

lon  Gate. 

*to6.  Themistoclean  wall  and  Ceramicus 
boundary  stone. 

107.  Hegeso  tomb. 

108.  Grave  relief  of  woman  with  pitcher, 

Street  of  Tombs. 

109.  Colonus    and    monuments  from 

south. 

no.  Hill  of  Demeter  Euchloos  from 
Colonus. 

in.  Chapel   on  Colonus  and  hill  of 
Demeter. 

112.  Harbor  of  Piraeus,  Psyttaleia,  and 

Salamis  from  the  hill  of  Mu- 
nichia. 

113.  Harbor  of  Zea  from  hill  of  Mu- 

nichia. 

114.  Inner  part  of  harbor  of  Zea  from 

west. 

*i  15.  Harbor  of  Zea  and  hill  of  Munichia 
from  west. 
116.  Entrance  to  harbor  of  Zea. 


PHYLE. 

*i  1 7.  Northeast  corner,  interior. 

118.  East  wall,  exterior. 

119.  North  wall,  exterior. 

VARIA. 

*I20.  Defile  near  Phyle  and  the  Harma. 

121.  Pass  of  Janula,  near  Phyle. 

122.  Chasia. 

123.  Square  at  Menidi  (Acharnag?). 

124.  A  bit  of  the  Marathon  road. 
*I25.  Cape  Cynosura,  Marathon,  from 

east. 

126.  Cypresses  near  Skala  Oropou. 

127.  On  the  road  to  Thebes,  Mt.  Cithae- 

ron  in  distance. 


PELOPONNESUS. 

SICYON. 

128.  Hyponomos  and  stage  of  theatre, 

before  the  excavations  of  De- 
cember, 1 89 1. 

129.  Orchestra  and  west  side  of  cavea 

of  theatre,  before  the  excava- 
tions of  December,  1891. 


56 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


130.  Stage  buildings  of  theatre,  Vasiliko 
and  Acrocorinth  in  distance. 
*I3I.  Steps  and  interior  of  hyponomos  of 
theatre,  looking  toward  the  stage 
from  central  tank. 

MESSENE. 

132.  Outer  door  of  Arcadian  Gate. 
*I33«  Columns    and   architrave  block, 
south  side  of  stadium. 

134.  Standing  columns,  north  side  of 

stadium. 

SPARTA. 

135.  Broken  end  of  west  retaining  wall 

of  theatre. 
*i36.  Therapne. 

137.  The    Menelaeum    on  Therapne, 

south  side. 

138.  The    Menelaeum    on  Therapne, 

north  side. 
*I39.  East  wall  of  Amyclaeum. 

140.  Architectural    fragment  built  in 

wall  of  chapel,  Amyclaeum. 

MEGALOPOLIS. 

141.  Stage  of  theatre  and  surrounding 

country. 

142.  Orchestra   and  seats   of  theatre 

from  west. 

143.  East  end  of  stage  and  seats  of 

theatre. 

144.  145.  Panorama  of  stage  of  thea- 

tre, Thersilion  (?),  the  Helisson, 
and  plain  of  Megalopolis. 

LYCOSURA. 

146.  Ornamented  corner  of  guttae. 

147.  Torso  of  colossal  statue. 

PHIGALIA. 

^148.  A  portion  of  the  city  walls. 

149.  Door  in  city  wall. 

ACHLADOKAMPOS,  NEAR  HYSI^. 

1 50.  Khan  from  south. 

151.  Khan  from  south,  nearer  view. 

152.  Khan  and  plane  trees  from  north- 

west- 


LERNA. 

153.  Spring. 

1 54.  Spring  and  outlet. 

155.  Marshes. 

MYCEN/E. 

156.  Secret  door. 

157.  Postern  gate  (interior). 

KASARMI  (LESSA?). 

158.  Acropolis. 

159.  Polygonal  wall  and   remains  of 

tower. 

HIERON  OF  EPIDAURUS. 

160.  View  northeast  from  Museum. 

161.  Stage  of  Roman  Theatre. 

162.  Orchestra  of  Roman  Theatre. 

163.  Temple  of  iEsculapius. 

EPIDAURUS. 

164.  Bluff  of  Athena  Kissaea  and  plain. 

165.  Piece   of  polygonal  fortification 

wall. 

166.  Village  of  Epidavra  across  the  bay 

from  Nisi. 

167.  Broken  statue  on  Nisi. 

VARIA. 

168.  Isthmian  sanctuary  and  Saronic 

Gulf. 

169.  Snow-peaks  in  Arcadia  from  Velio. 

170.  Main  street,  Kiato. 

171.  Parnassus  from  Vasiliko. 

172.  Vasiliko  from  east. 

173.  A  bit  of  the  Gulf  of  Corinth,  south 

shore. 

174.  Wharves  and  harbor  of  Patras, 

iEtolia  in  distance. 
175  Lower  part  of  base  of  Paeonius's 
Victory,  in  situ. 

176.  View  in  Langada  Pass. 

177.  Turkish  bridge  near  Mistra. 

178.  Bridge  over  Saranta  Potamos,  and 

surrounding  country. 

179.  Palaeo  Episkopi  .on  supposed  foun- 

dation of  theatre,  Tegea. 

180.  Plain    of    Frankovrysis  (Asean 

Plain). 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


57 


181.  Acropolis  of  Asea. 

182.  Karytaena. 

183.  Gorge  of  the  Alpheus  near  Kary- 

taena. 

184.  A  view  in  the  plain  of  Mantinea. 

185.  Argolic  Gulf  from  highest  point  of 

Tripolitza  road. 

186.  View  toward  Gulf  from  Tripolitza 

road. 

187.  Square  at  Nauplia,  and  Palamidi. 

188.  Tiryns,  west  side. 
*i8().  The  Heraeum,  Argos. 

190.  Remains  of  pyramid  near  Ligourio. 

CENTRAL  GREECE. 

DELPHI. 

191.  Interior   of   rock-cut  tomb  near 

Delphi. 

*I92.  Gulf  of  Crissa  and  sacred  plain 
from  rock-cut  tomb. 

193.  Delphi  from  Arachova  road. 

194.  Wall  of  gymnasium  (?)  near  mon- 

astery. 

195.  Stoa  of  the  Athenians. 

196.  East  end  of  stadium  with  rock- 

cut  seats. 

197.  Plain  of  Pleistus  toward  Arachova 

from  stadium. 

198.  View  toward  Parnassus  from  top 

of  Phaedriadae. 

DAVLIA. 

199.  Parnassus  from  Acropolis. 

2co.  Portion     of    fortification  wall, 
Acropolis. 
*20i.  Towers    flanking    entrance  to 
Acropolis. 

CHARON  EA. 

202.  Acropolis. 

203.  Theatre. 

*204-  Head  of  the  lion. 

205.  Foot  of  the  lion. 

PLAT/EA. 

206.  Portion  of  southwest  wall. 

207.  Tower  of  wall. 

208.  Portion  of  cross-wall  with  bosses. 


SANCTUARY  OF  PTOAN  APOLLO. 

*209.  Temple  from  east. 

210.  Cavern  to  west  of  temple. 
*2ii.  Subterranean  building   on  slope 
below  temple. 

ACR^EPHIA. 

212.  Door  in  Acropolis  wall. 

213.  Southwest  Acropolis  wall,  Parnas- 

sus in  distance. 

VARIA. 

214.  Gulf  of  Crissa  from  Itea. 

215.  Gulf  of  Crissa  and  sacred  plain 

from  Chryso. 

216.  Chryso  (Crissa). 

*2i7.  Parnassus  from  Corycian  Grotto. 

218.  Gorge  near  Zagora,  Mt.  Helicon. 
*2I9.  Ruins  of  temple,  Valley  of  the 
Muses. 

220.  Portion  of  walls  of  Haliartus. 

221.  East  side  of  north  gate,  Goulas, 

from  inside. 


ISLANDS. 

^EGINA. 

222.  iEgina  near  temple. 

223.  Harbor. 

224.  South  mole  with  Frankish  tower, 

harbor. 

DELOS. 

225.  General  view  of  ruins  and  Mt. 

Cynthus. 

226.  Propylaea. 

227.  Temples  north  of  Apollo's  Temple. 
*228.  Ruins    from    north    of  Philip's 

Portico. 

229.  Statue  basis  with  archaic  inscrip- 

tion. 

230.  Statue  basis,  grotesque  head  on 

corner. 

231.  Mt.  Cynthus. 

232.  Temple    of   Serapis  (?)   on  Mt. 

Cynthus. 

233.  Grotto  of  Apollo. 


58 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


SANTORIN. 

*234-  Town  from  harbor. 
235.  Bluff,  showing  lava  strata. 

MELOS. 

236-239.  Panorama  of  south  coast. 
*24o.  West  coast. 

^241.  West  retaining  wall  of  theatre. 

242.  Central  seats  of  theatre. 

243.  East  side  of  cavea  of  theatre. 

PAROS. 

244.  Entrance  to  marble  quarries. 

245.  Mule  with  Greek  saddle. 

CORFU. 

246.  A  bit  of  the  east  coast. 

247.  View  of  town  and  bay  from  For- 

tezza  Vecchia. 

248.  Palace,  point,  and  Albanian  coast 

from  Fortezza  Vecchia. 

249.  A  quiet  corner. 

250.  Strada  Marina  and  Lake  Kalikio- 

poulo  from  Fortezza  Vecchia. 

251.  Lake  Kalikiopoulo,  Canone,  and 

Monte  Santa  Deca  from  For- 
tezza Vecchia. 

252.  General  view   of   Lake  Kalikio- 

poulo (harbor  of  Phaeacians?) 
and  Palaeopolis. 

253.  "  Ship  of  Ulysses  "  from  Canone. 

254.  Monte  Santa  Deca  from  Canone. 

255.  West  coast  of  Corfu,  south  from 

Pelleka. 

256.  Two  bays  near  Palaeokastrizza. 

257.  Bluff  and  bay,  Palaeokastrizza. 


258.  Bluff  of  Castle  of  San  Angelo. 

259.  Coast  south  from  Palaeokastrizza. 

260.  Monastery  of  Palaeokastrizza  and 

west  coast. 

VARIA. 

261.  Northwest  shore  of  Salamis. 

262.  Early  morning,  harbor  of  Chalcis. 
*263-  Town  of  Syra  from  harbor. 

MUSEUMS. 

CEPHISIA. 

264.  Helen  and  the  Dioscuri  (?),  relief 

on  sarcophagus. 

265.  Leda  and  the  Swan,  relief  on  sar- 

cophagus. 

EREMOKASTRO  (THESPEE). 

266.  Small  seated  statuette. 

267.  Reliefs. 

MYCONUS. 

268.  Archaic  female  figures. 

269.  Beautiful  relief  of  seated  female 

figure. 

270.  Heads,  torso,  and  relief  of  boar 

hunt. 

271.  Archaic  male  head. 

VARIA. 

272.  Archaic  head  of  Hera,  Olympian 

Museum. 

273.  Marble  faun  from  Sparta,  at  Tripo- 

litza. 

274.  Relief  of  spear-bearing  youth  with 

horse,  Argos  Museum. 


CASTS. 

The  following  plaster  casts  of  objects  found  in  the  excavations  of  the  School 
at  the  Heraeum  may  be  had  on  application  to  Professor  Merriam  at  the  affixed 


prices : — 

Hera  head  with  pedestal   .  $5  00 

Warrior  head  with  pedestal   4.00 

Amazon  (?)  head  with  pedestal  4.00 

Male  torso  5  00 

Female  torso   .  4.00 

Sima  ornament  with  birds  4.00 

Two  lion  heads  each  2.co 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


59 


CIRCULAR  OF  INFORMATION  FOR  STUDENTS  WHO 
PROPOSE  TO  JOIN  THE  SCHOOL. 

OCTOBER,  1892. 

Ability  to  read  easily  works  in  German  and  French  is  indispensable 
for  the  best  success  of  the  student's  work  in  Greece.  Ability  to  speak 
these  languages,  and  understand  them  when  spoken,  is  very  desira- 
ble, —  especially  for  the  sake  of  profiting  by  the  lectures  before  the 
French  and  German  Schools,  and  of  communicating  with  scholars  of 
those  nationalities. 

Students  are  advised  to  go  to  Athens,  if  possible,  by  way  of  London, 
Paris,  or  Berlin,  for  the  study  of  the  Museums.  Study  for  about  six 
weeks  in  the  Museums  of  Berlin,  with  the  aid  of  Friedrichs-Wolters's 
Catalogue  of  Casts  and  Furtwangler's  Catalogue  of  Vases,  is  earnestly 
recommended  as  a  preparation  for  work  at  the  School. 

The  ordinary  route  from  Germany  to  Greece  is  by  way  of  Trieste, 
whence  a  steamer  of  the  Austrian  Lloyd  sails  weekly  for  the  Piraeus. 

The  route  from  Berlin  to  Athens  by  way  of  Constantinople  is  inter- 
esting. The  cost  of  a  second-class  passage  (comfortable)  is  about 
forty  dollars. 

From  Western  Europe  the  quickest  route  is  by  steamer  from  Brindisi 
to  Patras  (a  little  more  than  twenty-four  hours),  and  thence  by  rail  to 
Athens  (about  eight  hours).  The  routes  through  the  Gulf  of  Corinth 
and  around  Peloponnesus  are  very  attractive  in  good  weather. 

The  best  way  to  reach  Greece,  if  it  is  desired  to  proceed  direct 
from  the  United  States,  is  by  one  of  the  two  great  German  lines, 
which  now  despatch  regular  express  steamers  from  New  York  to 
Genoa  and  Palermo.  From  Genoa  a  good  weekly  Italian  steamer, 
and  from  Palermo  a  steamer  of  the  Messageries  line,  sails  direct  to 
the  Piraeus. 

At  the  large  hotels  in  Athens,  board  and  lodging  can  be  obtained 
for  $14  per  week ;  at  small  hotels  and  in  private  families,  for  $5.50  per 
week,  and  upward.  A  limited  number  of  students  may  have  rooms, 
without  board,  in  the  School  building.    A  pension  which  is  well  recom- 


6o 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


mended  is  now  established  near  the  School,  which  charges  $20-25  Per 
month  for  dinner  and  supper. 

The  student  should  go  well  supplied  with  clothing  and  other  neces- 
saries for  his  stay,  as  all  such  articles  are  expensive  in  Athens  ;  and  in 
providing  these  he  must  not  count  too  much  on  a  warm  climate  dur- 
ing the  winter. 

The  School  library,  which  now  contains  more  than  seventeen  hun- 
dred volumes,  provides  all  the  books  that  are  most  essential  for  study 
in  Greece,  and  the  student  in  travelling  should  encumber  himself 
with  few  books.  He  should  take  with  him,  however,  a  copy  of  each 
of  the  following  :  — 

Pausanias.    (The  Teubner  text  is  convenient.) 

Murray's  Handbook  of  Greek  Archaeology,  or  Collignon's  Manual  of  Greek 
Archaeology. 

Harrison  and  Verrall's  Mythology  and  Monuments  of  Ancient  Athens. 
Baedeker's  Guide  to  Greece,  or  the  Guides  Joanne,  Grece,  or  both. 
Vincent  and  Dickson's  Handbook  to  Modern  Greek. 


LIST  OF  BOOKS  RECOMMENDED. 

The  books  in  the  following  lists  of  which  the  titles  are  printed  in 
the  larger  type  are  recommended  to  students  as  an  introduction  to  the 
different  branches  of  Greek  Archaeology.  The  more  special  works, 
whose  titles  are  printed  in  smaller  type,  are  recommended  as  books 
of  reference,  and  for  students  whose  department  of  special  study  is 
already  determined. 

GENERAL  WORKS. 
Pausanias  :  II  epi^y  770-15  tt}?  'EAAaSos. 

Collignon  :  Manual  of  Greek  Archaeology  (translated  by  Wright). 

1886.    pp.  384. 
Murray  :  Handbook  of  Greek  Archaeology.    1892.    pp.  483. 

Both  the  two  foregoing  are  good  general  introductions  to  archaeological 

study. 

Guhl  and  Koner  :  Life  of  the  Ancient  Greeks  and  Romans. 

A  general  treatise  on  antiquities.    Popular  rather  than  scientifically  exact. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


61 


Baumeister  :  Denkmaler  des  klassischen  Altertums.  3  quarto  vols. 
A  cyclopaedia  of  ancient  art,  architecture,  mythology,  and  biography,  as 
illustrated  by  extant  monuments.  It  treats  also  of  the  topography  of  impor- 
tant cities,  and,  less  fully,  of  general  antiquities.  Recent,  complete,  and  trust- 
worthy. With  2,400  illustrations,  7  maps,  and  94  large  plates.  1885-88. 
pp  2224. 

C.  O.  M tiller  :  Ancient  Art  and  its  Remains.    1835  [1850].    pp.  637. 
A  comprehensive  foundation  for  further  study.     Truly  admirable  in  its 
time,  but  now  almost  sixty  years  old,  and  hence  somewhat  antiquated  and 
inaccurate. 

Taine  :  Philosophic  de  1'Art  en  Grece.    (Also  translated.) 

On  Greek  art  as  modified  and  explained  by  Greek  life,  thought,  institutions, 
and  surroundings. 

Von  Sybel :  Weltgeschichte  der  Kunst.    1887.    pp.  479. 

A  practical  and  useful  work  on  classical  art  and  architecture,  well  illus- 
trated with  380  cuts. 
Iwan  Miiller  :  Handbuch  der  Altertumswissenschaft.    8  vols.    188 5-. 

A  thesaurus  of  philological  and  archaeological  learning  in  systematic  form, 
containing  many  important  monographs.    Not  yet  complete. 

Hiibner  :  Bibliographic  der  klassischen  Altertumswissenschaft.    1889.    pp.  334. 
S.  Reinach :  Manuel  de  Philologie  classique.    2  vols.    1883.    pp.  314,  414. 
A  most  useful  index  to  all  branches  of  classical  knowledge. 

Stark :   Systematik  und   Geschichte  der  Archaologie  der  Kunst.  1878-80. 
pp.  400. 

A  valuable  manual  of  condensed  information,  especially  in  regard  to  the 
progress  of  archaeological  research  in  modern  times. 

C.  T.  Newton  :  Essays  on  Art  and  Archaeology.    1880.    pp.  472. 

The  basis  and  beginning  of  recent  archaeological  study  in  England.  The 
Essay  on  Greek  Inscriptions  should  be  read  by  every  beginner  in  epigraphy. 

Burnouf :  Memoires  sur  TAntiquite.    1878.    pp.  378. 

Abounds  in  suggestions  that  may  lead  to  profitable  study. 
Boeckh-Frankel :  Die  Staatshaushaltung  der  Athener.    2  vols.    1886.  pp.1446. 
Smith  :  Dictionary  of  Antiquities  (Third  Edition).    2  vols.    1890.  pp.2123. 
K.  F.  Hermann:  Lehrbuch  der  griechischen  Antiquitaten.    4  vols. 

Of  various  editions  ;  not  all  complete. 
Daremberg  et  Saglio  :  Dictionnaire  des  Antiquit.es.    A-C,  pp.  1702.  Folio. 

The  best  of  its  class,  but  unfinished. 

Rich  :  Dictionary  of  Antiquities.  1873. 
A  handy  book. 


62  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Milchhofer  :  Anfange  der  Kunst  in  Griechenland.    1883.    pp.  247. 

Beule  :  L'Art  grec  avant  Pericles.    1869.    PP-  498- 

A  good  presentation  of  what  was  known  of  archaic  art  thirty  years  ago. 
Diehl :  Excursions  Archeologiques  en  Grece.  1890. 

A  popular  account  of  some  of  the  chief  recent  excavations.  A  translation 
by  Miss  Perkins  is  now  published,  with  9  plans  and  41  illustrations. 

Schuchhardt:  Schlieraann's  Excavations  (translated  by  Miss  Sellars). 

A  convenient  digest,  as  well  as  a  scientific  discussion,  of  Schliemann's 
discoveries.    1891.    pp.  363. 

Percy  Gardner :  New  Chapters  in  Greek  History.    1892.  pp.459. 

Embodies  in  convenient  and  scholarly  form  some  of  the  results  of  recent 
excavations  in  various  parts  of  Greece,  giving  much  information  which  else- 
where is  found  only  scattered  in  periodicals,  brochures,  and  expensive  works. 
Its  field  corresponds  in  part  with  that  of  Diehl  (above). 

Perrot  et  Chipiez  :  Histoire  de  l'Art  dans  l'Antiquite.    5  large  vols.  1882-. 

Interesting  and  valuable.  It  shows  wide  and  intelligent  study,  and  con- 
tains much  information  gained  from  recent  sources ;  but  it  is  too  diffuse,  it 
lacks  due  proportion,  and  is  not  exempt  from  questionable  speculations  and 
conclusions. 

Woltmann  and  Woermann  :  History  of  Painting.    Translated  from  the  German. 
Edited  by  Sidney  Colvin. 

This  work  affords  a  comprehensive  survey  of  the  history  of  painting,  and  is 
useful  as  an  introduction  to  the  subject.  Part  I.,  by  Karl  Woermann  (pp.  145), 
gives  a  generally  trustworthy  summary  of  what  is  known  respecting  the  art  as 
practised  in  Egypt,  Assyria,  Greece,  and  Italy. 

Lepsius:  Marmorstudien. 

A  treatise  on  the  chief  marble  quarries  of  Greece,  and  a  scientific  determi- 
nation of  the  marbles  employed  in  Greek  statues. 

ARCHITECTURE. 

Durm  :  Die  Baukunst  der  Griechen  (Second  Edition,  1892). 
Complete,  and  generally  accurate. 

Von  Reber  :  History  of  Ancient  Art  (translated  by  Clarke). 

Much  briefer  than  Durm,  but  good  in  its  summary  discussion  of  the  origin 
and  development  of  architectural  styles,  and  as  a  comprehensive  survey  of 
the  chief  remains  of  ancient  art.    1882.    pp.  478. 

Penrose  :  Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture  (Second  Edition).  1888. 

A  minute,  mathematical  study  of  architectural  technic  and  refinements,  as 
exhibited  in  the  Parthenon.    In  large  folio,    pp.  128.    48  plates,  34  cuts. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


63 


Michaelis:  Der  Parthenon.  1871. 

Deals  with  the  history,  architecture,  and  especially  the  sculptural  decora- 
tions of  the  Parthenon.    A  standard  work.    Folio.    With  1 5  folio  plates. 

Bohn  :  Die  Propylaen  der  Akropolis  zu  Athen.  1882. 

Indispensable  for  exact  study  of  this  structure,  though  shown  by  recent 
investigations  to  be  in  part  incorrect.    Folio,    pp.  40.    With  21  plates. 

Boutmy:  Philosophic  de  l'Architecture  en  Grece.  1870. 

A  suggestive  attempt  to  explain  the  development  of  Greek  architecture 
through  considerations  of  the  circumstances  and  intellectual  qualities  of  the 
Greeks. 

Papers  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America.    Report  on  the  Investigations 
at  Assos. 

Sets  forth  the  routine  and  experiences  of  a  successful  campaign  of  excava- 
tion, with  information  upon  early  Doric  architecture  and  provincial  Greek  ai  t. 

SCULPTURE. 

Mrs.  Lucy  M.  Mitchell:  History  of  Ancient  Sculpture.  1883. 

A  voluminous  work,  presenting  a  great  mass  of  knowledge  with  many  of 
the  recent  theories.  With  Mrs.  Mitchell's  Selections  from  Ancient  Sculpture. 
1883.    20  folio  plates. 

Overbeck :    Geschichte  der  griechischen  Plastik  (Fourth  Edition, 
2  vols.,  first  part  in  1892). 

A  standard  work  on  Greek  sculpture. 

Overbeck  :  Die  antiken  Schriftquellen  zur  Geschichte  der  bildenden 
Kiinste. 

An  indispensable  collection  of  references  in  classical  literature  to  ancient 
artists  and  their  works. 

The  three  preceding  are  all  valuable.  Overbeck's  work  is  more  scientific 
and  scholarly  than  Mrs.  Mitchell's,  but  as  an  introduction  may  not  be  ranked 
above  it. 

Paris  :  Ancient  Sculpture  (translated  by  Miss  Harrison).  1890. 
A  useful  introduction  to  the  subject. 

Collignon  :  Histoire  de  la  Sculpture  grecque.    pp.  569. 

Only  Volume  I.  has  appeared  (189.2);  this  carries  the  subject  as  far  as  the 
early  works  of  Phidias.  It  is  excellent  in  statement  and  illustration,  and 
includes  many  of  the  latest  acquisitions  in  archaic  art. 

Brunn  :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Kiinstler.    2  vols.    1857,  1859.    pp.  1605. 
A  monumental  work,  indispensable  to  the  more  advanced  student  of  art, 
although  it  was  published  nearly  forty  years  ago.    (Reprinted  in  1889.) 


64  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Friedrichs-Wolters :  Gipsabgiisse  antiker  Bildwerke;  Bausteine  zur  Geschichte 
der  griechisch-romischen  Plastik.    1885.    pp.  850. 

A  catalogue  of  casts  in  the  Museum  of  Berlin.  Practically,  a  complete  and 
serviceable  history  of  Greek  sculpture. 

Waldstein  :  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidias.    1885.  pp.431. 

Popular  and  interesting  studies.    17  plates,  and  cuts. 
Petersen:  Die  Kunst  des  Pheidias.    1873.    pp.  418. 

Probably  the  best  and  most  comprehensive  scientific  discussion  of  this 

subject. 

Collignon  :  Phidias.    1886.    pp.  384. 

Succinct,  clear,  and  well  illustrated. 
Heuzey:  Catalogue  des  Terres  Cuites  du  Louvre.  1882-. 

The  best  single  work  on  the  technic,  interpretation,  and  uses  of  Greek  figu- 
rines in  terra-cotta. 

Pottier  :  Les  Statuettes  de  Terre  Cuite  dans  l'Antiquite.  1890. 

An  able  sketch  of  the  entire  subject.     The  treatment  is  popular,  yet 
scientific. 
Ruskin  :  Aratra  Pentelici. 

Recommended  for  reading  for  the  higher  appreciation  of  criticism  which  it 
may  promote,  and  for  its  suggestive  presentation  of  some  qualities  of  Greek 
art,  especially  in  low  relief  and  in  coins. 

VASES. 

Rayet  et  Collignon  :  Histoire  de  la  Ceramique  grecque.  1888. 

A  standard  recent  work  on  this  subject,    pp.  420.    16  plates,  145  cuts. 
Dumont  et  Chaplain  :  Les  Ceramiques  de  la  Grece  propre.    2  vols. 
Volume  I.  History  of  Greek  ceramic  art  down  to  the  fifth  century  B.  c, 
terminated  at  this  point  by  Dumont's  death.    Volume  II.  Collected  Essays ; 
more  exhaustive  for  the  period  which  it  covers  than  the  preceding  volume. 
An  expensive  illustrated  work.    Quarto.    188 1,  1890. 

Von  Rohden :  Vasenkunde,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler.    pp.  193 1- 
201 1. 

An  excellent  and  trustworthy  article  ;  sufficiently  complete  to  serve  as  a 
preparation  for  study  in  museums. 

Furtwangler  und  Loeschcke  :  Mykenische  Vasen.  1887. 

Treats  ably  a  subject  which  has  attracted  increasing  attention  during 
recent  years. 

Birch:  History  of  Ancient  Pottery.   2  vols.  1873. 

A  popular  general  history.  Not  scientifically  accurate,  and  named  here 
chiefly  because  it  is  the  only  work  on  the  subject  in  English. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


65 


Furtwangler  :  Vasensammlung  im  Antiquarium  (Berlin).    2  vols.  1885. 

This  practically  serves  as  a  comprehensive  history  of  ceramic  art.  pp.  1 105. 
Klein:  Euphronios.    1886.    pp.323.    60  cuts. 

Klein  :  Die  griechisehen  Vasen  mit  Meistersignaturen.    1887.    pp.  261. 

The  two  last  mentioned  works  will  be  required  by  somewhat  advanced 
students. 

COINS. 

Percy  Gardner  :  Types  of  Greek  Coins. 

This  treats  of  the  science  of  numismatics  only  in  its  bearing  upon  art  and 
archaeology. 

Head:  Historia  Numorum.  1887. 

A  numismatic  history  of  the  ancient  Greek  world.    "  The  most  comprehen- 
sive work  on  numismatics  since  Eckhel." 
Catalogues  of  Coins  of  the  British  Museum.  1873- 

The  best  extensive  series  of  illustrations  of  coins  by  accurate  reproductions. 
More  than  a  dozen  volumes  have  appeared. 

F.  Lenormant :  Monnaies  et  Medailles.    1883.    pp.  328. 

A  good  popular  introduction,  not  stopping  with  antiquity. 

EPIGRAPHY. 

Roberts  :  Introduction  to  Greek  Epigraphy.    1887.  pp.419. 

History  of  the  development  of  the  Greek  alphabet  down  to  400  B.C.,  illus- 
trated by  inscriptions,  many  in  facsimile,  from  all  parts  of  the  Greek  world. 
Only  Vol.  I.  has  yet  (1892)  appeared. 

Dittenberger  :  Sylloge  Inscriptionum  Graecarum.  1883. 

"  Inscriptiones  Graecae  ad  res  gestas  et  instituta  Graecorum  cognoscenda 
praecipue  utiles.''  An  excellent  collection,  with  admirable  commentaries, 
pp.  804. 

Kirchhoff :    Studien  zur  Geschichte  des  griechisehen  Alphabets  (Fourth  Edi- 
tion).   1887.    pp.  180. 

Entirely  supersedes  previous  works  on  this  subject. 

Hicks  :  Greek  Historical  Inscriptions.  1882. 

As  its  name  implies,  this  treats  inscriptions  from  the  historical,  not  the 
epigraphical,  point  of  view.    pp.  372. 

Larfeld :  Griechische  Epigraphik,  in  Midler's  Handbuch  der  Altertumswissen- 
schaft,  Vol.  II.  (Second  Edition,  1892),  pp.  357-624. 

An  excellent  treatise,  presenting  in  concise  and  scientific  form  a  mass  of 
important  facts  and  principles,  with  references  to  the  most  important  works 
on  the  subject. 

5 


66 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Hinrichs:  Griechische  Epigraphik,  in  Mutter's  Handbuch,  Vol.  II.  (First  Edi- 
tion, 1886),  pp.  329-474. 

Good,  but  not  so  complete  as  the  treatise  by  Larfeld. 
S.  Reinach:  Traite' d'Ftpigraphie  grecque.  1885. 

A  manual  of  information  and  suggestion,    pp.  560. 
Collitz:  Sammlung  der  griechischen  Dialektinschriften.  1884-. 

Not  yet  complete,  but  already  contains  most  of  the  inscriptions  which  are 
important  for  the  illustration  or  study  of  the  dialects  of  Greece. 

Cauer  :  Delectus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum  (Second  Edition).    1883.    pp.  363. 

A  selection  of  inscriptions  for  the  illustration  of  Greek  dialects. 
Meisterhans  :  Grammatik  der  attischen  Inschriften  (Second  Edition).  1888. 
This  work  gives  important  statistics  with  regard  to  the  use  of  forms  and 
syntactical  constructions  in  Attic  inscriptions,  and  is  indispensable  in  work 
on  such  inscriptions,    pp.  237. 

G.  Meyer:  Griechische  Grammatik  (Second  Edition).    1886.    pp.  552. 

A  scientific  grammar,  with  constant  reference  to  forms  found  in  inscriptions. 

Kiihner-Blass :  Grammatik  der  griechischen  Sprache.     Vol.  I.  in  two  parts. 
1890,  1892.    pp.  1297. 

Fairly  exhaustive  for  inscriptional  as  well  as  literary  forms. 
Roehl :  Inscriptiones  Graecae  Antiquissimae.    Folio.    1883.    pp.  193. 

Indispensable  for  the  study  of  the  Epichoric  alphabets  of  Greece. 
Corpus  Inscriptionum  Atticarum.    4  vols.,  folio.  1877-92 
Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum.  1825-92. 

Seven  volumes,  folio,  including  the  recently  published  volumes  of  inscrip- 
tions from  Sicily  and  Northern  Greece. 

Loewy:  Inschriften  griechischer  Bildhauer.    Quarto.    1885.    pp.  410. 

S.  Reinach:  Conseils  aux  Voyageurs  archeologues  en  Grece.    1886.  i2mo. 
pp.  116. 

A  little  book  with  excellent  directions  for  making  "squeezes,"  and  other 
practical  hints. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 
Baedeker  :  Greece.    1889.    pp.  374. 

In  the  main,  the  work  of  Dr.  Lolling.  Scientific,  convenient,  and  trustwor- 
thy. The  English  translation  is  at  present  to  be  preferred  to  the  German 
original,  being  more  recent. 

Guides  Joanne  :  Vol.  I.  Athenes  et  ses  Environs.    1890.    pp.  216. 
Vol.  II.  Grece  et  les  lies.    1891.    pp.  509. 

This  covers  more  ground  than  Baedeker,  and  is  fuller.  In  the  main,  the 
work  of  M.  Haussoullier  and  other  members  of  the  French  School  at  Athens. 
These  German  and  French  guides  are  both  excellent,  and  one  supplements 
the  other. 


t 

ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


67 


Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Atlas  von  Athen.    1878.    12  large  folio  plates. 
With  full  explanatory  text.    A  standard  work,  though  antiquated  in  parts. 

Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Karten  von  Attika  (mit  erlauternderm  Text  . 
Large  and  minutely  exact  maps,  executed  "  auf  Veranlassung  des  Instituts  " 
by  officers  of  the  Prussian  government.    The  text,  by  E.  Curtius  and  Milch- 
hofer, is  particularly  important  for  questions  concerning  the  topography  of 
the  Athenian  ports. 

Milchhofer :  Untersuchungen  iiber  die  Demenordnung  des  Kleis- 
thenes.  1892. 

This  contains  the  latest  information  about  the  position  of  the  Attic  demes. 
With  a  map. 

Harrison  and  Verrall :  Mythology  and  Monuments  of  Ancient  Athens. 
1890.    pp.  736. 

Especially  valuable  as  containing  many  of  the  results  of  Dr.  Dorpfeld's  re- 
cent investigations.    With  many  illustrations. 

Bursian  :  Geographie  von  Griechenland.    2  vols.    1862-68.    pp.  1002. 
Old,  but  still  indispensable  as  a  book  of  reference. 

Tozer:  Geography  of  Greece.    1873.    PP- 4°5- 

Lolling:  Topographie  von   Griechenland,  in  Midler's   Handbuch,  Vol.  III. 
PP-  99-352-  l889- 

Much  briefer  than  Bursian's  work,  but  recent,  and  covering  the  entire  Greek 
world.    Especially  good  for  Athens. 

Leake  :  Travels  in  Northern  Greece.   4  vols.  1835. 

Leake  :  Topography  of  Athens  and  the  Demi  of  Attica.  2  vols.  1841.  pp.  943. 
Leake  :  Travels  in  the  Morea.    3  vols.  1830. 

These  three  works  by  Colonel  Leake  form  a  monumental  series.  Written 

before  1840,  they  have  been  the  basis  of  all  topographical  study  in  Greece  since 

that  time. 

E.  Curtius:  Peloponnesos.    2  vols.    1851-52.  pp.1134. 

Published  forty  years  ago,  but  not  yet  superseded.  Fuller  than  Bursian's 
work. 

Jahn-Michaelis :  Pausaniae  Descriptio  Arcis  Athenarum  (1880).    pp.  70. 

The  text  of  Pausanias's  Periegesis  of  the  Acropolis,  with  much  ancient  illus- 
trative matter,  both  literary  and  epigraphic,  added  in  the  form  of  notes. 

E.  Curtius:  Stadtgeschichte  von  Athen.    1891.    pp.339.    With  plans. 

The  most  recent  contribution  to  the  topography  of  Athens.  Historical  in 
its  arrangement,  presenting  results  rather  than  arguments,  in  interesting  style. 
An  introduction  contains  a  collection  by  Milchhofer  of  the  passages  in  the 
works  of  ancient  authors  which  illustrate  the  topography  and  monuments  of 
the  city.    Stimulating,  though  some  of  its  theories  are  antiquated. 


68 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Wachsmuth  :  Die  Stadt  Athen  im  Alterthum.  1874-1890. 

The  best  work  on  Athens,  if  but  one  is  chosen. t  It  discusses  not  only  to- 
pography, but  also  political,  social,  and  religious  institutions.    As  yet  only 
the  first  volume  and  the  first  half  of  the  second  have  appeared,    pp.  768. 
Burnouf:  La  Ville  et  l'Acropole  d'Athenes.    1877.    pp.  220. 

A  series  of  suggestive  essays  on  the  historical  development  of  Athens. 
One  of  the  earliest  destructive  onslaughts  on  Beule's  theories  as  to  the  en- 
trance to  the  Acropolis. 

A.  Botticher:  Die  Akropolis  von  Athen.    1888.    pp.  295.    36  plates,  132  cuts. 

Deals  with  the  remains  on  the  Acropolis  and  its  slopes. 
A.  Botticher :  Olympia.    1886.    pp.420.    21  plates,  95  cuts. 

A  convenient  digest  of  the  cumbrous  official  reports. 
Milchhofer  :  Athen,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler.    pp.  144-209. 
Flasch  :  Olympia,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler.    pp.  1053-1104  (=  90  pp.). 
Flasch  :  Pergamon,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler.    pp.  1 206-1237. 

The  three  preceding  are  all  excellent  and  comprehensive  essays.  That  on 
Pergamon  is  necessarily  incomplete,  since  full  publication  of  the  work  there 
has  not  yet  been  made.    The  illustrations  and  maps  are  good. 

Steffen  :  Karten  von  Mykenae.    1884.    Folio,    pp.  48. 

Neumann  und  Partsch :  Physikalische  Geographie  von  Griechenland.  1885. 
PP-  475- 

MYTHOLOGY. 

Preller  :  Griechische  Mythologie.    2  vols.  1875-1887. 

The  best  work  on  the  origin  and  development  of  Greek  myths. 

Roscher  :  Lexikon  der  griechischen  und  romischen  Mythologie. 

Minute  and  exhaustive.  In  process  of  publication ;  not  quite  half  com- 
plete (2024  pp.).  Especially  valuable  for  its  historical  treatment  of  mythol- 
ogy in  art. 

Seemann  :  Mythologie  der  Griechen  und  Romer.    1886.    pp.  280. 

Collignon  :  Mythologie  figuree  de  la  Grece. 

Brief,  but  good  ;  including  only  so  much  of  mythological  legend  as  suffices 
to  explain  certain  usual  types  in  art. 

Decharme  :  Mythologie  de  la  Grece  antique.    1886.    pp.  697. 

Resembles  Preller's  work  in  plan  and  scope.  A  standard  work  in  French. 
Overbeck  :  Griechische  Kunstmythologie. 

Treats  of  mythology  as  illustrated  by  extant  monuments  of  art.  A  com- 
prehensive and  elaborate  work  in  several  volumes,  —  text  and  folio  atlas.  Not 
yet  complete. 


ELEVENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


69 


Welcker  :  Griechische  Gotterlehre.    3  vols.    1857-63.    pp.  1973. 
Dyer  :  The  Gods  in  Greece.    1891.  pp.457. 

Presents  some  of  the  results  of  recent  excavations,  especially  at  Eleusis  and 
Delos,  with  a  study  of  the  mythological  questions  suggested  by  them. 

Ruskin  :  Queen  of  the  Air. 

Without  scientific  value,  but  rich  in  poetic  suggestions. 

PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin  de  Correspondance  hellenique.    Founded  1877. 

The  official  organ  of  the  French  School  at  Athens. 
Mitteilungen  des  deutschen  Archaologischen  Instituts  (Athenische  Abteilung). 
Founded  1876. 

The  organ  of  the  German  Institute  at  Athens.  The  later  volumes  contain 
the  results  of  important  architectural  studies  by  Dr.  Dorpfeld. 

Jahrbuch  des  deutschen  Archaologischen  Instituts.    Founded  1886. 

More  general  in  its  contents  than  the  preceding,  numbering  among  its  con- 
tributors the  most  prominent  archaeologists  of  Germany. 

American  Journal  of  Archaeology.    Founded  1885. 

This  publishes  much  of  the  work  of  the  American  School  at  Athena. 
Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies.    Founded  1880. 

Published  by  the  Society  for  the  promotion  of  Hellenic  Studies  (England), 
and  containing  the  chief  fruits  of  the  work  of  the  British  School  at  Athens. 

'E<£r7/xepts  'ApxcuoAoyi/oy.     Quarto.    Third  Series  founded  1883. 

UpOLKTLKa  rrjs  iv  'A^vatq  'Ap^atoAoyiK-^s  'Eraipias. 

These  works  are  both  published  by  the  Archaeological  Society  of  Athens. 
The  UpaKTLKoi  is  a  yearly  report,  with  summary  accounts  of  the  excavations 
undertaken  by  the  Society.  The  'E<pr)/j.epis  is  an  illustrated  journal  of  archae- 
ology and  epigraphy. 

AeXrLov  'Ap^atoAoyi/cdv.     Founded  1888. 

Edited  by  Mr.  Kabbadias,  Ephor  General  of  Antiquities  of  Greece.  A 
monthly  bulletin  of  recent  discoveries. 

Archaeologisch-epigraphische  Mitteilungen  aus  Oesterreich-Ungarn. 

Revue  Archeologique.    Founded  1844. 

Archaologische  Zeitung.    43  vols.  1843-86. 

Gazette  Archeologique.    Founded  1875. 

The  two  immediately  preceding  have  now  ceased  to  appear.  The  old  vol- 
umes (particularly  of  the  Archaologische  Zeitung)  contain  many  valuable 
articles.  The  volumes  of  the  Gazette  Archeologique  abound  in  excellent 
illustrations  of  a  great  variety  of  works  of  art. 


70 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


MODERN  GREEK. 

Vincent  and  Dickson  :  Handbook  to  Modern  Greek.  1881. 

The  best  text-book  on  the  subject  in  English.  It  deals  rather  with  the  lit- 
erary language  than  with  that  spoken  by  the  people,  and  hence  cannot  be  a 
complete  conversational  guide,  especially  in  the  rural  districts,    pp.  341. 

Jannaris :  Wie  spricht  man  in  Athen. 

Deals  with  the  spoken  rather  than  with  the  literary  language,  giving  a  num- 
ber of  Greek  dialogues  and  a  Greek-German  vocabulary. 

Hatzidakis :    Einleitung   in    die   neugriechische   Sprache.  1891. 
pp.  178. 

Scientific  philological  discussions  (not  quite  a  systematic  grammar)  in  the 
same  series  as  Whitney's  Sanskrit  Grammar  and  Meyer's  Griechische  Gram- 
matik.    1892.    pp.  464. 

Mitsotakis :  Praktische  Grammatik  der  neugriechischen  Sprache. 

Serviceable  in  the  study  of  the  spoken  language. 
Mrs.  Gardner  :  A  Grammar  of  Modern  Greek.  1892. 

Best  for  the  ordinary  language  of  the  people. 

Contopoulos  :  Modern  Greek  and  English  Lexicon. 

Jannarakis  :  Neugriechisch-deutsches  Worterbuch. 

The  latter  is  rather  the  better  of  the  dictionaries.  Neither  does  justice  to 
the  speech  of  common  life. 


•  AMERICAN  •  SCHOOL- OF  •  CLASSICAL-  STVD1ES  ■ 
•MAP-OF- 

-EXOVATIQN  -AT  -THE  'HERAEVM- AR.GOS 

•  FEBRVARY-  TO  -APRIL-  .  >p 

•MDCCCXCII- 


.J3-C-C 


Ik 


\   J  .. 
INDEX 

A.Vppcr  Terrace  L  Tuins  or  Byzantine  Churci  f 

B^ite  oe  Later  Temple  M.Cistern 
Ca/fferSeoa  -GO  Lower  Stoa  N.Cuthngsand  Trenches 

D.  Tile  Drain  O.Bronzes  and  Terra  Cottas" ] 

E.  Cvt  Stones  and  Fragments  P .  Ditto 

F.  House  Q.Head  oe  Hera  Found  Here 

G.  Moundof  Earth  R. Torso  Found  Here 

H. West  Cutting  S.Dump 

I .  Steps  T.  Old  Walls  Not  Located 

J.  Cistern  ?  V.RetainingWall  oe  UpitoTerrace 

K.Bath  W.XX  Z.  Old  Retaining  Walls 


Jrtjjaoloogttal  Institute  0f  %mtxtm. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1892-93. 
JKitfj  ft?  Reports  of 

FRANK  B.  TARBELL,  Ph  D  ,  Secretary, 
CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  Ph.  D  ,  LlTT.D.,  L.H.D.,  Professor  of  Art, 

AND 

JAMES  R.  WHEELER,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature. 


CAMBRIDGE: 
JOHN   WILSON   AND  SON. 
SEntbcrsttg  $rrss. 
1894. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


JHanatjmg  ^ommi'ttee. 

1892-93. 

Thomas  Day  Seymour  (Chairman),  Yale  University,  New  Haven, 
Conn. 

H.  M.  Baird,  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 

I.  T.  Beckwith,  Trinity  College,  Hartford,  Conn. 

Francis  Brown,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  1200  Park  Ave.,  New 
York  City. 

Miss  Angie  C.  Chapin,  Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Mass. 

Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York  City. 

O.  M.  Fernald,  Williams  College,  Williamstown,  Mass. 

Henry  Gibbons  (Amherst  College),  Edgewood  Park,  Pa. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 

William  W.  Goodwin,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

William  G.  Hale,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 

Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 

William  A.  Lamberton,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Miss  Abby  Leach,  Vassar  College,  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y. 

Seth  Low  (ex  officio:  President  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of 

America),  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary),  Cottage  Lawn,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Mead,  Mt.  Holyoke  College,  South  Hadley,  Mass. 


4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Augustus  C.  Merriam  (Chairman  of  Committee  on  Publications), 
Columbia  College,  640  Madison  Ave.,  New  York  City. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

Bernadotte  Perrin,  Adelbert  College  of  Western  Reserve  University, 
Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer),  7  East  42d  St.,  New  York  City. 
William  Carey  Poland,  Brown  University,  9  Lloyd  St.,  Providence, 
R.  I. 

Rufus  B.  Richardson,  Dartmouth  College,  Hanover,  N.  H. 
William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 
Frank  B.  Tarbell  (ex  officio :  Secretary  of  the  School),  University 

of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 
Fitz  Gerald  Tisdall,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 
James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 
William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
Benjamin  Ide  Wheeler,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 
James  R.  Wheeler,  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vt. 
John  Wtilliams  White,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 


iExectittfce  Committee. 

1892-93. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour  (Chairman). 

William  W.  Goodwin. 

Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary). 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster  (Treasurer). 

William  R.  Ware. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


5 


©faction  of  tj)e  School. 

1882-  1883. 

Director :  William  Watson  Goodwin,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  D.C.  L.,  Eliot 
Professor  of  Greek  Literature  in  Harvard  University. 

1883-  1884. 

Director:  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Ph.D.,  Hillhouse  Professor  of  Greek 

in  Yale  University.     (Died  Oct.  26,  1884.) 
Secretary :  J.  R.  Sitlington  Sterrett,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek 

in  Amherst  College. 

1884-  1885. 

Director :  James  Cooke  Van  Benschoten.  LL.  D  ,  Seney  Professor 
of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  Wesleyan  University. 

1885-  1886. 

Director :  Frederic  De  Forest  Allen,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Classical 
Philology  in  Harvard  University. 

1886-  1887. 

Director  :  Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in 
the  University  of  Michigan. 

1887-  1888. 

Director :  Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Ph.  D-,  Professor  of  Greek  Archae- 
ology and  Epigraphy  in  Columbia  College. 

1888-  1889. 

Director:  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D.,  Reader  in 
Archaeology  in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  England. 

Annual  Director :  Frank  Bigelow  Tarbell,  Ph.  D.,  Associate  Pro- 
fessor of  Greek  in  the  University  of  Chicago. 

1889-  1890. 

Director:  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 

Annual  Director :  S.  Stanhope  Orris,  Ph.D.,  L.  H.  D.,  Ewing  Pro- 
fessor of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  in  the  College  of 
New  Jersey. 


6 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


1890-  1891. 

Director:  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 
Annual  Director :  Rufus  Byam  Richardson,  Ph.  D.,  Professor  of 
Greek  in  Dartmouth  College. 

1891-  1892. 

Director :  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 
Annual  Director  :  William  Carey  Poland,  M.  A.,  Professor  of  the 
History  of  Art  in  Brown  University. 

1892-  1893. 

Secretary :  Frank  Bigelow  Tarbell,  Ph.  D. 
Professor  of  Art:  Charles  Waldstein,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.,  L.  H.  D. 
Professor  of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature:  James  R.  Wheeler, 
Ph.  D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University  of  Vermont. 


jFormer  ©flxccrs  of  tfje  iPtattagmg  (Committee, 

Chairman,  1881-87:  John  Williams  White,  of  Harvard  University. 
Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publications.  1885-88  :  William  W. 
Goodwin,  of  Harvard  University. 


jFormer  JHemfoers  of  t  je  JHanagtng  Committee. 

*E.  W.  Gurney,  of  Harvard  University,  1881-83. 

*Francis  W.  Palfrey,  of  Boston,  1881-89. 

*  Lewis  R.  Packard,  of  Yale  University,  1882-84. 

W.  S.  Tyler,  of  Amherst  College,  1882-88. 

*John  H.  Wheeler,  of  the  University  of  Virginia,  1884-85. 

A.  F.  Fleet,  of  the  University  of  Missouri,  1886-90. 

Miss  Alice  Freeman,  of  Wellesley  College,  1886-87. 

William  Pepper,  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1886-89. 

*Richard  H.  Mather,  of  Amherst  College,  1888-90. 


JFormer  Members  of  tfje  iSoaro  of  trustees. 

*  James  Russell  Lowell  (President),  1886-91. 
*Samuel  D.  Warren  (Treasurer),  1886-88. 
^Theodore  Dwight  Woolsey,  1886-89. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


7 


&0:0perattn 

ADELBERT  COLLEGE   OF  WESTERN 

RESERVE  UNIVERSITY. 
AMHERST  COLLEGE. 
BROWN  UNIVERSITY. 
COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK. 
COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 
COLUMBIA  COLLEGE. 
CORNELL  UNIVERSITY. 
DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 
HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 
JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 
MT.  HOLYOKE  COLLEGE. 


[  (Alleges. 

TRINITY  COLLEGE. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW 
YORK. 

university  of  michigan, 
university  of  missouri, 
university  of  pennsylvania, 
university  of  vermont, 
vassar  College, 
wesleyan  university, 
wellesley  college, 
williams  college, 
yale  university. 


trustees  of  tlje  Sefjool. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton  {President). 

William  W.  Goodwin  {Secretary). 

Gardiner  M.  Lane  {Treasurer). 

Martin  Brimmer. 

Henry  Drisler. 

Basil  L.  Gildersleeve. 

Edward  J.  Lowell. 

Henry  G.  Marquand. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 

Henry  C.  Potter. 

Thomas  D.  Seymour. 

William  M.  Sloane. 

Samuel  D.  Warren. 

John  Williams  White. 


lExeeuttoe  Committee  of  tfje  trustees. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton. 
Martin  Brimmer. 
William  W.  Goodwin. 
Samuel  D.  Warren. 


8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Stutents,  1882-93* 

LOUIS  BEVIER  (1882-83),  t  A.  B.  (1878)  and  A.  M.  (Rutgers  College),  Ph.  D.  (Johns  Hopkins 
University,  1881), 

Professor  in  Rutgers  College,  New  Brunswick,  N.  J. 

WALTER  RAY  BRIDGMAN  (1883-84),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1881), 
Professor  in  Lake  Forest  University,  Lake  Forest,  111. 

CARLETON  LEWIS  BROWNSON  (1890-92),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1887), 
Tutor  in  Greek,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn. 

CARL  DARLING  BUCK  (1887-89),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1886),  Ph.  D.  (Yale  University,  1889), 
Assistant  Professor  in  the  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 

Miss  MARY  HYDE  BUCKINGHAM  (1892-93),  Harvard  Society  for  the  Collegiate 
Instruction  of  Women,  1890, 

Secretary  of  the  Bryn  Mawr  School,  Baltimore,  Md. 

N.  E.  CROSBY  (1886-87),  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1883),  A.M.  (Columbia  College,  1885), 
Ph.  D.  (Princeton,  1893), 

Instructor  in  the  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 

JOHN  M.  CROW  (1882-83),  A.  B  (Waynesbury  College),  Ph.  D.  (Syracuse  University), 
Professor  in  Iowa  College,  Grinnell,  Iowa.    Died  Sept.  28,  1890. 

WILLIAM  LEE  CUSHING  (1885-87),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1872),  A.  M.  (Yale  College, 

1882), 

Head  Master  of  the  Westminster  School,  Dobbs  Ferry,  N-  Y. 

HERBERT  FLETCHER  DE  COU  (1891-92),  A.  B.  (University  of  Michigan,  j888),  A.M. 
(University  of  Michigan,  1890), 

Instructor  in  Greek  and  Sanskrit  in  the  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

JOHN  EDWARD  DINS  MORE  (1892-93),  A.  B.  (Bowdoin  College,  1883), 
Principal  of  Lincoln  Academy,  New  Castle,  Me. 

MORTIMER  LAMSON  EARLE  (1887-88),  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1886),  A.  M.  (Columbia 
College,  1887),  Ph.  D.  (Columbia  College,  1889), 

Instructor  in  Greek,  Barnard  College,  New  York  City. 

THOMAS  H.  ECKFELDT  (1884-85),  A.  B.  (Wesleyan  University,  1881), 
Principal  of  the  Friends'  School,  New  Bedford,  Mass. 

A.  F.  FLEET  (1887-88),  A.  M.,  LL.  D  , 

Superintendent  of  the  Missouri  Military  Academy,  Mexico,  Mo. 

ANDREW  FOSSUM  (1890-91),  A.  B.  (Luther  College,  1882),  Ph.  D.  (Johns  Hopkins  Univer- 
sity, 1887), 

Professor  of  Greek  in  St.  Olaf  College,  Northfield,  Minn. 

HAROLD  NORTH  FOWLER  (1882-83),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1880),  Ph.  D.  (University 
of  Bonn,  1885), 

Professor  of  Greek  in  the  Western  Reserve  University,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 

JOHN  WESLEY  GILBERT  (1890-91),  A.  B.  (Brown  University,  1888),  A.  M.  (Brown  Univer- 
sity, 1891), 

Professor  in  the  Payne  Institute,  Augusta,  Ga. 

*  The  year  of  residence  at  the  School  is  placed  in  a  parenthesis  after  the  name.  Italics 
indicate  students  of  the  year  1892-93. 

t  Not  present  during  the  entire  year. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


9 


HENRY  T.  HILDRETH  (1885-86),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1885), 
10  Remington  Street,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

W.  IRVING  HUNT  (1889-90),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1886),  Ph.  D.  (Yale  University,  1892), 
Tutor  in  Greek,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn.    Died  Aug.  25,  1893. 

GEORGE  BENJAMIN  HUSSEV  (iS87-88),t  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1884),  Ph.  D.  (Johns 
Hopkins  University,  1887), 

Instructor  in  the  University  of  Nebraska,  Lincoln,  Neb. 

FRANCIS  DEMETRIUS  KALOPOTHAKES  (1888-89),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1888), 
Ph.  D.  (Berlin  University,  1893), 
Athens. 

JOSEPH  McKEEN  LEWIS  (1885-87),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1883). 
Died  April  29,  1887. 

GONZALEZ  LODGE  ( 1888-89), t  A.  B.  (Johns  Hopkins  University,  1883),  Ph.  D.  (Johns  Hop- 
kins University,  1886), 

Associate  Professor  in  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Mawr,  Pa. 

ALBERT  MORTON  LYTHGOE  (1892-93),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1892), 
Almy  Street,  Providence,  R.  I. 

CLARENCE  LINTON  MEADER  (1892-93),  A.  B.  (University  of  Michigan,  1891), 
Instructor  in  the  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

FREDERIC  ELDER  METZGER  (1891-92),  A.  B.  (Pennsylvania  College,  1888), 
No.  119  North  Potomac  Street,  Hageistown,  Md. 

WALTER  MILLER  (1885-86),  A.  B.  (University  of  Michigan,  1884),  A.  M.  (University  of 
Michigan),  Ph.  D., 

Professor  in  the  Leland  Stanford  Junior  University,  Palo  Alto,  Cal. 

WILLIAM  J.  McMURTRY  (1886-87),  A.  B.  (Olivet  College,  1881),  A.  M.  (University  of 
Michigan,  1882), 

Professor  in  Yankton  College,  Yankton,  South  Dakota. 

BARKER  NEWHALL  (1891-92),  A.  B.  (Haverford  College,  1887),  A.  M.  (Haverford  College, 
1890),  Ph.  D.  (Johns  Hopkins  University,  189 1), 

Instructor  in  Greek,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 

Miss  EMILY  NORCROSS  (1888-89),  A.  B.  (Wellesley  College,  1880),  A.  M.  (Wellesley  Col- 
lege, 1884), 

Assistant  in  Latin,  Smith  College,  Northampton,  Mass. 

RICHARD  NORTON  (1892-    ),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1892), 
Athens. 

JAMES  MORTON  PA  TON  (1892-93),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1 884), 
Student  in  the  University  of  Bonn. 

Miss  ANNIE  S.  PECK  (1885-86),  A.  B.  (University  of  Michigan,  1878),  A.  M.  (University  of 
Michigan,  1881), 

No.  865  North  Main  Street,  Providence,  R.  I. 

JOHN  PICKARD  (1890-91),  A.  B.  (Dartmouth  College,  1883),  A.  M.  (Dartmouth  College,  1886), 
Ph.  D.  (University  of  Munich,  1892), 

Associate  Professor  in  the  University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Mo. 
Rev.  DANIEL  QUINN  (1887-89),  A.  B.  (Mt.  St.  Mary's  College), 

Professor  in  the  Catholic  University  of  America,  Washington,  D.  C. 

JOHN  CAREW  ROLFE  (1888-89),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1881),  A.  M.  (Cornell  Univer- 
sity, 1884),  Ph.  D.  (Cornell  University,  1885), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 


IO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


WILLIAM  J.  SEELYE  (1886-87),  A.  B.  (Amherst  College,  1879),  A.  M.  (Amherst  College, 

1882), 

Professor  in  Wooster  University,  Wooster,  Ohio. 

JOHN  P.  SHELLEY  (1889-90),  A.  B.  (Findlay  University,  1889), 
Professor  in  Grove  College,  Grove  City,  Pa. 

PAUL  SHOREY  (1882-83),  A.  B.  (Harvard  University,  1878)  Ph.  D.  (University  of  Munich, 

1884), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 

Miss  EMILY  E.  SLATER  (1888-89),  A.  B.  (Wellesley  College,  1888), 
Professor  in  Mt.  Holyoke  College,  South  Hadley,  Mass. 

J.  R.  SITLINGTON  STERRETT  (1882-83),  Ph.  D.  (University  of  Munich,  1880), 
Professor  in  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

FRANKLIN  H.  TAYLOR  (1882-83),  A.  B.  (Wesleyan  University), 
Instructor  in  St.  Paul's  School,  Concord,  N.  H. 

OLIVER  JOS.  THATCHER  (1887-88),  A.  B.  (Wilmington  College,  1878),  B.  D.  (Union  Theo- 
logical Seminary,  1885), 

University  Extension  Assistant  Professor  of  History  in  the  University  of  Chicago. 

S.  B.  P.  TROWBRIDGE  (1886-88),  A.  B.  (Trinity  College,  1883),  Ph.  B.  (Columbia  College, 

1886), 

Architect,  287  Fourth  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

HENRY  STEPHENS  WASHINGTON  (i888-93),t  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1886),  A.  M. 
(Yale  University,  1888),  Ph.  D.  (Leipzig,  1893), 
San  Vio  725,  Venice,  Italy. 

JAMES  R.  WHEELER  (1882-83),  A.  B.  (University  of  Vermont,  1880),  Ph.  D.  (Harvard 
University,  1885), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vt. 

ALEXANDER  M.  WILCOX  (1883-84),  A.  B.  (Yale  College,  1877),  Ph.  D.  (Yale  College, 

1880), 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Kansas,  Lawrence,  Kan. 

FRANK  E.  WOODRUFF  (1882-83),!  A.  B.  (University  of  Vermont,  1875),  B.  D,  (Union 
Theological  Seminary,  188 1), 

Professor  in  Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,  Me. 

THEODORE  L.  WRIGHT  (1886-87),  A.  B.  (Beloit  College,  1880),  A-  M.  (Harvard  University, 
1884), 

Professor  in  Beloit  College,  Beloit,  Wisconsin. 

CLARENCE  HOFFMAN  YOUNG  (1891-92),  A.  B.  (Columbia  College,  1888),  A.  M.  (Co- 
lumbia College,  1889),  Ph.  D.  (Columbia  College,  1891), 
Instructor  in  Greek,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Archceological  Institute  of  America :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
the  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  Ameri- 
can School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  from  Octo- 
ber i,  1892,  to  December  1,  1893  ;  and  also  the  Reports 
of  the  Secretary  of  the  School,  Professor  F.  B.  Tarbell ; 
of  the  Professor  of  Art,  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein  ;  and  of 
the  Professor  of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature, 
Professor  James  R.  Wheeler,  of  the  University  of  Ver- 
mont, for  the  year  1892-93. 

During  the  year  just  past  the  following  persons  have 
been  enrolled  as  regular  members  of  the  School :  — 

Miss  Mary  Hyde  Buckingham,  Harvard  Society  for  the 
Collegiate  Instruction  of  Women  (1890). 

John  Edward  Dinsmore,  A.  B.  Bowdoin  College  (1883). 

Albert  Morton  Lythgoe,  A.  B.  Harvard  University  (1892). 

Clarence  Linton  Meader,  A.  B.  University  of  Michigan 
(1891). 

Richard  Norton,  A.  B.  Harvard  University  (1892). 
James  Morton  Paton,  A.  B.  Harvard  University  (1884). 


I  2 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS, 


In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  four  others  have  been 
closely  identified  with  the  School  for  periods  of  from 
seven  weeks  to  three  months,  viz. :  — 

Professor  W.  E.  Waters,  Ph.  D.  (Yale,  1887),  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Cincinnati. 

Professor  Demarchus  C.  Brown,  of  Butler  University, 
Indiana. 

Mr.  C.  K.  Stevenborg,  A.  B.  University  of  Missouri. 
Miss  M.  C.  Welles,  A.  B.  Smith  College. 

Professor  Tarbell,  in  his  Report  as  Secretary,  names 
several  others  of  our  countrymen  who  profited  by  the 
exercises  and  library  of  the  School.  Among  these 
were  two  former  students  of  the  School,  —  Professor 
Quinn,  of  the  Catholic  University  of  America,  and  Dr. 
N.  E.  Crosby,  of  the  College  of  New  Jersey. 

As  in  the  four  preceding  years,  Dr.  Henry  S.  Wash- 
ington (A.  B.  Yale,  1886)  returned  to  Greece  in  order 
to  take  part  in  the  work  of  excavation,  and  Dr.  Wald- 
stein's  Report  expresses  his  high  appreciation  of  the 
value  of  his  services. 

Professor  Tarbell  in  going  to  Athens  in  the  autumn 
of  1892,  as  the  chief  executive  officer  of  the  School, 
assumed  duties  which  were  familiar  to  him  from  his 
service  as  Annual  Director  during  the  year  1888-89. 
His  administration  in  this  last  academic  year  has  been 
careful  and  exact,  and  his  assistance  and  guidance  of 
the  students  able  and  learned,  as  before. 

Dr.  Waldstein  returned  to  Greece  early  in  March 
last.    His  energies  this  year  as  Professor  of  Art  were 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


13 


devoted  chiefly  to  the  direction  of  the  important  exca- 
vations at  the  Argive  Herasum,  of  which  he  gives  an 
account  in  his  accompanying  Report.  The  discoveries 
were  more  numerous  and  important  than  had  been  an- 
ticipated. In  particular,  the  magnitude  of  the  under- 
taking had  been  underestimated,  and  the  excavations 
which  remain  for  the  third  campaign  at  the  Heraeum 
are  as  full  of  promise  as  those  of  former  years.  Three 
of  Dr.  Waldstein's  former  helpers  in  this  work —  Dr. 
Henry  S.  Washington,  Mr.  Thomas  A.  Fox,  and  Mr. 
Richard  Norton  —  are  to  assist  him  in  its  completion, 
in  the  spring  of  1894. 

Professor  James  R.  Wheeler,  of  the  University  of 
Vermont,  as  was  stated  in  the  Eleventh  Report  of 
the  School,  kindly  accepted  his  election  as  Professor 
of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  for  the  year 
1892-93, —  when  Professor  White,  who  had  been  ex- 
pected to  fill  the  position,  was  unavoidably  detained 
in  this  country,  —  and  he  sailed  for  Greece  in  No- 
vember, 1892.  He  is  the  first  of  the  former  students 
of  the  School  to  return  as  one  of  its  officers.  His 
former  life  and  studies  in  Greece  gave  him  a  dis- 
tinct appreciation  of  the  needs  of  the  members  of  the 
School,  as  well  as  of  the  best  manner  of  satisfying 
them. 

The  eleventh  year  of  the  School,  1892-93,  is  the 
first  in  which  it  has  had  the  full  equipment  of  its  new 
constitution,  —  Secretary  or  Director,  Professor  of  Art, 
and  Professor  of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


The  increase  of  forces  strengthens  the  influence  of 
the  School,  and  enables  it  to  render  more  efficient  help 
and  instruction  to  its  students,  without  interfering 
with  the  freedom  and  individuality  of  the  studies  of 
each  person. 

Professor  Richardson,  the  new  Director  of  the 
School,  and  Professor  White,  of  Harvard,  the  Pro- 
fessor of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature  for  the 
year  1893-94,  reached  Athens  just  after  October  1, 
1893,  in  spite  of  detentions  on  account  of  illness  and 
by  quarantine. 

Dr.  Waldstein  arrived  at  Athens  in  December,  and 
at  once  entered  upon  his  duties  as  Professor  of  Art,  — 
both  lecturing  and  also  directing  the  students  in  the 
preparation  for  careful  examination  and  study  of  the 
archaeological  objects  found  at  the  Argive  Heraeum. 
This  precious  material  is  carefully  preserved  in  the 
Central  Museum  at  Athens,  and  suitable  rooms  there 
have  been  assigned  for  this  work  of  the  School. 

Eight  students  have  been  in  residence  in  Athens 
during  the  autumn  of  1893.  Others  interested  in 
classical  archaeology  are  expected  to  reach  Greece 
later  in  the  academic  year. 

Bryn  Mawr  College  has  accepted  an  invitation  to 
join  in  the  support  of  the  School. 

The  following  scholars  have  been  elected  members 
of  the  Managing  Committee  :  Professor  Charles  D. 
Adams  of  Dartmouth  College,  Professor  Abraham  L. 
Fuller  of  the  Adelbert  College  of  Western  Reserve 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


15 


University  (on  the  removal  of  Professor  Perrin  to 
Yale),  Professor  Herbert  Weir  Smyth  of  Bryn  Mawr 
College,  and  Professor  J.  R.  Sitlington  Sterrett  of 
Amherst  College. 

Professor  Francis  Brown,  who,  although  diligently 
occupied  and  highly  distinguished  in  another  depart- 
ment of  study,  has  rendered  efficient  aid  and  counsel 
to  the  School,  resigned  his  membership  of  the  Com- 
mittee, and  his  resignation  was  accepted  with  regret. 

At  the  last  November  meeting  of  our  Committee, 
Professor  Merriam  resigned  his  office  as  Chairman 
of  the  Committee  on  Publications,  to  which  he  was 
elected  in  November,  1887.  Professor  Perrin  was 
elected  to  succeed  him,  and  the  Chairman  of  the 
Managing  Committee  was  made  a  member  of  the 
same  Committee.  The  Committee  recognize  and 
desire  to  record  their  appreciation  of  the  laborious, 
perplexing,  and  important  services  which  Professor 
Merriam  has  rendered  in  this  capacity,  and  they 
regret  his  resignation. 

Professor  Perrin,  as  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on 
Publications,  was  authorized  and  requested  to  form  a 
collection  of  lantern  slides  which  can  be  used  advan- 
tageously for  illustrating  lectures  on  the  scenery  of 
Greece,  the  topography  and  monuments  of  Athens 
and  other  important  sites,  Greek  sculpture  and  archi- 
tecture, and  recent  excavations.  The  Committee  be- 
lieve that  such  a  collection,  kept  on  deposit  at  some 
central  place  and  lent  for  a  nominal  sum  to  those  who 


16 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


wish  to  create  or  maintain  public  interest  in  classi- 
cal archaeology,  will  be  of  great  service  both  to  the 
School  and  to  the  studies  which  it  represents.  The 
Committee  hope  also  that  many  collections  of  slides* 
already  existing  in  various  places  may  be  made  to 
supplement  one  another,  and  that  some  rare  illustra- 
tions may  be  brought  into  wider  usefulness.  Such  a 
general  collection  of  lantern  slides  and  negatives  as  is 
contemplated  will  render  easier  and  more  economical 
the  formation  or  completion  of  a  body  of  illustrative 
material  in  this  department  of  study  by  institutions  of 
learning,  since  these  slides  will  be  sold  at  a  low  price, 
(the  duplication  of  slides  being  less  expensive  than  the 
original  manufacture,)  and  a  selection  can  be  made 
from  a  large  variety.  Professor  Perrin  desires  the  co- 
operation of  all  who  have  suitable  slides  or  negatives 
which  they  will  give  or  sell  for  this  purpose,  or  which 
they  will  lend  for  the  purpose  of  duplication ;  and  he 
would  be  glad  to  receive  suggestions  as  to  means  for 
making  this  collection  most  useful. 

At  the  close  of  this  Report  is  a  list  of  plaster  casts 
which  have  been  made  from  objects  found  in  the  exca- 
vations of  the  School  at  Icaria  and  at  the  Argive  He- 
raeum,  and  which  can  be  furnished  by  the  Committee 
on  application  to  Professor  Merriam. 

The  Managing  Committee  at  their  last  May  meet- 
ing enjoyed  the  hospitalities  of  Vassar  College,  and  on 
the  evening  of  that  day,  May  26,  by  invitation  attended 
the  representation  of  Sophocles's  Antigone  in  the  origi- 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


17 


nal,  with  Mendelssohn's  music,  given  by  the  students 
of  that  College,  —  appreciating  the  vigor,  the  womanly 
tenderness,  and  the  unflinching  courage  portrayed  by 
the  actors,  and  the  learning,  ingenuity,  and  care  dis- 
played in  the  whole  performance.  The  presentation 
of  the  play  according  to  the  most  recent  views  of  the 
Athenian  theatre  in  the  fifth  century  before  Christ 
was  particularly  interesting. 

The  grounds  of  the  School  at  Athens  have  been 
greatly  improved  during  the  last  two  or  three  years, 
and  arrangements  are  now  making  for  the  irrigation 
and  cultivation  of  the  ground  which  lies  back  of  the 
School  building. 

Dr.  Waldstein  has  been  re-elected  Professor  of 
Art  for  the  year  1894-95,  and  Professor  Benjamin  Ide 
Wheeler  of  Cornell  University  has  accepted  the  Com- 
mittee's invitation  to  serve  as  Professor  of  the  Greek 
Language  and  Literature  during  the  same  year. 

I  would  call  attention  once  more  to  the  list  of  former 
students  of  the  School  prefixed  to  this  Report,  as  an 
indication  of  the  far-reaching  and  widening  influence 
of  the  School.  I  mention  with  regret  the  death  of  one 
of  the  former  members  of  the  School,  W.  I.  Hunt, 
Ph.  D.,  who  graduated  at  Yale  College  with  high  dis- 
tinction in  1886,  and  after  graduate  study  at  Yale 
went  to  Greece  in  1889  as  incumbent  of  the  Soldiers' 
Memorial  Fellowship.  Ill  health  compelled  him  to  re- 
sign his  tutorship  at  Yale  in  1892.  He  was  a  man  of 
high  personal  character,  and  of  unusual  promise  as  a 
scholar. 


1 8  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

The  Eleventh  Financial  Statement  shows  that  the 
treasury  of  the  School  is  in  a  sound  condition.  The 
income  of  the  last  year  was  larger  than  in  any  pre- 
vious year.  But  the  opportunities  for  using  money 
wisely  in  connection  with  the  School's  work  increase 
more  rapidly  than  its  income.  Probably  no  other 
institution  of  the  higher  learning  exerts  so  wide  and 
strong  an  influence  with  such  slender  resources.  The 
element  of  uncertainty  which  attaches  to  a  part  of  the 
income  deprives  the  Committee  of  the  power  to  make 
some  definite  and  desirable  arrangements  for  the  fu- 
ture. We  trust  that  within  a  short  time  the  Perma- 
nent Endowment  Fund  of  the  School  may  be  secured 
in  full. 

THOMAS  DAY  SEYMOUR, 

Chairman. 


Yale  University,  December  30,  1893. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  fol- 
lowing report  on  the  affairs  of  the  American  School 
at  Athens  for  the  year  beginning  October  i,  1892. 

Six  students  have  been  regularly  enrolled  as  mem- 
bers of  the  School,  and  have  been  present  in  Greece 
or  in  Greek  lands  during  nearly  the  whole  of  the 
School  year.  Four  others  were  closely  identified  with 
the  work  of  the  School  for  several  weeks  or  months. 
Several  others,  who  have  made  long  stays  in  Athens, 
but  whose  work  lay  mainly  apart  from  ours,  have  had 
the  privileges  of  the  Library,  and  have,  most  of  them, 
attended  some  of  our  exercises,  viz.  Mr.  S.  J.  Barrows, 
Editor  of  the  "Christian  Register,"  Mr.  F.  B.  Sanborn, 
of  Concord,  Mass.,  Professor  D.  C.  Quinn,  Messrs. 
N.  E.  Crosby,  G.  B.  Roddy,  and  S.  L.  Lasell.  Two  of 
these  are  former  members  of  the  School,  —  Professor 
Quinn  having  been  here  in  1887-89,  and  Mr.  Crosby 
in  1886-87.  Nor  can  I  omit  to  mention  the  name 
of  Mr.  H.  S.  Washington,  whose  connection  with  the 
School  began  in  1888-89,  and  has  been  renewed  in 
every  succeeding  year.    He  has  returned  once  more, 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


to  prosecute  his  geological  studies  and  to  assist  in  the 
work  of  excavation.  The  value  of  his  services  in  the 
latter  direction  will  best  appear  from  the  report  of 
Dr.  Waldstein.  Finally,  among  the  numerous  Ameri- 
can travellers  who  have  visited  the  School,  I  take 
especial  pleasure  in  naming  Mr.  Edward  J.  Lowell, 
who  was  the  Treasurer  of  the  Trustees  of  the  School 
from  its  foundation  until  last  autumn,  and  Mr.  H.  W. 
Kent,  Curator  of  the  Slater  Museum  at  Norwich, 
Conn.  To  these  gentlemen,  and  to  many  other  pass- 
ing visitors,  I  have  endeavored  to  be  of  service. 

In  the  first  week  of  October  I  began  two  series 
of  weekly  exercises  with  the  students.  One  series 
was  epigraphical,  and  consisted  partly  of  lectures, 
partly  of  discussions  conducted  chiefly  in  the  pres- 
ence of  original  inscriptions,  out  of  doors  or  in  the 
Museums.  The  main  objects  were,  first,  to  secure  as 
much  acquaintance  as  the  time  allowed  with  the  cri- 
teria for  determining  the  date  of  an  inscription  ;  and, 
secondly,  to  illustrate  the  principal  directions  in  which 
Greek  inscriptions  bear  upon  Greek  art  and  political 
history.  For  the  most  part  we  were  occupied  with 
Attic  documents,  taking  up  specimens  of  every  pe- 
riod, from  the  seventh  century  before  Christ  to  the 
end  of  the  fourth  century  after  Christ.  Afterwards 
we  devoted  several  weeks  to  inscriptions  in  the  local 
alphabets  of  the  Cyclades,  Corinth,  Bceotia,  and  La- 
conia.  This  series  of  exercises  came  to  an  end  on 
February  16. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


21 


The  other  course  was  archaeological,  in  the  narrower 
sense  of  that  term.  Two  months  were  given  to  archi- 
tecture, three  weeks  to  the  miscellaneous  small  objects 
of  the  Acropolis  Museum,  and  the  remainder  of  the 
-available  time  —  about  four  months  —  to  sculpture. 
The  exercises  of  this  course  were  held  almost  exclu- 
sively out  of  doors  or  in  the  Museums.  I  lectured 
frequently,  and  Professor  Wheeler  did  so  several 
times.  The  students  also  participated  actively,  each 
one  from  time  to  time  preparing,  under  my  direction, 
a  discussion  of  some  general  question  or  some  indi- 
vidual object.  This  series  of  exercises  came  to  an 
end  on  March  21. 

I  also  organized  several  excursions,  which  were 
joined  by  some  or  all  of  the  members  of  the  School, 
viz.  to  Dionyso  (Icaria),  Phyle,  JEg'mR,  and  Argolis 
(Mycenae,  Tiryns,  Argos,  and  Epidaurus). 

Furthermore  our  students  have  had,  as  in  previous 
years,  the  inestimable  privilege  of  attending  the  open- 
air  lectures  of  Professor  Dorpfeld  on  the  topography 
and  monuments  of  ancient  Athens.  Dr.  Wolters 
also,  the  Second  Secretary  of  the  German  Institute, 
and  Mr.  Gardner,  the  Director  of  the  British  School, 
had  the  kindness  to  invite  our  students  to  attend  the 
exercises  which  they  held  in  the  Museums  on  early 
Greek  sculpture.  The  opportunity  of  hearing  two 
masterly  discussions  of  the  same  period  of  art-history 
from  somewhat  different  points  of  view,  has  been  of 
great  value. 


22 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


The  appropriation  in  May,  1892,  of  $500  for  the 
Library,  made  it  possible  to  add  considerably  to  our 
stock  of  books. 

The  most  important  books  obtained  by  purchase 
this  year  are  the  following:  — 

Olympia  :  Baudenkmaler,  Erste  Halfte. 

Collignon.    Histoire  de  la  Sculpture  Grecque,  I. 

Smith.    Dictionary  of  Greek  and  Roman  Antiquities.    3d  ed. 

Reinach.    Bibliotheque  des  Monuments  Figures.    Vols.  II.  and  III. 

Berlin,  Konigliche  Museen.    Beschreibung  der  antiken  Sculpturen. 

Alterthumer  von  Pergamon  :  Bd.  II.,  VIII. 

Koldewey.    Die  antiken  Baureste  der  Insel  Lesbos. 

Benndorf  und  Niemann.  Das  Heroon  von  Gjolbaschi-Trysa. 

Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum  Grseciae  Septentrionalis.    Vol.  I. 

Hamdy-Bey  et  Th.  Reinach.    La  Necropole  de  Sidon. 

Cavvadias.    Les  Fouilles  d'Epidaure.    Vol.  I. 

The  Library  has  been  enriched  besides  by  numerous 
gifts,  of  which  the  following  is  a  list :  — 

Lawton,  W.  C.    Looking  toward  Salamis,  and  The  Persians  of  JEs- 

chylus.    From  the  Author. 
Ar)[XLTaa<;,  M.  T.    Uepl  rov  rdfjiov  tov  'ApicrTOTeXoi;?.    From  the  Author. 
Penrose,  F.  C.    The  Ancient  Hecatompedon.  "  " 

Maass,  E.    De  Lenaeo  et  Delphinio.  "  " 

Goodwin,  W.  W.    Greek  Grammar  (1892).  "  " 

Milchhofer,  A.    Demenordnung  des  Kleisthenes.  "  " 

Whitney,  J.  D.    Climatic  Changes,  etc.  u  e< 

Catalogue  of  Greek  Coins  of  the  British  Museum.  Ionia.  Alexandria. 

From  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum. 
Tuckerman,  C.  K.    Greeks  of  To-day.    From  the  Author. 
Papadimitracopoulos,  T.     Le  Poete  Aristophane,  etc.    From  the 

Author. 

Lechevalier.    Voyage  de  la  Troade.    Vols.  I.,  II.,  III.    From  Mr. 
F.  B.  Sanborn. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


23 


Doubdan.    Voyage  de  la  Terre  Sainte.    From  Mr.  F.  B.  Sanborn. 
Harvard  Studies  in  Classical  Philology.    Vol.  III.    From  Prof.  J. 
W.  White. 

Wide,  S.    Lakonische  Kulte.    From  the  Author. 
Mauch.    Architektonische  Ordnungen,  etc.    From  Mr.  H.  S.  Wash- 
ington. 

Wiener  Vorlegeblatter  1888.    From  Mr.  H.  S.  Washington. 
Philippson.    Der  Peloponnes.         "  "  " 

Rodd.    Customs  and  Lore  of  Modern  Greece.    From  Mr.  H.  S. 
Washington. 

Ramsay.    Historical  Geography  of  Asia  Minor.    From  Mr.  H.  S. 
Washington. 

Gardner.    New  Chapters  in  Greek  History.    From  Mr.  E.  J.  Lowell. 
Harrison  and  Verrall.    Mythology  and  Monuments  of  Ancient  Ath- 
ens.   From  Mr.  E.  J.  Lowell. 
Church.    Story  of  the  Persian  War.    From  Mr.  E.  J.  Lowell. 
Thucydides.    Translated  by  Dale.         "  "  " 

Collignon.  Manual  of  Mythology  (Eng.  ed.).  From  Mr.  E.  J.  Lowell. 
Murray.  Handbook  of  Greek  Archaeology.  From  Mr.  F.  B.  Tarbell. 
'O  kv  Koiv(TTavTLvov7r6XeL  'EAA^vikos  SvAAoyos, 

'Xvyypafifxa  IJepioSiKoV,  18 85- 1 89 1.    3  vols.    Donor  unknown. 

liapdpTTjjxa  tov  id'  to/xov.  "  u 

ZaiypacpeLos  'Ayw,  1 0/X09  a ,  "  " 

A  review  of  the  Library  showed  no  cases  of  loss, 
beyond  the  few  and  comparatively  unimportant  ones 
recorded  by  my  predecessors.  The  whole  number  of 
entries  in  the  Accession  Catalogue  is  now  a  little  over 
2,000.  But  as  in  some  cases  the  single  parts  of  serial 
publications,  like  Brunn's  Denkmaler,  have  been  en- 
tered separately,  the  actual  number  of  volumes  may 
be  estimated  at  about  1,900.  The  cataloguing  this 
year  has  been  almost  wholly  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  J.  M. 


24 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Paton,  who  has  executed  the  task  with  unusual  accu- 
racy and  thoroughness. 

In  connection  with  the  Library,  it  remains  to  ac- 
knowledge the  receipt  of  the  set  of  Dr.  Young's 
Greek  photographs  purchased  by  you.  All  of  these 
have  been  mounted  on  thin  cardboard,  with  the 
proper  titles  attached.  They  are  deposited  in  one 
of  the  drawers  of  the  Library. 

Several  important  improvements  have  been  made 
during  the  year  in  and  about  the  grounds  of  the 
School.  It  will  be  remembered  that  the  land  belong- 
ing  to  the  British  School  and  our  own,  and  lying  to 
the  south  of  the  two  buildings,  is  not  divided  by  any 
fence  or  wall.  To  the  east  and  west  of  this  plot  are 
two  gullies,  which  it  was  once  the  intention  of  the 
Greek  government  to  convert  into  roadways.  This 
intention  has  never  been  carried  out.  Accordingly, 
at  the  suggestion  of  Mr.  Gardner,  the  Director  of 
the  British  School,  he  and  I  obtained  an  interview 
with  Mr.  Tricoupis,  the  Prime  Minister  of  Greece,  in 
which  the  desirability  to  us  of  closing  these  passage- 
ways was  laid  before  him.  Mr.  Tricoupis  at  once 
recognized  the  reasonableness  of  our  request,  and 
promptly  ordered  the  building  of  high  stone  walls 
across  the  top  and  bottom  of  each  of  the  two  gullies. 
As  soon  as  this  work  was  completed,  Mr.  Gardner  and 
I  had  a  stone  wall,  two  and  a  half  meters  high,  built 
across  the  entire  south  front  of  our  grounds,  in  place 
of  the  low  and  open  iron  fence  which  existed  there 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


25 


before.  Consequently,  we  are  now  entirely  protected 
from  intrusion  and  objectionable  approach,  —  a  very 
great  gain.  A  wooden  door,  with  spring  lock,  has 
been  placed  at  the  southeast  corner  of  the  British 
grounds,  to  allow  direct  communication  with  the  Ke- 
phissia  road.  The  expenses  have  been  borne  by  the 
two  Schools  equally,  and  it  is  agreed,  so  far  as  Mr. 
Gardner  and  myself  have  any  influence  in  the  matter, 
that  the  door  shall  continue  to  be  for  our  joint  use, 
and  shall  be  maintained  at  our  common  expense. 

Furthermore,  I  caused  suitable,  wrought-iron  gates 
to  be  made  for  the  principal  entrance  to  our  grounds, 
to  replace  the  temporary  wooden  gates  which  I  found 
here.  The  new  gates  were  designed  by  Mr.  E.  Zil- 
ler.  They  are  simple,  but  substantial  and  effective. 
Just  inside  the  entrance  I  have  had  a  large  reservoir 
built  for  use  in  watering  the  garden.  This  was  ab- 
solutely needed,  if  the  garden  was  to  be  brought  into 
a  satisfactory  condition.  All  the  work  done  upon 
the  house  and  grounds  has  been  under  the  direction 
of  Mr.  E.  Ziller,  who  has  continued  to  act  as  super- 
vising architect  of  the  School. 

In  accordance  with  your  vote  of  November  18,  1892, 
a  list  was  drawn  up  of  sculptures  found  at  Dionyso 
(Icaria)  and  Stamata  of  which  it  was  thought  best  to 
have  moulds  made  and  sent  to  New  York.  The  list 
includes  seventeen  pieces.  The  necessary  permis- 
sions having  been  obtained  from  Mr.  Kabbadias,  the 
Ephor  General  of  Antiquities,  and  Mr.  Heliopoulos, 


26 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  owner,  the  moulds  were  made  in  the  month  of 
March.  Before  shipping  them  to  New  York  I  had 
a  cast  taken  of  each  of  the  eight  pieces  which  I  judged 
it  desirable  to  have  represented  in  the  School.  The 
two  largest,  viz.  the  grave-stele  (Papers  of  the  Ameri- 
can School,  Vol.  V.  Plate  IX.)  and  the  female  torso 
(Papers,  Vol.  V.  Plate  XIII.),  have  been  placed  at  the 
corners  of  the  landing  of  the  principal  stairway.  For 
the  rest,  as  well  as  for  some  of  the  casts  from  the 
Argive  Heraeum,  we  have  at  present  no  very  con- 
venient place  of  exhibition. 

In  resigning,  as  I  am  now  about  to  do,  the  charge 
of  this  School,  I  beg  leave  to  express  my  deep  appre- 
ciation of  the  great  opportunities  which  I  have  here 
enjoyed.  I  trust  that  in  the  era  soon  to  begin  the 
School  will  continue  to  grow  in  stability  and  effi- 
ciency, and  to  react  for  good  upon  the  colleges  of 
America. 

Respectfully, 

FRANK  BIGELOW  TARBELL. 


REPORT  OF  THE  PROFESSOR  OF  ART. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  herewith  give  you  a  very  brief 
account  of  the  main  features  of  our  excavations  at 
the  Argive  Heraeum  during  the  past  spring.  This 
account  will  necessarily  have  to  be  brief  and  imper- 
fect, not  only  because  I  have  no  time  at  my  disposal 
at  the  present  moment  to  give  you  a  fuller  one,  but 
especially  because  I  intend  to  go  to  Greece  in  the 
month  of  December  to  elaborate  the  details  of  last 
year's  work  during  my  stay  at  Athens  as  Professor 
of  the  School.  I  must  therefore  remain  content  with 
giving  you  but  a  bare  outline  of  the  main  results  of 
this  year's  campaign. 

Before  all,  I  wish  again  to  acknowledge  the  valu- 
able help  which  in  this  year  also  members  of  the 
School  have  given  to  the  work  of  excavation.  Dr. 
H.  S.  Washington  came  from  Germany  for  the  ex- 
press purpose  of  assisting  me  in  the  excavation.  He 
acted  as  second  in  command,  and,  owing  to  the  ex- 
perience which  for  several  years  past  he  has  acquired 
in  such  work,  as  well  as  to  his  enthusiasm  and  unself- 
ish devotion,  his  services  were  such  that  I  can  hardly 


28  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


realize  how  the  undertaking  could  have  been  carried 
out  as  it  has  been  done  without  his  co-operation. 

Messrs.  Lythgoe,  Meade r,  and  Norton  took  part  in 
the  excavation  from  the  beginning  to  the  end,  and 
had  each  charge  of  definite  portions  of  the  site  as 
responsible  overseers  and  directors  of  the  workmen 
under  their  command.  These  gentlemen,  with  Dr. 
Washington,  remained  on  the  site,  and  continued  the 
excavations  for  several  days  after  I  was  forced  to  leave, 
and  during  these  days  some  of  the  most  interesting 
objects  of  sculpture  were  found.  Mr.  Paton  also 
joined  us  for  several  days,  and  took  charge  of  some 
trial  excavations  which  were  carried  on  near  the  vil- 
lage of  Koutzopodi,  not  far  from  the  site  of  the  ancient 
CEnoe.  My  colleagues,  Professor  Tarbell  and  Pro- 
fessor Wheeler,  were  not  able  to  take  active  part  in 
the  excavations  owing  to  other  engagements ;  but 
they,  as  well  as  other  friends  of  the  School,  visited 
the  camp  and  inspected  our  work. 

We  pitched  our  camp  on  the  rocky  elevation  above 
the  older  temple  on  March  30,  the  Greek  government 
having  kindly  lent  us  three  good  tents  from  their 
army  stores.  The  experiment  of  camping  on  the 
site  itself  has  proved  a  great  success,  and  one  which 
it  would  be  well  to  adopt  in  the  future.  WTe  at  once 
engaged  workmen,  and  were  enabled  to  start  the  next 
day  with  112  men  and  23  carts.  On  April  1  we  had 
130  men  and  30  carts;  on  April  3,  200  men  and  38 
carts.    Our  force  at  last  reached  the  number  of  240 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


29 


men.  We  began  to  excavate  on  the  upper  plateau, 
the  site  of  the  older  temple.  This  upper  plateau  is 
marked  on  the  map  of  last  years  excavation,  which 
accompanies  this  Report,  by  the  letter  A.  We  cleared 
off  all  the  top  soil  down  to  the  early  substructure, 
about  45  meters  in  length  by  35  meters  in  breadth. 
The  burnt  layer  alluded  to  in  my  report  of  last  year 
again  appeared  on  various  portions  of  this  site,  together 
with  masses  of  poros  stone,  which  had  evidently  been 
split  into  smaller  pieces  by  the  heat  of  a  great  con- 
flagration. We  were  fortunate  enough  to  find  -still 
standing  on  this  terrace  a  portion  of  the  early  wall, 
about  14.30  meters  in  length  by  a  little  over  a  meter 
in  width,  which  certainly  must  have  belonged  to  this 
interesting  structure,  perhaps  the  earliest  temple  of 
Hellas.  The  presence  of  this  piece  of  wall  may  prove 
of  exceptional  importance,  inasmuch  as  its  lower  por- 
tion was  evidently  not  visible  at  the  time  the  temple 
was  completed,  and  the  objects  found  below  this  line 
would  thus  antedate  the  erection  of  the  temple.  Two 
other  stones  appear  to  be  in  situ.  But  it  is  impos- 
sible at  this  moment  to  hazard  even  a  suggestion  with 
regard  to  the  construction  of  the  early  temple.  At 
all  events,  we  have  cleared  this  important  site,  and  it 
is  now  in  a  state  to  be  carefully  studied  for  the  light  it 
may  throw  upon  the  earliest  history  of  civilization  in 
Greece.  The  yield  in  objects  of  early  ceramic  art, 
some  bronzes  and  peculiar  rude  engraved  stones,  was 
very  rich,  and  of  extreme  importance  and  interest.  I 


3Q 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


have  little  doubt  that  these  finds  alone  are  of  suffi- 
cient weight  to  justify  the  energy  and  money  expended 
upon  the  undertaking,  as  they  are  sure  to  throw 
most  valuable  light  on  the  history  of  the  earliest  art 
in  Greece.  We  dug  two  broad  trenches  outside  the 
cyclopean  wall  to  the  east  and  west  of  the  plateau,  in 
order  to  make  sure  whether  there  were  any  objects  of 
interest  which  had  fallen  over  the  supporting  walls. 

When  the  work  on  the  platform  of  the  older  temple 
was  completed,  we  made  the  slope  from  the  upper  ter- 
race down  to  the  terrace  of  the  second  temple  the 
centre  of  our  exertions.  It  was  exceedingly  diffi- 
cult to  excavate  on  this  site,  because  the  existence 
of  buildings  at  the  immediate  foot  of  the  slope  had 
already  been  proved  by  our  discovery  last  year  of  the 
outer  line  of  the  stoa  marked  C  on  the  map.  We  had 
therefore  to  work  with  great  care  from  above,  imme- 
diately below  the  cyclopean  wall  of  the  upper  terrace, 
and  had  to  construct  a  steep  road  leading  from  the 
point  marked  T  to  the  top  of  the  slope,  dumping  our 
earth  either  at  the  southeast  dump  or  at  the  south- 
west dump.  When  we  had  dug  several  feet  below 
the  cyclopean  wall,  we  at  once  came  upon  very  rich 
layers  of  early  pottery  of  all  descriptions,  and  soon 
found  various  vestiges  of  buildings.  These  were 
erected  on  the  height  above  the  buildings  correspond- 
ing to  the  north  stoa,  and  immediately  below  the  cy- 
clopean wall.  They  consisted  of  portions  of  walls 
built  of  loose  unhewn  stones  placed  together  without 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


31 


mortar  or  clamps,  and  evidently  formed  the  smaller, 
perhaps  domestic,  counterpart  to  the  structures  known 
as  cyclopean  walls.  The  objects  found  in  some  of 
these  make  it  not  improbable  that  they  may  have 
been  the  houses  in  which  dwelt  the  priestesses  or 
attendants  of  the  earlier  temple,  though  I  should  not 
venture  upon  any  hypothesis  at  this  moment  with 
any  claim  to  your  serious  consideration.  There  are 
also  traces  of  a  rough  pavement  sloping  downwards 
from  about  the  middle  of  the  cyclopean  wall  (below  it) 
to  the  west,  and  behind  the  back  wall  of  the  building 
which  we  call  the  North  Stoa.  This  may  have  been 
an  early  road  leading  up  to  these  dwellings.  With  due 
care  to  preserve  the  remains  of  these  early  buildings, 
we  dug  down  to  the  native  rock  on  this  slope  ;  and  then 
came  the  task  of  clearing  the  whole  series  of  buildings 
on  a  line  with  the  stoa.  The  length  of  these  structures 
is  about  100  meters,  with  an  average  depth  or  width 
(including  the  back  walls)  of  about  10  meters. 

Of  the  North  Stoa  merely  the  outer  stylobate  had 
been  discovered  last  year.  Behind  this  the  inner 
colonnade  measures  8.65  meters,  and  is  backed  by  a 
wall  of  over  one  meter  in  width,  which  is  built  against 
the  slope.  There  were  at  least  nineteen  pillars  run- 
ning along  the  centre  of  this  North  Stoa.  Some  of 
the  pillars  were  found  in  situ.  There  is  also  an  in- 
teresting system  of  drains  and  waterworks  attached 
to  this  building,  with  some  curious  structures  within 
it,  which,  however,  are  probably  of  a  later  date.  But 


32 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


I  do  not  think  that  this  can  be  assumed  of  a  curious 
structure  toward  the  northeast  corner  of  the  east  end 
of  the  stoa  as  excavated  last  year;  it  is  a  depressed  flat 
cemented  surface,  3.80  meters  in  length  by  3  meters 
wide,  reminding  us  of  the  Bath  of  Tiryns,  and  probably 
serving  the  same  purpose.  The  North  Stoa  runs,  from 
a  few  meters  to  the  east  of  the  east  end  discovered 
last  year,  for  55.52  meters  to  the  west,  ending  about 
on  a  line  with  the  east  end  of  the  second  temple. 
A  more  intricate  building  was  discovered  to  the  east 
of  the  stoa,  extending  farther  east  than  the  eastern 
limit  of  the  cyclopean  wall  of  the  upper  terrace.  The 
original  structure,  of  which  much  is  still  standing, 
was  evidently  rebuilt  at  a  later  period  ;  and  the  stone 
inscribed  with  AIFONVEIO  (i.  e.  AiFoweiov,  contain- 
ing, as  you  see,  a  digamma),  was  evidently  immured 
at  a  later  period.  I  have  no  doubt  that  this  build- 
ing, which  consisted  of  several  chambers,  will  become 
clearer  to  us  when  we  have  studied  it  carefully.  The 
excavation  itself  was  only  completed  at  this  point  dur- 
ing the  last  days. 

Besides  a  rich  find  in  pottery,  terracotta,  bronzes, 
and  smaller  objects,  (among  which  I  must  mention  a 
later  clay  lamp  containing  the  figure  of  the  Poly- 
cleitan  Doryphoros,)  this  building  yielded  a  beautiful 
torso  of  a  draped  female  figure,  probably  from  the 
metopes  of  the  temple,  three  fine  marble  heads,  and 
many  other  fragments. 

Together  with  this  work  at  the  northeast  portion  of 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


33 


the  second  platform,  extensive  excavations  were  car- 
ried on  at  the  southeast  corner.  The  ground  to  the 
east  and  north  of  the  house  F  was  levelled  ;  while  to 
the  outside  of  the  wall  X  the  trench  was  continued, 
and  interesting  walls  or  steps  were  laid  bare  as  far  as 
the  dump.  Both  these  points  yielded  a  very  rich  har- 
vest of  ceramic  and  bronze  works,  engraved  gems,  and 
glass  scarabs.  I  must  also  especially  mention  a  num- 
ber of  terracotta  tiles,  or  rather  plaques,  with  painted 
decorative  designs  upon  them.  They  are  really  flmaces, 
and  as  such  the  earliest  specimens  yet  known. 

South  of  the  foundation  walls  of  the  second  temple, 
the  whole  ground  was  cut  away  at  the  level  of  last 
year's  deep  cutting  at  the  southwest  angle  of  the 
temple.  Below  and  slightly  to  the  west  of  the  house  F 
a  deep  and  wide  trench  was  cut.  In  all  these  cases 
we  came  upon  layers  that  antedated  the  construction 
of  the  second  temple,  as  was  shown  by  the  archaic 
objects  found. 

I  also  tested  the  ground  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  to  the 
south  and  southwest  of  the  steps  I,  and  was  pleased 
to  find  that  we  soon  came  upon  native  rock.  It  was 
thus  possible  to  dig  upwards  from  below  and  to  avoid 
a  distant  transportation  of  the  earth.  We  had  merely 
to  dig  up  the  earth  until  we  had  reached  virgin  soil, 
and  to  shovel  it  back  upon  the  lower  rock-bed.  In 
this  manner  we  cleared  the  slope  up  to  the  steps  I, 
which  were  found  last  year. 

Perhaps  the  most  interesting  portion  of  this  year's 

3 


34 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


work  will  prove  to  be  the  excavations  at  the  south- 
west platform  below  the  second  temple.  I  began  by- 
cutting  a  trench  at  the  southwest  corner  of  the  old 
retaining  wall  Y,  running  from  west  to  east.  I  soon 
came  upon  a  wall  of  beautiful  Greek  masonry,  of 
which  four  courses  of  well  cut  blocks  were  still  stand- 
ing. We  carried  this  trench  on  as  far  as  the  continu- 
ation  of  the  retaining  wall  at  the  east  of  last  year's 
deep  cutting  H.  We  then  worked  northwards  up 
to  H.  Messrs.  Washington  and  Norton  continued 
the  work  after  my  departure,  with  the  result  that  two 
sides  (and  the  interior  enclosed  within  them)  of  a 
very  interesting  building  have  been  unearthed,  with 
walls,  and  column-bases  in  situ,  the  whole  presenting 
a  very  interesting  ground-plan.  This  building  we  call 
the  West  Building.  Below  the  south  wall  of  this 
building  we  also  excavated  as  far  as  the  most  western 
of  the  broad  cuttings  on  the  south  slope  below  the 
temple  marked  N  on  last  year's  map.  Immediately 
in  front  of  this  wall  large  portions  of  the  entablature 
of  a  Doric  building  were  found,  upon  which  were 
distinct  traces  of  color,  —  reds,  blues,  greens,  etc. 
After  my  departure  other  polychrome  pieces  were 
found. 

Besides  interesting  smaller  objects  from  this  site,  a 
number  of  fragments  of  marble  sculptures,  evidently 
coming  from  the  second  temple  and  forming  parts 
of  the  metopes,  and  I  believe  also  of  the  pediments, 
were  found.    I  must  also  add  that  among  the  heads 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


35 


discovered,  one  head  (probably  from  a  metope)  is  in 
excellent  preservation  and  very  nearly  equals  in  beauty 
the  head  of  Hera  found  last  year ;  while  the  torso  of  a 
draped  female  figure  from  the  metopes  forms  a  fitting 
counterpart  to  the  torso  of  the  nude  warrior  of  last 
year's  metope. 

The  inscriptions  are  now  in  the  hands  of  Professor 
Wheeler,  from  whom  you  will  no  doubt  hear. 

We  have  again  had  a  very  successful  year,  with 
brilliant  discoveries,  and  the  promises  for  the  imme- 
diate future  are,  if  anything,  more  favorable.  The 
excavation  of  the  West  Building  must  be  completed; 
the  portions  to  the  east  and  southeast  of  the  west 
retaining  wall  below  the  second  temple  are  likely  to 
prove  the  ground  where  temple  sculptures  were  ar- 
rested in  their  fall;  the  other  sites  about  the  second 
temple  must  be  cleared  thoroughly.  This  work  must 
not  be  delayed ;  and  I  shall  use  every  effort  to  con- 
tinue the  work,  which  has  been  so  successful  for  two 
campaigns,  next  spring. 

The  successful  conclusion  of  the  excavation  of  the 
circular  building  of  Sparta  will  soon  be  known  to  you 
in  the  joint  report  of  Mr.  Meader  and  myself. 


CHARLES  WALDSTEIN 


REPORT  OF  THE   PROFESSOR  OF  THE 
GREEK  LANGUAGE  AND  LITERATURE. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American  School  of  Clas- 
sical Studies  at  Athens  :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
a  brief  report  of  my  share  in  the  work  of  the  School 
during  the  past  winter. 

As  you  are  aware,  the  request  that  I  should  go 
out  to  Greece  did  not  reach  me  until  the  close  of 
the  summer  vacation,  and  my  engagements  made  it 
impossible  for  me  to  be  in  Athens  at  the  beginning 
of  the  School  year.  I  reached  here  on  the  17th  of 
December. 

The  wrork  of  the  School  had  of  course  been  or- 
ganized by  Professor  Tarbell  before  I  arrived,  and  I 
therefore  made  it  my  object  to  co-operate  with  him 
so  far  as  I  was  able  in  carrying  out  the  plans  which 
he  had  already  laid.  With  this  end  in  view,  I  have 
from  time  to  time  taken  part  in  the  archaeological 
exercises  which  have  been  held  during  the  winter  in 
the  Museums.  Beside  this,  it  seemed  to  me  desirable 
that  something  should  be  done  to  call  the  attention 
of  our  students  to  the  long  period  in  the  history  of 
the  antiquities  of  Athens  from  the  time  at  which  the 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


37 


special  favor  of  the  Roman  emperors  was  withdrawn 
down  to  the  visit  of  Stuart  and  Revett.  I  therefore 
gave  a  short  course  of  lectures  intended  to  cover  this 
period,  laying  special  emphasis  upon  such  documents, 
books,  and  drawings  as  are  of  peculiar  importance 
in  the  early  history  of  Athenian  archaeology.  These 
lectures  were  attended  by  a  few  others  than  the  regu- 
lar members  of  the  School. 

As  the  one  among  the  officers  of  the  School  this 
year  who  has  represented  the  co-operating  Colleges, 
I  should  like  to  urge  that  there  be  some  discussion 
amonor  the  committee  with  reference  to  securing:  for 
our  students,  before  they  come  to  Athens,  more  pre- 
liminary training  in  the  direction  of  the  work  they  are 
likely  to  do  here.  The  School  is,  of  course,  constantly 
exerting  a  healthful  influence  upon  collegiate  instruc- 
tion among  us,  but  as  yet  there  is  no  organized  corre- 
sponding effort  to  direct  the  preliminary  training  of 
its  students ;  in  other  words,  we  are  not  using  the 
School  sufficiently  as  the  last  stage  in  the  instruction 
of  those  of  our  students  of  Greek  who  are  to  turn 
their  studies  in  the  direction  of  archaeology  and  his- 
tory. The  great  distance  of  Athens  from  us  makes 
it  unlikely  that  many  will  be  able  to  spend  two  or 
three  years  in  succession  here,  a  thing  which  the  for- 
eign students  frequently  do,  —  indeed  in  the  case  of 
the  French  it  is  the  regular  practice,  —  and  this  fact 
makes  it  doubly  important  that  our  students  before 
going  to  Greece  should  have  laid  a  better  defined 


38  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


foundation  for  their  work.  Unquestionably  courses  of 
study  which  will  lead  to  such  preparation  are  making 
their  appearance  in  the  statements  of  instruction  at 
several  institutions;  but  it  seems  to  me  that  the  in- 
fluence of  the  Committee  more  positively  exercised 
might  accomplish  much.  This  lack  of  preparation 
for  the  year  at  Athens  is  a  thing  which  I  feel  de- 
serves the  most  serious  consideration.  As  a  student 
here  in  the  first  year  of  the  School  I  suffered  from  it 
myself,  and  I  am  confident  that  we  cannot  make  our 
work  all  it  should  be  until  the  evil  is  corrected. 

J.  R.  WHEELER, 

Professor  of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature 
for  the  year  1892-1893. 

Athens,  April  26,  1893. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


39 


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THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

OCTOBER,  i8g3. 

The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  founded  by 
the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America  and  organized  under  the 
auspices  of  some  of  the  leading  American  Colleges,  was  opened  Octo- 
ber 2,  1882.  During  the  first  five  years  of  its  existence  it  occupied 
a  hired  house  on  the  cOSos  'A/xaAias  in  Athens,  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Olympieum.  A  large  and  convenient  building  was  then  erected  for 
the  School  on  a  piece  of  land,  granted  by  the  generous  liberality  of 
the  government  of  Greece,  on  the  southeastern  slope  of  Mount  Lyca- 
bettus,  adjoining  the  ground  already  occupied  by  the  English  School. 
This  permanent  home  of  the  School,  built  by  the  subscriptions  of  its 
friends  in  the  United  States,  was  ready  for  occupation  early  in  1888. 

The  building  contains  the  apartments  occupied  by  the  Director 
and  his  family,  and  a  large  room  which  is  used  as  a  library,  and 
also  as  a  general  reading-room  and  place  of  meeting  for  the  whole 
School.  A  few  rooms  in  the  house  are  intended  for  the  use  of 
students.  These  are  assigned  by  the  Director,  under  such  regula- 
tions as  he  may  establish,  to  as  many  members  of  the  School  as  they 
will  accommodate.  Each  student  admitted  to  the  privilege  of  a 
room  in  the  house  will  be  expected  to  undertake  the  performance  of 
some  service  to  the  School,  to  be  determined  by  the  Director ;  such, 
for  example,  as  keeping  the  accounts  of  the  School,  taking  charge  of 
the  delivery  of  books  from  the  Library  and  their  return,  and.  keeping 
up  the  catalogue  of  the  Library.  No  charge  is  made  to  students  for 
the  use  of  the  rooms  themselves ;  but  a  small  charge  is  made  for  the 
use  of  the  furniture  and  linen  of  the  chamber. 

The  Library  now  contains  more  than  1,700  volumes,  exclusive  of 
sets  of  periodicals.  It  includes  a  complete  set  of  the  Greek  classics, 
and  the  most  necessary  books  of  reference  for  philological,  archaeologi- 
cal, and  architectural  study  in  Greece. 

The  advantages  of  the  School  are  offered  free  of  expense  for  tuition 
to  graduates  of  the  Colleges  co-operating  in  its  support,  and  to  other 


42 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


American  students  who  are  deemed  by  the  Committee  of  sufficient 
promise  to  warrant  the  extension  to  them  of  the  privilege  of  member- 
ship. It  is  hoped  that  the  Archaeological  Institute  may  in  time  be 
supplied  with  the  means  of  establishing  scholarships  which  will  aid 
some  members  in  defraying  their  expenses  at  the  School.  In  the 
mean  time,  students  must  rely  upon  their  own  resources,  or  upon 
scholarships  which  may  be  granted  them  by  the  Colleges  to  which 
they  belong.  The  amount  needed  for  the  expenses  of  an  eight 
months'  residence  in  Athens  differs  little  from  that  required  in  other 
European  capitals,  and  depends  chiefly  on  the  economy  of  the 
individual. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  temporary  organization  of  the  School  dur- 
ing its  first  six  years,  which  distinguished  it  from  the  older  German 
and  French  Schools  at  Athens,  was  the  yearly  change  of  Director. 
This  arrangement,  by  which  a  new  Director  was  sent  out  each  year 
by  one  of  the  co-operating  Colleges,  was  never  looked  upon  as  per- 
manent. The  School  is  now  to  be  under  the  control  of  a  permanent 
Director,  who  by  continuous  residence  at  Athens  will  accumulate  that 
body  of  local  and  special  knowledge  without  which  the  highest  purpose 
of  such  a  school  cannot  be  fulfilled,  while  one  or  more  Professors  also 
will  be  sent  out  each  year  by  the  supporting  Colleges  to  assist  in  the 
conduct  of  the  School.  (See  Regulation  V.)  The  School  was  able, 
even  under  its  temporary  organization,  to  meet  a  most  pressing  want, 
and  to  be  of  service  to  classical  scholarship  in  America.  It  sought 
at  first,  and  it  must  continue  to  seek  for  the  present,  rather  to  arouse  a 
lively  interest  in  classical  art  and  archaeology  in  American  Colleges, 
than  to  accomplish  distinguished  achievements.  The  lack  of  this  in- 
terest has  heretofore  been  conspicuous ;  but  without  it  the  School  at 
Athens,  however  well  endowed,  can  never  accomplish  the  best  results. 
A  decided  improvement  in  this  respect  is  already  apparent ;  and  it  is 
beyond  question  that  the  presence  in  many  American  Colleges  of  Pro- 
fessors who  have  been  resident  a  year  or  more  at  Athens  under  favor- 
able circumstances,  as  Annual  Directors  or  as  students  of  the  School, 
has  done  much,  and  will  do  still  more,  to  stimulate  intelligent  interest 
in  classical  antiquity. 

The  address  of  the  Chairman  of  the  Managing  Committee  is 
Thomas  D.  Seymour,  New  Haven,  Conn. ;  that  of  the  Secretary, 
Thomas  W,  Ludlow,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


43 


REGULATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF 
CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

OCTOBER,  1893. 

1.  The  object  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  is  to 
furnish  an  opportunity  to  study  Classical  Literature,  Art,  and  Antiqui- 
ties in  Athens,  under  suitable  guidance,  to  graduates  of  American 
Colleges  and  to  other  qualified  students ;  to  prosecute  and  to  aid 
original  research  in  these  subjects  ;  and  to  co-operate  with  the  Archae- 
ological Institute  of  America,  so  far  as  it  may  be  able,  in  conducting 
the  exploration  and  excavation  of  classic  sites. 

II.  The  School  shall  be  in  charge  of  a  Managing  Committee. 
This  Committee,  originally  appointed  by  the  Archseological  Institute, 
shall  disburse  the  annual  income  of  the  School,  and  shall  have  power 
to  add  to  its  membership  and  to  make  such  regulations  for  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  School  as  it  may  deem  proper.  The  President  of  the 
Archaeological  Institute  and  the  Director  and  Professors  of  the  School 
shall  be  ex  officio  members  of  the  Committee. 

III.  The  Managing  Committee  shall  meet  semiannually,  —  in  New 
York  on  the  third  Friday  in  November,  and  in  Boston  on  the  third 
Friday  in  May.  Special  meetings  may  be  called  at  any  time  by  the 
Chairman. 

IV.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  shall  be  the  official  repre- 
sentative of  the  interests  of  the  School  in  America.  He  shall  present 
a  Report  annually  to  the  Archseological  Institute  concerning  the  affairs 
of  the  School. 

V.  1.  The  School  shall  be  under  the  superintendence  of  a  Direc- 
tor. The  Director  shall  be  chosen  and  his  salary  shall  be  fixed  by  the 
Managing  Committee.  The  term  for  which  he  is  chosen  shall  be  five 
years.  The  Committee  shall  place  him  in  charge  of  the  School  build- 
ing at  Athens. 

2.  Each  year  the  Committee  shall  appoint  from  the  instructors  of 
the  Colleges  uniting  in  the  support  of  the  School  one  or  more  Profes- 
sors, who  shall  reside  in  Athens  during  the  ensuing  year  and  co-operate 
in  the  conduct  of  the  School.    In  case  of  the  illness  or  absence  of 


44 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  Director,  the  senior  Professor  shall  act  as  Director  for  the  time 
being. 

VI.  The  Director  shall  superintend  personally  the  work  of  each 
member  of  the  School,  advising  him  in  what  direction  to  turn  his 
studies,  and  assisting  him  in  their  prosecution.  With  the  assistance 
of  the  Professors,  he  shall  conduct  regular  courses  of  instruction,  and 
hold  meetings  of  the  members  of  the  School  at  stated  times  for 
consultation  and  discussion.  He  shall  make  a  full  Report  annually 
to  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  work  accomplished  by  the 
School. 

VII.  The  School  year  shall  extend  from  the  ist  of  October  to  the 
i st  of  June.  Members  shall  prosecute  their  studies  during  the  whole 
of  this  time  in  Greek  lands,  under  the  supervision  of  the  Director. 
The  studies  of  the  remaining  four  months  necessary  to  complete  a  full 
year  (the  shortest  term  for  which  a  certificate  is  given)  may  be  carried 
on  in  Greece  or  elsewhere,  as  the  student  prefers. 

VIII.  Bachelors  of  Arts  of  co-operating  Colleges,  and  all  Bachelors 
of  Arts  who  have  studied  at  one  of  these  Colleges  as  candidates  for  a 
higher  degree,  shall  be  admitted  to  membership  in  the  School  on  pre- 
senting to  the  Committee  a  certificate  from  the  classical  department 
of  the  College  at  which  they  have  last  studied,  stating  that  they 
are  competent  to  pursue  an  independent  course  of  study  at  Athens 
under  the  advice  of  the  Director.  All  other  persons  who  desire 
to  become  members  of  the  School  must  make  application  to  the 
Committee.  Members  of  the  School  are  subject  to  no  charge  for 
tuition.  The  Committee  reserves  the  right  to  modify  the  conditions 
of  membership. 

IX.  Every  member  of  the  School  must  pursue  some  definite  sub- 
ject of  study  or  research  in  Classical  Literature,  Art,  or  Antiquities, 
and  must  present  a  paper  embodying  the  results  of  some  important 
part  of  his  year's  work.  These  papers,  if  approved  by  the  Director, 
shall  be  sent  to  the  Publishing  Committee,  in  accordance  with  the 
provisions  of  Regulation  XII.  If  approved  by  the  Publishing  Com- 
mittee also,  the  paper  shall  be  issued  in  the  Papers  of  the  School. 

X.  All  work  of  excavation,  of  investigation,  or  of  any  other  kind 
done  by  any  student  in  connection  with  the  School,  shall  be  regarded 
as  done  for  the  School  and  by  the  School,  and  shall  be  under  the 
supervision  and  control  of  the  Director. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


45 


XI.  No  communications,  even  of  an  informal  nature,  shall  be 
made  by  students  of  the  School  to  the  public  press,  which  have  not 
previously  been  submitted  to  the  Director,  and  authorized  by  him. 

XII.  1  i.  All  manuscripts,  drawings,  or  photographs  intended  for 
publication  in  the  Papers  of  the  School,  after  approval  by  the  Director, 
shall  be  sent  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Publishing  Committee,  which 
shall  be  a  standing  sub-committee  of  two  members  of  the  Managing 
Committee. 

2.  Every  article  sent  for  publication  must  be  written  on  compara- 
tively light  paper  of  uniform  size,  with  a  margin  of  at  least  two  inches 
on  the  left  of  each  page.  The  writing  must  be  clear  and  distinct, 
particularly  in  the  quotations  and  references.  Especial  care  must  be 
taken  in  writing  Greek,  that  the  printer  may  not  confound  similar 
letters,  and  the  accents  must  be  placed  strictly  above  the  proper 
vowels,  as  in  printing.  All  quotations  and  references  must  be  care- 
fully verified  by  the  author,  after  the  article  is  completed,  by  com- 
parison with  the  original  sources. 

3.  At  least  two  careful  squeezes  of  every  inscription  discovered  by 
the  School  shall  be  taken  as  soon  as  possible ;  of  these  one  shall  be 
sent  at  once  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publications,  the 
other  shall  be  deposited  in  the  Library  of  the  School. 

XIII.  When  any  member  of  the  School  has  completed  one  or 
more  full  years  of  study,  the  results  of  which  have  been  approved  by 
the  Director,  he  shall  receive  a  certificate  stating  the  work  accom- 
plished by  him,  signed  by  the  Director  of  the  School,  the  President 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  and  the  Chairman  and  the  Secretary 
of  the  Managing  Committee. 

XIV.  American  students  resident  or  travelling  in  Greece  who  are 
not  regular  members  of  the  School  may,  at  the  discretion  of  the  Direc- 
tor, be  enrolled  as  special  students,  and  enjoy  the  privileges  of  the 
School. 

1  Failure  to  comply  with  the  provisions  of  Regulation  XII.  will  be  sufficient 
ground  for  the  rejection  of  any  paper. 


46  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL 
OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1882-1892. 

The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee  may  be  had  gratis  on  application  to 
the  Secretary  of  the  Managing  Committee.  The  other  publications  are  for  sale 
by  Messrs.  Damrell,  Upham,  &  Co.,  283  Washington  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

First,  Second,  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Managing  Com- 
mittee, 1881-84.    pp.  30. 

Fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1884-85.    pp.  30. 

Fifth  and  Sixth  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee,  1885-87. 
pp.  56. 

Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1887-88,  with  the  Re- 
port of  Professor  D'Ooge  (Director  in  1886-87)  and  that  of  Professor 
Merriam  (Director  in  1887-88).    pp.  115. 

Eighth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1 888-89,  Wlt^-  tne 
ports  of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director, 
Professor  Tarbell.    pp.  53. 

Ninth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1889-90,  with  the  Reports 
of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Professor 
Orris,    pp.  49. 

Tenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1890-91,  with  the  Reports 
of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Professor 
Richardson,    pp.  47. 

Eleventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Committee,  1891-92,  with  the  Re- 
ports of  the  Director,  Dr.  Waldstein,  and  of  the  Annual  Director,  Pro- 
fessor Poland,    pp.  70. 

Bulletin  I.  Report  of  Professor  William  W.  Goodwin,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1882-83.    pp.  33.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  II.  Memoir  of  Professor  Lewis  R.  Packard,  Director  of 
the  School  in  1883-84,  with  Resolutions  of  the  Committee  and  the 
Report  for  1883-84.    pp.  34.    Price  25  cents. 

Bulletin  III.  Excavations  at  the  Heraion  of  Argos.  By  Dr. 
Waldstein.    4to.    pp.  20.    8  plates.    Price  $3.00. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


47 


Preliminary  Report  of  an  Archaeological  Journey  made  in  Asia 
Minor  during  the  Summer  of  1884.  By  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett.  pp.  45. 
Price  25  cents. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  SCHOOL. 

Volume  I.  1882-83.  Published  in  1885.  8vo,  pp.  viii  and  262. 
Illustrated.    Price  $2.00. 

Contents : — 

1.  Inscriptions  of  Assos,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

2.  Inscriptions  of  Tralleis,  edited  by  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett. 

3.  The  Theatre  of  Dionysus,  by  James  R.  Wheeler. 

4.  The  Olympieion  at  Athens,  by  Louis  Bevier. 

5.  The  Erechtheion  at  Athens,  by  Harold  N.  Fowler. 

6.  The  Battle  of  Salarnis,  by  William  W.  Goodwin. 

Volume  II.,  1883-84,  containing  Dr.  J.  R.  S.  Sterrett's  Report  of 
his  Journey  in  Asia  Minor  in  1884,  with  Inscriptions,  and  two  new 
Maps  by  Professor  H.  Kiepert.  Published  in  1888.  8vo,  pp.  344. 
Price  $2.25. 

Volume  III.,  1884-85,  containing  Dr.  Sterrett's  Report  of  the  Wolfe 
.Expedition  to  Asia  Minor  in  1885,  with  Inscriptions,  mostly  hitherto 
unpublished,  and  two  new  Maps  by  Professor  Kiepert.  Published  in 
1886.    8vo,  pp.  448.    Price  $2.50. 

Volume  IV.  1885-86.  Published  in  1888.  8vo,  pp.  277.  Illus- 
trated.   Price  $2.00. 

Contents: — 

1.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Preliminary  Report,  by  Walter  Miller. 

2.  The  Theatre  of  Thoricus,  Supplementary  Report,  by  William  L.  Cushing. 

3.  On  Greek  Versification  in  Inscriptions,  by  Frederic  D.  Allen. 

4.  The  Athenian  Pnyx,  by  John  M.  Crow;  with  a  Survey  of  the  Pnyx  and 
Notes,  by  Joseph  Thacher  Clarke. 

5.  Notes  on  Attic  Vocalism,  by  J.  McKeen  Lewis. 

Volume  V.  1887-91.  Published  in  1892.  8vo,  pp.  314.  With 
41  Cuts,  6  Plans  and  Maps,  and  18  Plates.    Price  $2.25. 

Contents : — 

1.  Excavations  at  the  Theatre  of  Sikyon.  By  W.  J.  McMurtry  and  M.  L. 
Earle. 

2.  Discoveries  in  the  Attic  Deme  of  Ikaria,  1888.    By  Carl  D.  Buck. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


3.  Greek  Sculptured  Crowns  and  Crown-Inscriptions.  By  George  B. 
Hussey. 

4.  The  newly  discovered  Head  of  Iris  from  the  Frieze  of  the  Parthenon. 
By  Charles  Waldstein. 

5.  The  Decrees  of  the  Demotionidai.    By  F.  B.  Tarbell. 

6.  Report  on  Excavations  near  Stamata  in  Attica.  By  Charles  Waldstein 
and  F.  B.  Tarbell. 

7.  Discoveries  at  Anthedon  in  1889.  By  John  C.  Rolfe,  C.  D.  Buck,  and 
F.  B.  Tarbell. 

8.  Discoveries  at  Thisbe  in  1889.    By  J.  C.  Rolfe  and  F.  B.  Tarbell. 

9.  Discoveries  at  Plataia  in  1889.  By  Charles  Waldstein,  F.  B.  Tarbell,  and 
J.  C.  Rolfe. 

10.  An  Inscribed  Tombstone  from  Boiotia.    By  J.  C.  Rolfe. 

11.  Discoveries  at  Plataia  in  1890.  By  Charles  Waldstein,  Henry  S.  Washing- 
ton, and  W.  I.  Hunt. 

12.  The  Mantineian  Reliefs.    By  Charles  Waldstein. 

13.  A  Greek  Fragment  of  the  Edict  of  Diocletian,  from  Plataia.  By  Theodor 
Mommsen. 

14.  Appendix.    By  A.  C.  Merriam. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


49 


CASTS. 

The  following  plaster  casts  of  objects  found  in  the  excavations  of 
the  School  may  be  had  on  application  to  Professor  A.  C.  Merriam, 
640  Madison  Avenue,  New  York  City,  at  the  affixed  prices. 

A.  From  the  Argive  Heraum. 


1.  Hera  Head,  with  pedestal   $5.00 

2.  Warrior  Head,  with  pedestal   4.00 

3.  Amazon  (?)  Head,  with  pedestal   4.00 

4.  Male  Torso   5.00 

5.  Female  Torso   4.00 

6.  Sima  Ornament  with  Birds   4.00 

7.  Two  Lion  Heads  each  2.00 

B.  From  Sculptures  of  Icaria. 

1.  Colossal  Hand  and  Cantharus   $2.50 

Papers  of  American  School  at  Athens,  V.  114,  Fig.  3  ;  American 
Journal  of  Archaeology,  V.  466,  Fig.  45. 

2.  Colossal  Archaic  Prosopon   3.00 

Papers,  V.  ill,  Fig.  1 ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.  463,  Fig.  43. 

3.  Relief,  Apollo  and  Lyre  (three  figures)   3.00 

Papers,  Plate  VII.  1 ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.,  Plate  XI.  1. 

4.  Relief,  Apollo,  Artemis,  Adorant   1.50 

Papers,  V.,  Plate  VII.  3;  A.  J.  A.,  V.,  Plate  XI.  3. 

5.  Relief  (four  figures),  Eschara   1.50 

Papers,  V.  116,  Fig.  5 ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.  468,  Fig.  47. 

6.  Relief,  Ivy  Wreath  with  Inscription   1.50 

Papers,  V.  105,  No.  12  ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.  316,  No.  12. 

7.  Relief,  Ornament  of  Large  Vase    1.25 

Papers,  V.  67,  Fig.  10;  A.  J.  A.,  V.  178,  Fig.  30. 

8.  Sepulchral  Relief,  Man  with  Staff   1.50 

Papers,  V.,  Plate  VII.  2;  A.  J.  A.,  V.,  Plate  XI.  2. 

9.  Relief,  Seated  Female   2.00 

Papers,  V.,  Plate  VIII. ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.,  Plate  XIII. 

4 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS, 


10.  Relief,  Figure  with  Legs  crossed   $1.00 

Papers,  V.  121,  Plate  XIII.  ;  A.  J.  A  ,  V.  473,  Plate  XIII. 

11.  Griffin  Head   1.50 

Papers,  V.  124,  Fig.  12 ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.  476,  Fig.  54. 

12.  Breast  of  Silenus   1.25 

Papers,  V.  122,  Fig.  8;  A.  J.  A.,  V.  474,  Fig.  50. 

13.  Relief  (Three  Figures,  one  side  only)                                    .    .   .  3.00 

Papers,  V.  117,  Fig.  6b  ;  A,  J.  A.,  V.  469,  Fig.  48 b. 

14.  Companion  to  13  (Three  Figures)   5,00 

Papers,  V.  117,  Fig.  6a;  A.  J.  A.,  V.  469,  Fig.  48 a. 

15.  Archaic  Warrior  Relief   10.00 

Papers,  V.,  Plate  IX. ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.,  Plate  I. 

16.  Torso  of  Satyr   5.00 

Papers,  V.  122,  Fig.  7  ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.  474,  Fig.  49. 

17.  Archaic  Female  Torso  (Stamata)   12.00 

Papers,  V.,  Plate  XIII. ;  A.  J.  A.,  V.,  Plate  XII. 


PHOTOGRAPHS. 

The  Eleventh  Report  of  the  School  contains  a  list  of  274  photo- 
graphs of  Greek  sites  and  antiquities  taken  by  Dr.  Clarence  H.  Young, 
a  member  of  the  School  in  1891-92,  copies  of  which  can  be  obtained 
through  Professor  Merriam.  Size  A,  X  Z\  inches,  20  cents; 
size  B,  4  X  5  inches,  12  cents. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


51 


CIRCULAR  OF  INFORMATION  FOR  STUDENTS  WHO 
PROPOSE  TO  JOIN  THE  SCHOOL. 

OCTOBER,  1893. 

Ability  to  read  easily  works  in  German  and  French  is  indispensable 
for  the  best  success  of  the  student's  work  in  Greece.  Ability  to  speak 
these  languages,  and  understand  them  when  spoken,  is  very  desira- 
ble, —  especially  for  the  sake  of  profiting  by  the  lectures  before  the 
French  and  German  Schools,  and  of  communicating  with  scholars  of 
those  nationalities. 

Students  are  advised  to  go  to  Athens,  if  possible,  by  way  of  London, 
Paris,  or  Berlin,  for  the  study  of  the  Museums.  Study  for  about  six 
weeks  in  the  Museums  of  Berlin,  with  the  aid  of  Friedrichs-Wolters's 
Catalogue  of  Casts  and  Furtwangler's  Catalogue  of  Vases,  is  earnestly 
recommended  as  a  preparation  for  work  at  the  School. 

The  ordinary  route  from  Germany  to  Greece  is  by  way  of  Trieste, 
whence  a  steamer  of  the  Austrian  Lloyd  sails  weekly  for  the  Piraeus. 

The  route  from  Berlin  to  Athens  by  way  of  Constantinople  is  inter- 
esting. The  cost  of  a  second-class  passage  (comfortable)  is  about 
forty  dollars. 

From  Western  Europe  the  quickest  route  is  by  steamer  from  Brindisi 
to  Patras  (a  little  more  than  twenty-four  hours),  and  thence  by  rail  to 
Athens  (about  eight  hours).  The  routes  through  the  Gulf  of  Corinth 
and  around  Peloponnesus  are  very  attractive  in  good  weather. 

The  best  way  to  reach  Greece,  if  it  is  desired  to  proceed  direct 
from  the  United  States,  is  by  one  of  the  two  great  German  lines, 
which  now  despatch  regular  express  steamers  from  New  York  to 
Genoa  and  Palermo.  From  Genoa  a  good  weekly  Italian  steamer, 
and  from  Palermo  a  steamer  of  the  Messageries  line,  sails  direct  to 
the  Piraeus. 

At  the  large  hotels  in  Athens,  board  and  lodging  can  be  obtained 
for  $14  per  week ;  at  small  hotels  and  in  private  families,  for  $5.50  per 
week,  and  upward.  A  limited  number  of  students  may  have  rooms, 
without  board,  in  the  School  building.    A  pe?ision  which  is  well  recom- 


52 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


mended  is  now  established  near  the  School,  which  charges  $20-25  Per 
month  for  dinner  and  supper. 

The  student  should  go  well  supplied  with  clothing  and  other  neces- 
saries for  his  stay,  as  all  such  articles  are  expensive  in  Athens  ;  and  in 
providing  these  he  must  not  count  too  much  on  a  warm  climate  dur- 
ing the  winter. 

The  School  library,  which  now  contains  more  than  seventeen  hun- 
dred volumes,  provides  all  the  books  that  are  most  essential  for  study 
in  Greece,  and  the  student  in  travelling  should  encumber  himself 
with  few  books.  He  should  take  with  him,  however,  a  copy  of  each 
of  the  following  :  — 

Pausanias.    (The  Teubner  text  is  convenient.) 

Murray's  Handbook  of  Greek  Archaeology,  or  Collignon's  Manual  of  Greek 
Archaeology. 

Harrison  and  Verrall's  Mythology  and  Monuments  of  Ancient  Athens. 
Baedeker's  Guide  to  Greece,  or  the  Guides  Joanne,  Grece,  or  both. 
Vincent  and.  Dickson's  Handbook  to  Modern  Greek. 


LIST  OF  BOOKS  RECOMMENDED. 

The  books  in  the  following  lists  of  which  the  titles  are  printed  in 
the  larger  type  are  recommended  to  students  as  an  introduction  to  the 
different  branches  of  Greek  Archaeology.  The  more  special  works, 
whose  titles  are  printed  in  smaller  type,  are  recommended  as  books 
of  reference,  and  for  students  whose  department  of  special  study  is 
already  determined. 

GENERAL  WORKS. 
Pausanias  :  nept^y^o-is  rrjs  'EAAaSos. 

Collignon :  Manual  of  Greek  Archaeology  (translated  by  Wright). 

1886.    pp.  384. 
Murray  :  Handbook  of  Greek  Archaeology.    1892.    pp.  483. 

Both  the  two  foregoing  are  good  general  introductions  to  archaeological 

study. 

Guhl  and  Koner  :  Life  of  the  Ancient  Greeks  and  Romans. 

A  general  treatise  on  antiquities.    Popular  rather  than  scientifically  exact 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


53 


Baumeister  :  Denkmiiler  des  klassischen  Altertums.  3  quarto  vols. 
A  cyclopaedia  of  ancient  art,  architecture,  mythology,  and  biography,  as 
illustrated  by  extant  monuments.  It  treats  also  of  the  topography  of  impor- 
tant cities,  and,  less  fully,  of  general  antiquities.  Recent,  complete,  and  trust- 
worthy. With  2,400  illustrations,  7  maps,  and  94  large  plates.  1885-88. 
pp.  2224. 

C.  O.  Muller  :  x^ncient  Art  and  its  Remains.    1835  [1850].    pp.  637. 

A  comprehensive  foundation  for  further  study.  Truly  admirable  in  its 
time,  but  now  almost  sixty  years  old,  and  hence  somewhat  antiquated  and 
inaccurate. 

Taine  :  Philosophic  de  l'Art  en  Grece.    (Also  translated.) 

On  Greek  art  as  modified  and  explained  by  Greek  life,  thought,  institutions, 
and  surroundings. 

Von  Sybel :  Weltgeschichte  der  Kunst.    1887.    pp.  479. 

A  practical  and  useful  work  on  classical  art  and  architecture,  well  illus- 
trated with  380  cuts. 
Iwan  Muller  :  Handbuch  der  Altertumswissenschaft.    8  vols.  1885-. 

A  thesaurus  of  philological  and  archaeological  learning  in  systematic  form, 
containing  many  important  monographs.    Not  yet  complete. 

Hiibner  :  Bibliographie  der  klassischen  Altertumswissenschaft.    1889.    pp.  334. 
S.  Reinach :  Manuel  de  Philologie  classique.    2  vols.    1883.    pp.  314,  414. 
A  most  useful  index  to  all  branches  of  classical  knowledge. 

Stark:   Systematik  und   Geschichte  der  Archaologie  der  Kunst.  1878-80. 
pp.  400. 

A  valuable  manual  of  condensed  information,  especially  in  regard  to  the 
progress  of  archaeological  research  in  modern  times. 

C.  T.  Newton  :  Essays  on  Art  and  Archaeology.    1880.    pp.  472. 

The  basis  and  beginning  of  recent  archaeological  study  in  England.  The 
Essay  on  Greek  Inscriptions  should  be  read  by  every  beginner  in  epigraphy. 

Burnouf :  Memoires  sur  l'Antiquite.    1878.    pp.  378. 

Abounds  in  suggestion's  that  may  lead  to  profitable  study. 
Boeckh-Frankel :  Die  Staatshaushaltung  der  Athener.    2  vols.    1886.  pp.1446. 
Smith  :  Dictionary  of  Antiquities  (Third  Edition).    2  vols.    1890.  pp.2123. 
K.  F.  Hermann:  Lehrbuch  der  griechischen  Antiquitaten.    4  vols. 

Of  various  editions  ;  not  all  complete. 
Daremberg  et  Saglio  :  Dictionnaire  des  Antiquites.    A-C,  pp.  1702.  Folio. 

The  best  of  its  class,  but  unfinished. 

Rich  :  Dictionary  of  Antiquities.  1873. 
A  handy  book. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Milchhofer  :  Anfange  der  Kunst  in  Griechenland.    1883.    pp.  247. 
Beule  :  L'Art  grec  avant  Pericles.    1869.    PP-  498. 

A  good  presentation  of  what  was  known  of  archaic  art  thirty  years  ago. 
Diehl :  Excursions  Archeologiques  en  Grece.  1890. 

A  popular  account  of  some  of  the  chief  recent  excavations.  A  translation 
by  Miss  Perkins  is  now  published,  with  9  plans  and  41  illustrations. 

Schuchhardt:  Schliemann's  Excavations  (translated  by  Miss  Sellars). 

A  convenient  digest,  as  well  as  a  scientific  discussion,  of  Schliemann's 
discoveries.    1891.    pp.  363. 

Percy  Gardner:  New  Chapters  in  Greek  History.    1892.    pp.  459. 

Embodies  in  convenient  and  scholarly  form  some  of  the  results  of  recent 
excavations  in  various  parts  of  Greece,  giving  much  information  which  else- 
where is  found  only  scattered  in  periodicals,  brochures,  and  expensive  works. 
Its  field  corresponds  in  part  with  that  of  Diehl  (above). 

Perrot  et  Chipiez  :  Histoire  de  l'Art  dans  1'Antiquite.    5  large  vols.  1882-. 

Interesting  and  valuable.  It  shows  wide  and  intelligent  study,  and  con- 
tains much  information  gained  from  recent  sources ;  but  it  is  too  diffuse,  it 
lacks  due  proportion,  and  is  not  exempt  from  questionable  speculations  and 
conclusions. 

Woltmann  and  Woermann  :  History  of  Painting.    Translated  from  the  German. 
Edited  by  Sidney  Colvin. 

This  work  affords  a  comprehensive  survey  of  the  history  of  painting,  and  is 
useful  as  an  introduction  to  the  subject.  Part  I.,  by  Karl  Woermann  (pp.  145), 
gives  a  generally  trustworthy  summary  of  what  is  known  respecting  the  art  as 
practised  in  Egypt,  Assyria,  Greece,  and  Italy. 

Lepsius:  Marmorstudien. 

A  treatise  on  the  chief  marble  quarries  of  Greece,  and  a  scientific  determi- 
nation of  the  marbles  employed  in  Greek  statues. 

ARCHITECTURE. 

Durm  :  Die  Baukunst  der  Griechen  (Second  Edition,  1892). 
Complete,  and  generally  accurate. 

Von  Reber  :  History  of  Ancient  Art  (translated  by  Clarke). 

Much  briefer  than  Durm,  but  good  in  its  summary  discussion  of  the  origin 
and  development  of  architectural  styles,  and  as  a  comprehensive  survey  of 
the  chief  remains  of  ancient  art.    1882.    pp.  478. 

Penrose  :  Principles  of  Athenian  Architecture  (Second  Edition).  1888. 

A  minute,  mathematical  study  of  architectural  technic  and  refinements,  as 
exhibited  in  the  Parthenon.    In  large  folio,    pp.  128.    48  plates,  34  cuts. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


55 


Michaelis  :  Der  Parthenon.  1871. 

Deals  with  the  history,  architecture,  and  especially  the  sculptural  decora- 
tions of  the  Parthenon.    A  standard  work.    Folio.    With  15  folio  plates. 

Bohn  :  Die  Propylaen  der  Akropolis  zu  Athen.  1882. 

Indispensable  for  exact  study  of  this  structure,  though  shown  by  recent 
investigations  to  be  in  part  incorrect.    Folio,    pp.  40.    With  21  plates. 

Boutmy :  Philosophic  de  l'Architecture  en  Grece.  1870. 

A  suggestive  attempt  to  explain  the  development  of  Greek  architecture 
through  considerations  of  the  circumstances  and  intellectual  qualities  of  the 
Greeks. 

Papers  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America.   Report  on  the  Investigations 
at  Assos. 

Sets  forth  the  routine  and  experiences  of  a  successful  campaign  of  excava- 
tion, with  information  upon  early  Doric  architecture  and  provincial  Greek  art. 

SCULPTURE. 

Mrs.  Lucy  M.  Mitchell :  History  of  Ancient  Sculpture.  1883. 

A  voluminous  work,  presenting  a  great  mass  of  knowledge  with  many  of 
the  recent  theories.  With  Mrs.  Mitchell's  Selections  from  Ancient  Sculpture. 
1883.    20  folio  plates. 

Overbeck :   Geschichte  der  griechischen  Plastik  (Fourth  Edition, 
2  vols.,  first  part  in  1892). 
A  standard  work  on  Greek  sculpture. 

Overbeck  :  Die  antiken  Schriftquellen  zur  Geschichte  der  bildenden 
Kiinste. 

An  indispensable  collection  of  references  in  classical  literature  to  ancient 
artists  and  their  works. 

The  three  preceding  are  all  valuable.  Overbeck's  work  is  more  scientific 
and  scholarly  than  Mrs.  Mitchell's,  but  as  an  introduction  may  not  be  ranked 
above  it. 

Paris  :  Ancient  Sculpture  (translated  by  Miss  Harrison).  1890. 
A  useful  introduction  to  the  subject. 

Collignon  :  Histoire  de  la  Sculpture  grecque.    pp.  569. 

Only  Volume  I.  has  appeared  (1892)-;  this  carries  the  subject  as  far  as  the 
early  works  of  Phidias.  It  is  excellent  in  statement  and  illustration,  and 
includes  many  of  the  latest  acquisitions  in  archaic  art. 

Brunn  :  Geschichte  der  griechischen  Kunstler.    2  vols.    1857,  1859.    pp.  1605. 
A  monumental  work,  indispensable  to  the  more  advanced  student  of  art, 
although  it  was  published  nearly  forty  years  ago.    (Reprinted  in  1889.) 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Friedrichs-Wolters :  Gipsabgiisse  antiker  Bildwerke;  Bausteine  zur  Geschichte 
der  griechisch-romischen  Plastik.    1885.    pp.  850. 

A  catalogue  of  casts  in  the  Museum  of  Berlin.  Practically,  a  complete  and 
serviceable  history  of  Greek  sculpture. 

Waldstein :  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidias.    1885.  pp.431. 

Popular  and  interesting  studies.    17  plates,  and  cuts. 
Petersen:  Die  Kunst  des  Pheidias.    1873.    PP-  4l%- 

Probably  the  best  and  most  comprehensive  scientific  discussion  of  this 
subject. 

Collignon  :  Phidias.    1886.    pp.  384. 

Succinct,  clear,  and  well  illustrated. 
Heuzey:  Catalogue  des  Terres  Cuites  du  Louvre.  1882-. 

The  best  single  work  on  the  technic,  interpretation,  and  uses  of  Greek  figu- 
rines in  terra-cotta. 

Pottier  :  Les  Statuettes  de  Terre  Cuite  dans  TAntiquite.  1890. 

An  able  sketch  of  the  entire  subject.  The  treatment  is  popular,  yet 
scientific. 

Ruskin  :  Aratra  Pentelici. 

Recommended  for  reading  for  the  higher  appreciation  of  criticism  which  it 
may  promote,  and  for  its  suggestive  presentation  of  some  qualities  of  Greek 
art,  especially  in  low  relief  and  in  coins. 

VASES. 

Rayet  et  Collignon  :  Histoire  de  la  Ceramique  grecque.  1888. 

A  standard  recent  work  on  this  subject,    pp.  420.    16  plates,  145  cuts. 
Dumont  et  Chaplain  :  Les  Ce'ramiques  de  la  Grece  propre.    2  vols. 
Volume  I.  History  of  Greek  ceramic  art  down  to  the  fifth  century  B.  c, 
terminated  at  this  point  by  Dumont's  death.    Volume  II.  Collected  Essays  ; 
more  exhaustive  for  the  period  which  it  covers  than  the  preceding  volume. 
An  expensive  illustrated  work.    Quarto.    1881,  1890. 

Von  Rohden :  Vasenkunde,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler.    pp.  193 1- 
201 1. 

An  excellent  and  trustworthy  article  ;  sufficiently  complete  to  serve  as  a 
preparation  for  study  in  museums. 

Furtwangler  und  Loeschcke  :  Mykenische  Vasen.  1887. 

Treats  ably  a  subject  which  has  attracted  increasing  attention  during 
recent  years. 

Birch  :  History  of  Ancient  Pottery.   2  vols.  1873. 

A  popular  general  history.  Not  scientifically  accurate,  and  named  here 
chiefly  because  it  is  the  only  work  on  the  subject  in  English. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


57 


Furtwangler:  Vasensammlung  im  Antiquarium  (Berlin).    2  vols.  1885. 

This  practically  serves  as  a  comprehensive  history  of  ceramic  art.  pp.  1 105. 
Klein  :  Euphronios.    1886.    pp.  323.    60  cuts. 

Klein  :  Die  grieehischen  Vasen  mit  Meistersignaturen.    1887.    pp.  261. 

The  two  last  mentioned  works  will  be  required  by  somewhat  advanced 
students. 

COINS. 

Percy  Gardner  :  Types  of  Greek  Coins. 

This  treats  of  the  science  of  numismatics  only  in  its  bearing  upon  art  and 
archaeology. 
Head:  Historia  Numorum.  1887. 

A  numismatic  history  of  the  ancient  Greek  world.    "  The  most  comprehen- 
sive work  on  numismatics  since  Eckhel." 
Catalogues  of  Coins  of  the  British  Museum.    187 3-. 

The  best  extensive  series  of  illustrations  of  coins  by  accurate  reproductions. 
More  than  a  dozen  volumes  have  appeared. 

F.  Lenormant:  Monnaies  et  Medailles.    1883.    pp.  328. 

A  good  popular  introduction,  not  stopping  with  antiquity. 

EPIGRAPHY. 

Roberts:  Introduction  to  Greek  Epigraphy.    1887.  pp.419. 

History  of  the  development  of  the  Greek  alphabet  down  to  400  B.C.,  illus- 
trated by  inscriptions,  many  in  facsimile,  from  all  parts  of  the  Greek  world. 
Only  Vol.  I.  has  yet  (1892)  appeared. 

Dittenberger  :  Sylloge  Inscriptionum  Graecarum.  1883. 

"  Inscriptions  Graecae  ad  res  gestas  et  instituta  Graecorum  cognoscenda 
praecipue  utiles.''  An  excellent  collection,  with  admirable  commentaries, 
pp.  804. 

Kirchhoff :    Studien  zur  Geschichte  des  grieehischen  Alphabets  (Fourth  Edi- 
tion).   1887.    pp.  180. 

Entirely  supersedes  previous  works  on  this  subject. 

Hicks  :  Greek  Historical  Inscriptions.  1882. 

As  its  name  implies,  this  treats  inscriptions  from  the  historical,  not  the 
epigraphical,  point  of  view.    pp.  372. 

Larfeld :  Griechische  Epigraphik,  in  Midler's  Handbuch  der  Altertumswissen- 
schaft,  Vol.  II.  (Second  Edition,  1892),  pp.  357-624. 

An  excellent  treatise,  presenting  in  concise  and  scientific  form  a  mass  of 
important  facts  and  principles,  with  references  to  the  most  important  works 
on  the  subject. 


58  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Hinrichs:  Griechische  Epigraphik,  in  Miiller's  Handbuch,  Vol.  II.  (First  Edi- 
tion, 1886),  pp.  329-474- 

Good,  but  not  so  complete  as  the  treatise  by  Larfeld. 
S.  Reinach:  Traite  d'fipigraphie  grecque.  1885. 

A  manual  of  information  and  suggestion,    pp.  560. 
Collitz:  Sammlung  der  griechischen  Dialektinschriften.  1884-. 

Not  yet  complete,  but  already  contains  most  of  the  inscriptions  which  are 
important  for  the  illustration  or  study  of  the  dialects  of  Greece. 

Cauer  :  Delectus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum  (Second  Edition).    1883.  pp.363. 

A  selection  of  inscriptions  for  the  illustration  of  Greek  dialects. 
Meisterhans  :  Grammatik  der  attischen  Inschriften  (Second  Edition).  1888. 
This  work  gives  important  statistics  with  regard  to  the  use  of  forms  and 
syntactical  constructions  in  Attic  inscriptions,  and  is  indispensable  in  work 
on  such  inscriptions,    pp.  237. 

G.  Meyer:  Griechische  Grammatik  (Second  Edition).    1886.    pp.  552. 

A  scientific  grammar,  with  constant  reference  to  forms  found  in  inscriptions. 

Kiihner-Blass :  Grammatik  der  griechischen  Sprache.     Vol.  I.  in  two  parts. 
1890,  1892.    pp.  1297. 

Fairly  exhaustive  for  inscriptional  as  well  as  literary  forms. 
Roehl :  Inscriptiones  Graecae  Antiquissimae.    Folio.    1883.    pp.  193. 

Indispensable  for  the  study  of  the  Epichoric  alphabets  of  Greece. 
Corpus  Inscriptionum  Atticarum.    4  vols.,  folio.  1877-92 
Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum.  1825-92. 

Seven  volumes,  folio,  including  the  recently  published  volumes  of  inscrip- 
tions from  Sicily  and  Northern  Greece. 

Loewy:  Inschriften  griechischer  Bildhauer.    Quarto.    1885.    pp.  410. 

S.  Reinach:  Conseils  aux  Voyageurs  archeologues  en  Grece.    1886.  i2mo. 
pp.  116. 

A  little  book  with  excellent  directions  for  making  "  squeezes,"  and  other 
practical  hints. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Baedeker  :  Greece.    1889.    pp.  374. 

In  the  main,  the  work  of  Dr.  Lolling.  Scientific,  convenient,  and  trustwor- 
thy. The  English  translation  is  at  present  to  be  preferred  to  the  German 
original,  being  more  recent. 

Guides  Joanne  :  Vol.  I.  Athenes  et  ses  Environs.    1890.    pp.  216. 
Vol.  II.  Grece  et  les  lies.    1891.    pp.  509. 

This  covers  more  ground  than  Baedeker,  and  is  fuller.  In  the  main,  the 
work  of  M.  Haussoullier  and  other  members  of  the  French  School  at  Athens. 
These  German  and  French  guides  are  both  excellent,  and  one  supplements 
the  other. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


59 


Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Atlas  von  Athen.    1878.    12  large  folio  plates. 
With  full  explanatory  text.    A  standard  work,  though  antiquated  in  parts. 

Curtius  und  Kaupert :  Karten  von  Attika  (mit  erlauternderm  Text). 
Large  and  minutely  exact  maps,  executed  "  auf  Veranlassung  des  Instituts  " 
by  officers  of  the  Prussian  government.    The  text,  by  E.  Curtius  and  Milch- 
hofer, is  particularly  important  for  questions  concerning  the  topography  of 
the  Athenian  ports. 

Milchhofer :  Untersuchungen  liber  die  Demenordnung  des  Kleis- 
thenes.  1892. 

This  contains  the  latest  information  about  the  position  of  the  Attic  demes. 
With  a  map. 

Harrison  and  Verrall :  Mythology  and  Monuments  of  Ancient  Athens. 
1890.    pp.  736. 

Especially  valuable  as  containing  many  of  the  results  of  Dr.  Dorpfeld's  re- 
cent investigations.    With  many  illustrations. 
Bursian  :  Geographie  von  Griechenland.    2  vols.    1862-68.    pp.  1002. 
Old,  but  still  indispensable  as  a  book  of  reference. 

Tozer :  Geography  of  Greece.    1873.    pp.  405. 

Lolling:  Topographie  von   Griechenland,  in  Midler's   Handbuch,  Vol.  III. 
PP-  99-352-  l889- 

Much  briefer  than  Bursian's  work,  but  recent,  and  covering  the  entire  Greek 
world.    Especially  good  for  Athens. 
Leake  :  Travels  in  Northern  Greece.   4  vols.  1835. 

Leake  :  Topography  of  Athens  and  the  Demi  of  Attica.  2  vols.  1841.  pp.  943. 
Leake  :  Travels  in  the  Morea.    3  vols.  1830. 

These  three  works  by  Colonel  Leake  form  a  monumental  series.  Written 

before  1840,  they  have  been  the  basis  of  all  topographical  study  in  Greece  since 

that  time. 

E.  Curtius :  Peloponnesos.    2  vols.    1851-52.  pp.1134. 

Published  forty  years  ago,  but  not  yet  superseded.  Fuller  than  Bursian's 
work. 

Jahn-Michaelis :  Pausaniae  Descriptio  Arcis  Athenarum  (1880).    pp.  70. 

The  text  of  Pausanias's  Periegesis  of  the  Acropolis,  with  much  ancient  illus- 
trative matter,  both  literary  and  epigraphic,  added  in  the  form  of  notes. 

E.  Curtius  :  Stadtgeschichte  von  Athen.    1891.    pp.  339.    With  plans. 

The  most  recent  contribution  to  the  topography  of  Athens.  Historical  in 
its  arrangement,  presenting  results  rather  than  arguments,  in  interesting  style. 
An  introduction  contains  a  collection  by  Milchhofer  of  the  passages  in  the 
works  of  ancient  authors  which  illustrate  the  topography  and  monuments  of 
the  city.    Stimulating,  though  some  of  its  theories  are  antiquated. 


6o 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Wachsmuth  :  Die  Stadt  Athen  im  Alterthum.  1874-1890. 

The  best  work  on  Athens,  if  but  one  is  chosen.    It  discusses  not  only  to- 
pography, but  also  political,  social,  and  religious  institutions.    As  yet  only 
the  first  volume  and  the  first  half  of  the  second  have  appeared,    pp.  768. 
Burnouf:  La  Ville  et  TAcropole  d'Athenes.    1877.    pp.  220. 

A  series  of  suggestive  essays  on  the  historical  development  of  Athens. 
One  of  the  earliest  destructive  onslaughts  on  Beule's  theories  as  to  the  en- 
trance to  the  Acropolis. 

A.  Botticher:  Die  Akropolis  von  Athen.    1888.    pp.  295.    36  plates,  132  cuts. 

Deals  with  the  remains  on  the  Acropolis  and  its  slopes. 
A.  Botticher :  Olympia.    1886.    pp.420.    21  plates,  95  cuts. 

A  convenient  digest  of  the  cumbrous  official  reports. 
Milchhofer  :  Athen,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler.    pp.  144-209. 
Flasch  :  Olympia,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler.    pp.  1053-1104  (=  90  pp.). 
Flasch  :  Pergamon,  in  Baumeister's  Denkmaler.    pp.  1 206-1237. 

The  three  preceding  are  all  excellent  and  comprehensive  essays.  That  on 
Pergamon  is  necessarily  incomplete,  since  full  publication  of  the  work  there 
has  not  yet  been  made.    The  illustrations  and  maps  are  good. 

Steffen  :  Karten  von  Mykenae.    1884.    Folio,    pp.  48. 

Neumann  und  Partsch :  Physikalische  Geographie  von  Griechenland.  1885. 
PP-  475- 

MYTHOLOGY. 

Preller:  Griechische  Mythologie.    2  vols.  1875-1887. 

The  best  work  on  the  origin  and  development  of  Greek  myths. 
Roscher  :  Lexikon  der  griechischen  und  romischen  Mythologie. 

Minute  and  exhaustive.  In  process  of  publication;  not  quite  half  com- 
plete (2024  pp.).  Especially  valuable  for  its  historical  treatment  of  mythol- 
ogy in  art. 

Seemann  :  Mythologie  der  Griechen  und  Romer.    1886.    pp.  280. 

Collignon  :  Mythologie  figuree  de  la  Grece. 

Brief,  but  good  ;  including  only  so  much  of  mythological  legend  as  suffices 
to  explain  certain  usual  types  in  art. 

Decharme  :  Mythologie  de  la  Grece  antique.    1886.    pp.  697. 

Resembles  Preller's  work  in  plan  and  scope.  A  standard  work  in  French. 
Overbeck  :  Griechische  Kunstmythologie. 

Treats  of  mythology  as  illustrated  by  extant  monuments  of  art.  A  com- 
prehensive and  elaborate  work  in  several  volumes,  —  text  and  folio  atlas.  Not 
yet  complete. 


TWELFTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


6l 


Welcker :  Griechische.  Gotterlehre.    3  vols.    1857-63.    pp.  1973. 
Dyer  :  The  Gods  in  Greece.    1891.    pp.  457. 

Presents  some  of  the  results  of  recent  excavations,  especially  at  Eleusis  and 
Delos,  with  a  study  of  the  mythological  questions  suggested  by  them. 

Ruskin  :  Queen  of  the  Air. 

Without  scientific  value,  but  rich  in  poetic  suggestions. 

PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin  de  Correspondance  hellenique.    Founded  1877. 

The  official  organ  of  the  French  School  at  Athens. 
Mitteilungen  des  deutschen  Archaologischen  Instituts  (Athenische  Abteilung). 
Founded  1876. 

The  organ  of  the  German  Institute  at  Athens.  The  later  volumes  contain 
the  results  of  important  architectural  studies  by  Dr.  Dorpfeld. 

Jahrbuch  des  deutschen  Archaologischen  Instituts.    Founded  1886. 

More  general  in  its  contents  than  the  preceding,  numbering  among  its  con- 
tributors the  most  prominent  archaeologists  of  Germany. 

American  Journal  of  Archaeology.    Founded  1885. 

This  publishes  much  of  the  work  of  the  American  School  at  Athens. 
Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies.    Founded  1880. 

Published  by  the  Society  for  the  promotion  of  Hellenic  Studies  (England), 
and  containing  the  chief  fruits  of  the  work  of  the  British  School  at  Athens. 

'E<£?7jU,epts  'Ap^atoA.oytK7y.     Quarto.    Third  Series  founded  1883. 

YlpaKTLKa  Tr}<;  iv ' hOrjvais  'ApxaioA.oyi/o}s  'Eratpiag. 

These  works  are  both  published  by  the  Archaeological  Society  of  Athens. 
The  UpanTiKot.  is  a  yearly  report,  with  summary  accounts  of  the  excavations 
undertaken  by  the  Society.  The  'Ecpyfxepls  is  an  illustrated  journal  of  archae- 
ology and  epigraphy. 

AeXrcov  'Ap^atoXoytKoi/.     Founded  1888. 

Edited  by  Mr.  Kabbadias,  Ephor  General  of  Antiquities  of  Greece.  A 
monthly  bulletin  of  recent  discoveries. 

Archaeologisch-epigraphische  Mitteilungen  aus  Oesterreich-Ungarn. 

Revue  Archeologique.    Founded  1844. 

Archaologische  Zeitung.    43  vols.  1843-86. 

Gazette  Archeologique.    Founded  1875. 

The  two  immediately  preceding  have  now  ceased  to  appear.  The  old  vol- 
umes (particularly  of  the  Archaologische  Zeitung)  contain  many  valuable 
articles.  The  volumes  of  the  Gazette  Archeologique  abound  in  excellent 
illustrations  of  a  great  variety  of  works  of  art. 


62 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


MODERN  GREEK. 

Vincent  and  Dickson  :  Handbook  to  Modern  Greek.  1881. 

The  best  text-book  on  the  subject  in  English.  It  deals  rather  with  the  lit- 
erary language  than  with  that  spoken  by  the  people,  and  hence  cannot  be  a 
complete  conversational  guide,  especially  in  the  rural  districts,    pp.  341. 

Jannaris :  Wie  spricht  man  in  Athen. 

Deals  with  the  spoken  rather  than  with  the  literary  language,  giving  a  num- 
ber of  Greek  dialogues  and  a  Greek-German  vocabulary. 

Hatzidakis :   Einleitung  in   die   neugriechische   Sprache.      189 1. 
pp.  178. 

Scientific  philological  discussions  (not  quite  a  systematic  grammar)  in  the 
same  series  as  Whitney's  Sanskrit  Grammar  and  Meyer's  Griechische  Gram- 
matik.    1892.    pp.  464. 

Mitsotakis :  Praktische  Grammatik  der  neugriechischen  Sprache. 

Serviceable  in  the  study  of  the  spoken  language. 
Mrs.  Gardner  :  A  Grammar  of  Modern  Greek.  1892. 

Best  for  the  ordinary  language  of  the  people. 

Contopoulos  :  Modern  Greek  and  English  Lexicon. 

Jannarakis :  Neugriechisch-deutsches  Worterbuch. 

The  latter  is  rather  the  better  of  the  dictionaries.  Neither  does  justice  to 
the  speech  of  common  life. 


|lrrjj<*ol00ttal  Institute  of  America. 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE 

MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

1893-94. 
jSHttfj  tfje  Reports  of 

RUFUS  B.  RICHARDSON,  Ph.D.,  Director, 

AND 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  Ph.  D  ,  Litt.D.,  L.H.D.,  Professor  of  Art. 


CAMBRIDGE: 
JOHN   WILSON   AND  SON. 
SHntoersttg  ^rrss. 
1895. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 


jftrlanagmg  Committee. 

1893-94. 

Thomas  Day  Seymour  (Chairman),  Yale  University,  New  Haven, 
Conn. 

Charles  D.  Adams,  Dartmouth  College,  Hanover,  N.  H. 

H.  M.  Baird,  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 

I.  T.  Beckwith,  Trinity  College,  Hartford,  Conn. 
Miss  A.  C.  Chapin,  Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Mass. 
Martin  L.  D'Ooge,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 
Henry  Drisler,  Columbia  College,  48  West  46th  St.,  New  York  City. 
O.  M.  Fernald,  Williams  College,  Williamstown,  Mass. 

Abraham  L.  Fuller,  Adelbert  College  of  Western  Reserve  University, 

Cleveland,  Ohio. 
Henry  Gibbons,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Basil  L.  Gildersleeve,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md. 
William  W.  Goodwin,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
William  G.  Hale,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 
Albert  Harkness,  Brown  University,  Providence,  R.  I. 
William  A.  Lamberton,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Miss  Abby  Leach,  Vassar  College,  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y. 
Seth  Low  (ex  officio:  President  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of 

America),  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
*Thomas  W.  Ludlow  (Secretary),  Cottage  Lawn,  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Mead,  Mt.  Holyoke  College,  South  Hadley,  Mass. 
t Augustus  C.  Merriam,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 


*  Died  April  17,  1894. 


t  Died  January  19,  1895. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


Charles  Eliot  Norton,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
Bernadotte  Perrin  (Chairma?i  of  Committee  on  Publications),  Yale 

University,  New  Haven,  Conn. 
Frederic  J,  ue  Peyster  (Treasurer),  7  East  42d  St.,  New  York  City. 
William  Carey  Poland,  Brown  University,  9  Lloyd  St.,  Providence, 

R.  I. 

Rufus  B.  Richardson  (ex  officio :  Director  of  the  School),  Athens, 
Greece. 

William  M.  Sloane,  College  of  New  Jersey,  Princeton,  N.  J. 

Herbert  Weir  Smyth,  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn  Mawr,  Pa. 

J.  R.  Sitlington  Sterrett,  Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

Frank  B.  Tarbell,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 

Fitz  Gerald  Tisdall,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York,  New  York  City. 

James  C.  Van  Benschoten,  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 

Charles  Waldstein  (ex  officio :  Professor  in  the  School),  University 

of  Cambridge,  Cambridge,  England. 
William  R.  Ware,  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  New  York  City. 
Benjamin  Ide  Wheeler,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 
James  R.  Wheeler,  University  of  Vermont,  Burlington,  Vt. 
John  Williams  White,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 
Cooperating  Colleges. 


5 


ADELBERT   COLLEGE    OF  WESTERN 

RESERVE  UNIVERSITY. 
AMHERST  COLLEGE. 
BROWN  UNIVERSITY. 
BRYN  MAWR  COLLEGE. 
COLLEGE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW  YORK. 
COLLEGE  OF  NEW  JERSEY. 
COLUMBIA  COLLEGE. 
CORNELL  UNIVERSITY. 
DARTMOUTH  COLLEGE. 
HARVARD  UNIVERSITY. 
JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIVERSITY. 

YALE  UNI 


MT.  HOLYOKE  COLLEGE. 
TRINITY  COLLEGE. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  CHICAGO. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  NEW 
YORK. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 
UNIVERSITY  OF  VERMONT. 
VASSAR  COLLEGE. 
WELLESLEY  COLLEGE. 
WESLEYAN  UNIVERSITY. 
WILLIAMS  COLLEGE. 


trustees  of  tfje  Scfjool. 

Charles  Eliot  Norton  {President). 

William  W.  Goodwin  {Secretary). 

Gardiner  M.  Lane  {Treasurer). 

Martin  Brimmer. 

Henry  Drisler. 

Basil  L,  Gildersleeve. 

# Edward  J.  Lowell. 

Henry  G.  Marquand. 

Frederic  J.  de  Peyster. 

Henry  C.  Potter. 

Thomas  Day  Seymour. 

William  M.  Sloane. 

John  Williams  White. 


*  Died,  1894. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 
AT  ATHENS. 

1893-94. 

jpacultg. 

RUFUS  BYAM  RICHARDSON,  Ph.  D., 
Director  of  the  School. 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  Ph.  D.,  Litt.  D.}  L.  H.  D., 

Professor  of  the  History  of  Art. 

JOHN  WILLIAMS  WHITE,  Ph.  D., 

Professor  of  the  Greek  Language  and  Literature. 

SHutJentg. 

John  Alden,  A.  B.,  Harvard  University,  1893,  Portland,  Maine. 

Edward  Capps,  A.  B.,  Illinois  College,  1887  ;  Ph.  D.,  Yale  University, 
189 1  ;  Associate  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University  of  Chicago. 

Mrs.  Adele  F.  Dare,  A.  B.,  Christian  University  of  Missouri,  1875, 
Telluride,  San  Miguel  Co.,  Colo. 

Oscar  Bennett  Fallis,  A.  B.,  University  of  Kentucky,  1891,  Stu- 
dent at  the  University  of  Munich. 

Otis  Shepard  Hill,  A.  B.,  Harvard  University,  1893,  Lancaster, 
Kentucky. 

Joseph  Clark  Hoppin,  A.  B.,  Harvard  University,  1893,  Student  at 

the  University  of  Munich. 
Richard .  Norton,  A.  B.,  Harvard  University,  1892,  Student  at  the 

University  of  Munich. 
Richard  Parsons,  A.  B.,  Ohio  Wesleyan  University,  1868  ;  A.  M., 

Ohio  Wesleyan  University,  187 1  ;  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  Ohio 

Wesleyan  University,  Delaware,  Ohio. 
Charles  Peabody,  A.  B.,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1889  ;  Ph.  D., 

Harvard  University,  1893  ;  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Edward  E.  Phillips,  A.  B.,  Harvard  University,  1878  ;  Ph.  D.,  Har- 
vard University,  1880 ;  Professor  of  Greek  in  Marietta  College, 

Marietta,  Ohio. 

Miss  Kate  L.  Strong,  A.  B.,  Vassar  College,  1892,  Rochester, 
N.  Y. 

Mtss  Florence  S.  Tuckerman,  A.  B.,  Smith  College,  1884,  New 
South  Lyme,  Ohio. 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF  THE  MANAGING  COMMITTEE 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 


To  the  Council  of  the  Archtzological  Institute  of  America  :  — 

Gentlemen,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you 
the  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  Amer- 
ican School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  from  De- 
cember i,  1893.  to  December  1,  1894;  and  also  the 
Reports  of  the  Director  of  the  School,  Dr.  R.  B. 
Richardson,  and  of  the  Professor  of  Art,  Dr.  Charles 
Waldstein. 

The  list,  on  the  opposite  page,  of  the  Faculty  and 
students  of  the  School  for  the  academic  year  1893-94 
in  itself  calls  attention  to  and  declares  the  School's 
marked  growth.  Never  before  have  so  many  and  so 
mature  American  students  gathered  in  Athens,  and 
never  have  their  opportunities  for  study  and  research 
been  so  ample ;  never  have  they  received  so  much  di- 
rect and  systematic  instruction ;  never  have  the  exca- 
vations under  the  care  of  the  School  been  so  exten- 
sive ;  never  have  so  many  colleges  contributed  to  the 


8 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


support  of  the  School ;  never  has  its  income  been  so 
large.  This  is  indeed  an  auspicious  opening  for  the 
new  administration  of  the  School  at  Athens,  under 
Professor  Richardson. 

The  year  covered  by  this  Report  is  the  sixth  of  Dr. 
Waldstein's  connection  with  the  School.  His  influ- 
ence at  Athens  has  ever  been  a  source  of  strength  to 
the  School,  while  his  labors  in  the  direction  of  the  ex- 
cavations have  been  exceedingly  fruitful,  as  can  best 
be  learned  from  his  Report. 

All  American  scholars  must  be  gratified  by  the 
honors  paid  to  Professor  Richardson  and  Professor 
White  in  their  election  to  membership  in  the  Imperial 
German  Institute  of  Archaeology,  and  in  the  Greek 
Archaeological  Society. 

The  anticipations  cherished  with  regard  to  Pro- 
fessor White's  stimulating  and  guiding  influence  on 
the  students  of  the  School,  and  of  the  value  of  his  in- 
structions, were  not  excessive.  No  one  could  have 
been  more  useful  than  he  in  aiding  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  new  administration,  particularly  since  seri- 
ous illness  in  the  Director's  family,  both  on  the  voyage 
to  Greece  and  during  a  considerable  part  of  the  year, 
threw  a  heavy  burden  of  private  care  and  anxiety  on 
Professor  Richardson. 

Professor  White,  who  has  studied  with  special  care 
the  condition  of  classical  and  archaeological  study  in 
Greece,  has  presented  to  the  Managing  Committee  an 
elaborate  Report,  with  important  criticisms  and  sugges- 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


9 


tions  for  the  modification  of  the  work  and  life  of  the 
School,  looking  to  more  definite  and  more  scholarly 
results  under  the  wider  development  of  the  School's 
activities.  More  can  be  undertaken  wisely  now  than 
was  possible  when  the  Director,  without  the  support 
of  colleagues,  was  in  charge  of  the  School  but  for  a 
single  year  ;  and  more  can  be  required  of  the  students 
since  a  better  preliminary  training  can  be  secured 
without  difficulty  in  this  country.  Professor  White's 
Report  will  be  published  in  the  spring  of  1895,  as  the 
Fourth  Bulletin  of  the  School. 

Already,  under  the  influence  of  Professor  White's 
recommendations,  the  Executive  Committee  have  voted 
to  recommend  to  the  Managing  Committee  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  Fellowship,  with  a  yearly  income  of  six 
hundred  dollars,  for  students  of  archaeology  ;  while  a 
large  and  representative  gathering  of  archaeologists  in 
Philadelphia,  on  December  28,  1894,  voted  heartily  to 
request  the  Council  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  to 
establish  a  similar  scholarship.  If  this  recommenda- 
tion is  approved,  and  the  request  granted,  as  I  believe 
they  will  be  without  hesitation,  one  or  both  of  these 
scholarships  may  be  open  to  suitable  candidates  for 
the  coming  year,  1895-96.  Of  course,  the  School  will 
control  the  course  of  study  of  the  holders  of  these  fel- 
lowships, and  determine  the  length  of  time  each  shall 
remain  in  Greek  lands.  The  number  of  classical 
archaeologists  in  our  country  is  already  far  greater 

than  in  1881,  when  the  first  steps  were  taken  for  the 

2 


IO 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


foundation  of  this  School,  but  the  standard  of  attain- 
ment still  needs  to  be  raised,  and  encouragement  to  be 
offered  to  scientific  achievement  in  this  department. 

During  the  past  year  the  School  has  met  with  a 
serious  loss  in  the  death,  on  April  16,  1894,  of  Mr. 
Thomas  W.  Ludlow,  who  had  been  the  Secretary  of 
the  Managing  Committee  since  their  organization  in 
April,  1882.  At  their  May  meeting  in  Cambridge, 
the  Committee,  on  motion  of  Professor  Norton,  adopted 
the  following  resolution:  — 

"Resolved,  —  That  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  School 
at  Athens  experience  the  deepest  regret  in  the  loss  of  their 
late  Secretary,  Mr.  T.  W.  Ludlow,  and  desire  to  place  upon 
their  records  their  recognition  of  the  great  worth  of  his  ser- 
vices to  the  School  from  its  foundation  to  the  present  year. 
They  desire  also  to  give  expression  to  their  sense  of  personal 
loss  in  the  death  of  one  whose  modest,  simple,  and  sweet 
nature,  strong  character,  and  large  intelligence,  won  alike 
their  warm  affection  and  respect,  while  his  devotion  to  good 
learning  and  his  thorough  scholarly  attainments  made  him 
one  of  their  most  valued  associates." 

Professor  James  R.  Wheeler,  of  the  University  of 
Vermont,  who  was  a  member  of  the  School  during  its 
first  year,  1882-83,  and  its  Professor  of  the  Greek 
Language  and  Literature  just  ten  years  later,  was 
elected  to  succeed  Mr.  Ludlow  as  Secretary  of  the 
Committee  and  a  member  of  the  Committee  on 
Publications. 

The  University  of  California  has  returned  to  the 
support  of  the  School,  from  which  it  withdrew  in  1885, 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


after  contributing  to  it  for  two  years,  and  Professor 
Edward  B.  Clapp  of  that  University  has  been  elected 
a  member  of  the  Managing  Committee. 

Professor  F.  B.  Tarbell,  of  the  University  of  Chi- 
cago, who  has  rendered  distinguished  services  to  the 
School,  as  Annual  Director  during  the  School  year 
1888-89,  and  as  Secretary  during  1892-93,  has  been 
elected  a  member  of  the  Managing  Committee. 

Dr.  Waldstein  has  been  re-elected  Professor  of  the 
History  of  Art  for  the  year  1895-96. 

Professor  Benjamin  Ide  Wheeler,  of  Cornell  Uni- 
versity, who  had  accepted  the  Committee's  invitation 
to  serve  as  Professor  of  the  Greek  Language  and  Lit- 
erature for  the  year  1894-95,  wa?  prevented  by  family 
circumstances  from  carrying  out  his  plan,  and  his  term 
of  service  as  Professor  of  the  School  is  postponed 
until  1895-96. 

Professor  Thomas  Dwight  Goodell,  of  Yale  Uni- 
versity, accepted  an  election  to  act  as  Professor  of  the 
Greek  Language  and  Literature  for  the  academic  year 
1894-95,  and  he  is  now  in  Athens. 

Mr.  Edward  L.  Tilton,  of  the  firm  of  Boring  and 
Tilton,  architects,  of  New  York  City,  was  chosen  by 
the  Committee  as  architect,  with  special  reference  to 
the  study  of  the  remains  of  the  Argive  Heraeum  and 
of  the  neighboring  buildings.  The  Committee  con- 
sider themselves  fortunate  in  securing  an  architect  so 
well  fitted  for  this  work  by  his  experience  and  by  his 
previous  studies  and  travels. 


12 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


The  Committee  elected  Mr.  Richard  Norton  —  who 
had  been  a  student  of  the  School  for  two  years,  and 
to  the  value  of  whose  services  in  the  conduct  of  ex- 
cavations Dr.  Waldstein  has  borne  ample  witness  — 
Instructor  of  the  School,  with  the  hope  that  he  would 
return  to  Athens  and  take  charge  of  the  department 
of  Greek  Vases,  to  which  he  had  devoted  special 
attention.  But  other  engagements  prevented  him 
from  accepting  the  Committee's  invitation. 

The  first  two  campaigns  of  excavation  on  the  site  of 
the  Argive  Heraeum  were  sustained  by  generous  ap- 
propriations of  $2,500  each  year  by  the  Archaeological 
Institute.  In  May,  1893,  however,  perhaps  under  a 
misapprehension  of  the  extent  and  importance  of  the 
work  remaining  to  be  done  at  the  Heraeum,  the  Coun- 
cil appropriated  but  $500  to  the  excavations  under  the 
care  of  the  School,  and  turned  their  attention  chiefly 
to  the  exploration  of  Crete.  This  appropriation  of 
the  Institute  was  employed  in  the  spring  of  1894,  by 
Professor  Richardson,  to  continue  the  excavations  at 
Eretria,  in  which  he  himself  had  borne  a  part  with 
Dr.  Waldstein  in  the  spring  of  189 1.  Of  this  work 
the  Director's  Report  furnishes  a  detailed  account. 

The  Report  of  the  Professor  of  Art  presents  an  in- 
teresting statement  of  the  progress  of  the  excavations 
at  the  Argive  Heraeum.  The  money  for  this  work 
was  supplied  by  an  appropriation  of  $  1,400  from  the 
funds  of  the  School,  $1,950  from  friends  of  the  School 
in  New  York  City,  ^100  from  the  Boston  Society 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


l3 


of  the  Institute  of  Archaeology,  and  $100  from  Mr. 
Thayer,  of  Boston.  Circumstances  led  Dr.  Wald- 
stein  to  close  the  excavations  for  the  year  before  these 
funds  were  completely  exhausted.  The  remainder 
of  these  sums,  with  $500  appropriated  by  the  Coun- 
cil of  the  Institute  in  May,  1894,  and  generous  gifts 
by  a  member  of  the  School  and  others  of  his  family, 
are  to  be  used  in  the  spring  of  1895  for  the  comple- 
tion of  the  work  at  the  Heraeum  ;  or,  if  the  excava- 
tions cannot  be  called  absolutely  final,  they  are  to  be 
left  in  such  a  condition  that  any  work  in  future  may 
be  taken  up  at  a  satisfactory  point. 

In  accordance  with  the  plan  announced  in  the 
Twelfth  Report  of  the  School,  Professor  Perrin,  as 
Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Publications,  has 
made  a  collection  of  lantern  slides  for  the  illustration 
of  Greek  topography,  architecture,  art,  and  classical 
antiquities,  for  the  purpose  of  lending  or  duplicating. 
The  collection  already  numbers  about  three  hundred 
slides,  of  which  many  are  not  to  be  obtained  else- 
where. Professor  Perrin's  intention  is  to  receive  into 
the  collection  only  those  slides  which  are  techni- 
cally excellent,  and  important  for  what  they  represent. 
Already  applications  have  been  made  from  many 
quarters  for  these  slides,  and  the  Committee  believe 
that  not  only  will  the  convenience  of  classical  instruc- 
tors be  subserved  by  this  collection,  but  the  interest 
of  the  general  cultured  public  will  be  awakened  in 
classical  studies. 


14  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

Several  interesting  and  important  tracts  have  been 
published  during  the  year  1893-94,  among  the  Papers 
of  the  School,  in  the  American  Journal  of  Archaeology. 

During  the  academic  year  1895-96,  the  Director  of 
the  School  purposes  to  give  a  course  of  weekly  lec- 
tures, through  the  year,  on  objects  in  the  Museums, — 
sculptures,  vases,  and  bronzes,  —  with  assigned  reading 
on  the  subjects  of  the  lectures.  From  time  to  time 
the  students  themselves  will  be  called  to  lead  the  dis- 
cussions in  presence  of  the  objects.  A  second  course 
of  lectures  will  be  on  Attic  topography. 

Dr.  Waldstein  proposes  to  give  lectures  in  the 
Museums  supplementary  to  those  given  during  the 
winter  by  the  Director.  He  will  assign  to  different 
students  monuments  in  the  Museums  on  which  one 
shall  give  a  discourse,  —  the  others  to  join  in  the  dis- 
cussion, which  Dr.  Waldstein  will  sum  up.  As  he 
intends  during  the  coming  spring  to  bring  the  work 
of  excavation  at  the  Argive  Heraeum  to  a  suitable 
conclusion,  and  will  then  devote  himself  to  the  elabo- 
ration of  the  archaeological  material  secured,  he  hopes 
to  make  some  portion  of  this  material  the  means  of 
instruction,  and  to  draw  some  of  the  more  advanced 
students  into  co-operation  in  this  task  ;  but  the  degree 
and  manner  in  which  this  can  be  done  depend  upon 
the  proficiency  of  the  students  in  question,  as  well  as 
upon  the  nature  of  the  work. 

Professor  B.  I.  Wheeler  expects  to  offer  two  courses, 
—  one  on  Greek  Epigraphy,  from  the  point  of  view 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


15 


of  the  history  of  writing,  and  another  on  Selected 
Chapters  from  Greek  private  Antiquities.  In  both 
courses  he  will  make  use  of  the  materials  afforded  by 
the  Museums. 

After  this  Report  had  gone  to  the  printer,  the  news 
was  received  of  the  death  of  Professor  Augustus  Chap- 
man Merriam  at  Athens,  on  Saturday,  January  19,  1895. 
He  was  enjoying  the  rest  from  College  duties  afforded 
by  the  "  sabbatical  year,"  and  planned  to  pass  several 
months  in  Greece.  After  a  sojourn  in  Rome,  he 
reached  Athens  on  Christmas  day.  In  spite  of  a 
cold,  he  took  part  in  the  first  "  open  meeting  "  of  the 
School  for  the  year,  on  Friday,  January  11,  reading  a 
paper  on  Dr.  Halbherr's  explorations  in  Crete  in 
1894,  and  his  illness  was  not  considered  dangerous 
until  the  night  before  his  death.  His  remains  were 
buried  by  the  side  of  those  of  Lolling,  the  epigraphist. 
Professor  Merriam  had  been  a  member  of  the  Mana- 
ging Committee  since  1885.  He  was  the  Annual 
Director  of  the  School  in  1887-88.  He  was  Chair- 
man of  the  Committee  on  Publication  for  five  years, 
from  1888  to  1893,  giving  much  time  and  careful 
study  to  the  work.  He  was  born  in  1843.  Gradu- 
ated at  Columbia  College  with  the  highest  honors,  in 
1866,  appointed  Tutor  by  the  same  College  in  1868, 
Adjunct  Professor  in  1880,  and  Professor  of  Greek 
Archaeology  and  Epigraphy  in  1889,  he  was  connected 
with  that  institution  as  teacher  for  nearly  twenty-seven 
years.    The  honorary  degree  of  Ph.  D.  was  conferred 


1 6  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 

upon  him  by  Hamilton  College  in  1879.  He  was  the 
first  scholar  in  this  country  to  devote  himself  mainly 
to  classical  archaeology,  and  his  attainments  and  sci- 
entific judgment  were  respected  both  at  home  and 
abroad.  His  death  is  a  serious  loss  to  classical  studies. 
His  services  to  the  School  will  ever  be  remembered 
by  its  friends. 

THOMAS  DAY  SEYMOUR, 

Chairman. 

Yale  University,  January  31,  1895. 


REPORT  OF  THE  DIRECTOR. 


To  the  Managing  Committee  of 

The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens  :  — 

Gentlemen, —  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the 
following  report  on  the  affairs  of  the  American 
School  at  Athens  for  the  year  beginning  October  i, 
1893. 

It  may  be  taken  as  a  sign  of  the  increasing  attrac- 
tiveness of  the  School,  and  as  a  promise  of  its  in- 
creasing efficiency,  that  twelve  students,  the  largest 
number  in  any  one  year,  have  been  enrolled  as  regu- 
lar members.  Some  were  a  little  late  in  arriving, 
and  some  will  leave  before  the  end  of  the  year.  The 
three  women  left  early:  Miss  Strong  about  the  first 
of  March,  Miss  Tuckerman  about  the  first  of  April, 
and  Mrs.  Dare  about  three  weeks  later. 

As  women  cannot  well  travel  in  the  interior  of 
Greece,  nor  share  in  the  active  work  of  excavation, 
Greece  begins  to  lose  its  attractiveness  to  them  when 
the  season  for  travel  and  excavations  comes  on. 

In  addition  to  the  regular  members,  several  other 
persons  have  attended  the  meetings  and  lectures  of 
the  School  with  considerable  regularity.  Special  men- 
tion should  here  be  made  of  Mr.  H.  S.  Washing- 

3 


1 8  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


ton,  who  has  returned  to  Athens  for  the  sixth  con- 
secutive year,  to  pursue  his  geological  studies,  and 
to  assist  in  the  work  of  excavations.  Dr.  Waldstein 
will  best  speak  of  his  services  in  this  connection. 

Owing  to  illness  in  my  family  on  the  journey  to 
Greece,  and  to  the  delays  of  quarantine,  I  was  a  few 
days  late  in  reaching  Athens,  arriving  with  my  col- 
league, Professor  White,  on  October  9.  The  quaran- 
tine was  the  cause  of  delay  also  in  the  assembling  of 
the  students.  On  October  16,  we  organized  the 
School  with  five  members  present.  On  October  24, 
I  began  a  series  of  weekly  lectures  on  Sculpture  in 
the  museums  of  Athens,  which  I  kept  up  until  the 
first  visit  of  Dr.  Waldstein,  who  arrived  December 
19.  I  then  left  this  work  to  him.  On  December  8, 
I  began  another  series  of  weekly  exercises  in  Epig- 
raphy, consisting  of  three  introductory  lectures  fol- 
lowed by  practical  exercises  in  reading  Attic  inscrip- 
tions in  the  museum,  closing  at  the  end  of  February. 
Professor  White's  weekly  exercises  in  Topography, 
running  parallel  with  mine,  gave  the  students  two 
exercises  a  week  through  the  winter. 

On  November  11,  I  took  the  members  of  the  School 
to  Eleusis,  explaining  the  remains  of  ancient  buildings 
there.  I  have  also  taken  two  journeys  of  some  du- 
ration, one  with  Mr.  Capps  in  Eubcea  and  Thessaly, 
and  one  with  Mr.  Alden  in  yEtolia,  Acarnania, 
Phocis,  and  Bceotia. 

During  the  year,  we  have  held  three  open  meetings 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


19 


to  which  the-  Athenian  archaeological  public  was  in- 
vited. Our  first  meeting  was  on  January  5th,  when 
Dr.  Waldstein  spoke  of  Sculptures  from  the  Herccum, 
Professor  White  discussed  the  question,  Was  the 
Acropolis  of  Athens  a  Fortress  in  the  Fifth  Century 
B.  C.  ?  and  I  spoke  of  A  Torso  from  Daphne. 

Our  next  meeting  was  on  February  1,  when  Pro- 
fessor White  spoke  on  The  Pelargikon,  Mr.  Norton 
on  An  Inlaid  Mirror,  and  I  on  The  Theatre  at 
Eretria. 

The  last  public  meeting  was  on  March  15,  when 
Mr.  Norton  spoke  on  A  Head  of  Athene,  Mr.  Pea- 
body  on  Some  Inscriptio7is  from  the  Herceum  and 
from  Athens,  Mr.  Washington  on  The  Volcano  of  San- 
tor  ini,  and  I  on  Stamped  Tiles  from  the  Herczum. 

In  addition  to  our  own  exercises  the  students  have 
enjoyed,  as  usual,  the  great  privilege  of  attending  Dr. 
Dorpfeld's  open  air  lectures  on  the  topography  and 
monuments  of  Athens.  A  larger  number  than  usual 
have  also  availed  themselves  of  the  kindness  of  Dr. 
Wolters,  and  attended  his  lectures  on  art  in  the 
museums.  Several  members  of  the  school  also  ac- 
companied Dr.  Dorpfeld  on  his  Peloponnesian  tour, 
and  on  his  tour  through  the  Islands.  Thus  our  work 
has  been  materially  supplemented. 

The  relations  between  our  own  School  and  the 
other  archaeological  Schools  have  been  as  cordial 
and  intimate  as  ever.  Our  near  neighbor,  the  British 
School,  and  its  Director,  Dr.  Gardner,  have  been  real 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


neighbors  and  real  friends.  We  have  also  enjoyed 
the  hospitality  of  the  French  School  at  its  open 
meetings,  in  social  entertainment,  and  in  the  use  of 
its  library.  No  one  could  be  more  cordial  than  Mr. 
Homolle  has  been. 

The  American  Minister,  Mr.  Alexander,  has  shown 
a  warm  interest  in  our  welfare,  helping  us  in  practical 
matters,  and  appearing  at  our  open  meetings  and  at 
some  of  our  lectures.  The  United  States  Consul  also, 
Mr.  Horton,  has  frequently  been  with  us,  and  has  used 
our  library. 

The  appropriation  of  $500  for  the  library  has 
made  it  possible  to  purchase  many  books,  besides 
keeping  up  the  additional  instalments  of  works  to 
which  the  School  is  already  a  subscriber.  Among 
such  additions  special  mention  may  be  made  of 
Lenormant  and  De  Witte,  Elite  des  Monuments  Cera- 
mographiques. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  books  presented  to  the 
library  during  the  year  :  — 

A.  R.  Rhangabe's  Philological  Works  and  Translations, 
29  vols.  :  Petroff's  "A-rXa?  tt)?  KprjT^  and  "AtXc*?  tov  v7rep 
3 'Avej;apTr](TLas  lepov  tmv  'EWrjvcov  'Aywvos,  by  Hon.  E. 
Alexander. 

A.  Furtwaengler's  Meisterwerke  der  griechischen  Plastik, 
Baedeker's  Gricchenland,  and  other  books  still  to  be  selected- 
to  the  value  of  $50,  by  Mr.  J.  C.  Hoppin. 

Overbeck's  Geschichte  dcr  griechischen  Plastik,  4th  Edition, 
by  Mr.  O.  B.  Fallis. 

yE<f>r)/j.epk  yApxcuo\oyifcrf,  1852-1860  (completing  our  set), 
by  Mr.  Charles  Peabody. 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


Dyer's  Gods  in  Greece,  by  Miss  Kate  L.  Strong. 

Schuchhardt's  Schliemann 's  Excavations,  Translated  by  Miss 
Sellars,  by  Mr.  Percy  L.  Atherton. 

Bent's  Cyclades,  by  Mr.  H.  S.  Washington. 

Harvard  Studies  in  Classical  Philology,  Vol.  IV.,  by  Pro- 
fessor J.  W.  White. 

Musee  Imperial  Ottoman  :  Catalogue  des  Monnaies  Turco- 
mancs,  Catalogue  des  Sculptures,  and  Catalogue  des  Monuments 
Funcraires,  by  Hamdy  Bey. 

Picturesque  Chicago,  by  Mr.  D.  S.  Moseley. 

Waldstein's  The  Work  of  John  Ruskin,  by  the  author. 

Conze's  Ueber  eine  Athenestatue  aus  Pcrgamon,  by  the 
author. 

Robinson's  Catalogue  of  Greek,  Roman,  and  Etruscan  Vases 
in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  Mass.,  by  the  author. 

Capps's  Vitruvius  and  the  Greek  Stage,  by  the  author. 

Munter's  Das  Grab  des  Sophokles,  by  the  author. 

Svoronos's  Britomartis,  la  soi-disant  Europe  sur  le  Plateau 
de  Gcrtyna,  by  the  author. 

Castriotis's  Ol  Ae\<£ot,  by  the  author. 

Penrose's  Orientation  of  Greek  Temples,  by  the  author. 

Ricci's  Miscellanea  Epigrafica,  II  Prctorio  di  Gortyna,  and 
//  Testamento  d'Epikteto,  by  the  author. 

Taramelli's  Incinerarii  Antichissimi  in  Forma  di  Capanna, 
by  the  author. 

Pottier,  Les  Statuettes  de  Terre  Cuite  dans  V Antiquitc,  by 
Mr.  Capps. 

Kaiopothakes,  De  Thracia  provincia  Romana,  and  fO 
^(opiafxb^  rrj?  arparLcoTi/cr]^  zeal  iroXtTLKr)^  ifjovaias  kt\.,  by 
the  author. 

Messrs.  Ginn  and  Company,  of  Boston,  have  kindly 
presented  the  School  with  a  set  of  their  College  Series 
of  Greek  Authors. 

Dr.  Charles  Peabody,  a  member  of  the  School,  left 


22 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


the  sum  of  361  drachmas  for  the  purchase  of  books 
for  the  library. 

Here  may  be  mentioned  the  gifts  of  an  enlarged 
photograph  of  the  Parthenon,  from  Mr.  Thomas 
A.  Fox,  and  a  similar  photograph  of  the  Byzantine 
church  in  Merbaka  in  the  Argolid,  from  Mr.  H.  S. 
Washington. 

The  principal  improvement  inside  the  house,  be- 
sides the  necessary  repair  of  the  kitchen  chimney, 
has  been  the  addition  of  a  bath-room,  for  which  the 
little  room  next  to  the  pantry  was  utilized.  The  only 
improvement  made  in  the  grounds  has  been  the  plant- 
ing of  over  fifty  pine  trees,  in  conjunction  with  the 
British  School,  in  the  grounds  to  the  rear  of  the  two 
Schools.  Somewhat  more  than  half  of  these  have 
survived  the  exceedingly  dry  season  which  followed 
their  planting.  During  the  winter,  the  city  has  laid 
out  an  excellent  street  running  up  from  Kephissia 
Street,  past  the  east  of  our  School  grounds.  This 
will  now  be  the  usual  avenue  of  approach. 

I  would  express  here  my  obligations  to  my  col- 
leagues, Dr.  Waldstein  and  Professor  White,  for  their 
cordial  co-operation  and  for  many  kindnesses.  The 
excavations  of  Dr.  Waldstein  at  the  Heraeum  have 
been  the  conspicuous  event  of  the  year.  I  enjoyed 
the  privilege  of  spending  ten  days  at  the  excavations 
as  a  guest.  During  protracted  illness  in  my  family, 
which  to  some  extent  impaired  the  quality  of  my 
work  with  the  School,  I  was  obliged  to  let  the  bur- 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


23 


den  rest  heavily  on  Professor  White,  who  bore  it 
cheerfully. 

As  our  house  was  practically  closed  to  visitors 
for  nearly  two  months,  on  account  of  diphtheria,  we 
have  not  been  able  to  make  the  School  so  much  a 
place  of  hospitality  as  we  desired  ;  but  with  the  ap- 
proach of  spring  we  have  gladly  welcomed  many 
Americans  whose  interest  in  the  School  prompted 
them  to  call  on  us. 

On  Thursday,  May  3,  I  arrived  in  Eretria  with 
Messrs.  •  Capps,  Hill,  Peabody,  and  Phillips,  to  con- 
tinue excavations  in  and  about  the  theatre  there.  The 
next  two  days  were  Greek  holidays;  harvest-time  was 
near,  and  few  workmen  could  be  secured  from  Eretria. 
But  by  sending  to  Chalcis  for  help  we  were  able  to 
begin  work  on  the  following  Monday  morning  with 
a  force  of  sixty-six  men.  With  about  this  number  of 
men,  and  a  few  carts,  we  continued  our  work  for  four- 
teen days  and  a  half,  without  the  loss  of  an  hour  from 
bad  weather  or  a  holiday. 

We  began  by  digging  a  series  of  trenches  in  the  rear 
of  the  theatre,  that  is,  of  the  stage  building,  in  the 
hope  of  finding  either  a  temple  or  a  stoa  in  close  con- 
nection with  the  theatre.  Meanwhile  Professor  Phil- 
lips, in  directing  some  workmen  to  clear  away  the 
earth  around  some  blocks  of  stone  which  protruded 
from  the  earth  in  a  clump  of  bushes  a  little  further  to 
the  west,  found  a  platform  of  well  laid  stone.    As  this 


24 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


lay  less  than  a  meter  below  the  surface,  we  had  it  all 
laid  bare  on  the  evening  of  our  second  day's  work. 
Subsequently,  we  dug  a  trench  one  meter  wide  all 
around  the  platform,  down  to  the  bottom  of  the  three 
layers  of  stone  of  which  it  was  composed. 

The  platform  seemed  to  be  the  stereobate  of  a  tem- 
ple, it  is  12.40  x  23.10  meters,  affording  room  for  a 
temple  not  much  smaller  than  the  Theseum  or  the 
temple  of  Aegina.  It  has  a  massive  character,  form- 
ing an  almost  continuous  platform,  although  it  is 
interrupted  under  a  part  at  least  of  what  may  have 
been  the  cella,  where  no  bearing  function  was  required 
of  it. 

The  three  courses  of  poros  stone  are  of  approxi- 
mately equal  thickness,  and  make  altogether  a  depth 
of  1.35  meters.  They  are  preserved  without  the  loss  of 
a  single  stone,  while  above  the  stereobate  nothing  is 
preserved  except  a  somewhat  broken  layer  over  one  of 
its  open  spaces,  —  the  stones,  in  fact,  which  drew  our 
attention  in  this  direction. 

Over  the  larger  opening,  apparently  under  the  cella, 
was  a  layer  of  disintegrated  poros  stone  (quite  hard, 
but  not  composed  of  separate  blocks)  about  a  foot 
thick.  As  we  removed  this  and  cleared  out  the  earth 
from  the  whole  opening,  we  found  traces  of  fire  in 
whole  handfuls  of  charcoal  and  some  bits  of  melted 
iron.  All  around  the  buildinsf  also  we  had  to  cut 
down  through  a  similar  layer  of  disintegrated  poros 
stone,  which  was  thickest  on  the  north  side  where  it 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT 


25 


was  0.30  meter  thick,  and  extended  back  about  five 
meters  from  the  building.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  the 
latter  was  destroyed  by  a  conflagration  in  which  its 
architectural  members  and  most  of  its  stylobate  crum- 
bled to  pieces. 

The  proximity  of  the  building  to  the  theatre  —  the 
distance  being  only  19  meters  from  its  northeast 
corner  to  the  southwest  corner  of  the  stage  building 
—  makes  it  a  reasonable  supposition  that  we  have  here 
the  remains  of  a  temple  of  Dionysus,  but  the  lack  of 
any  inscription  or  ancient  description  leaves  this,  of 
course,  only  a  supposition. 

At  the  west  end,  and  about  0.50  meter  below  the  top 
of  the  platform,  —  almost  touching  it  at  the  northwest 
corner,  but  diverging  from  it  as  it  proceeded  south- 
ward, —  we  found  a  water  conduit  of  cylindrical  tiles, 
0.15  meter  in  diameter.  This  we  traced  to  a  distance 
of  1 5  meters.  It  apparently  brought  water  down  from 
the  valley  to  the  west  of  the  acropolis.  We  found 
another  branch  of  the  same  conduit,  somewhat  broken, 
on  the  north  side  of  the  temple. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  temple,  near  its  eastern  end. 
was  discovered  what  excited  among  workmen  and  visi- 
tors the  greatest  interest,  namely,  a  square,  well-walled 
pit,  one  corner  touching  the  temple,  but  the  adjacent 
side  diverging  from  the  south  side  of  the  temple  at  an 
angle  of  about  30°.  As  we  slowly  cleared  out  this  pit, 
only  one  man  at  a  time  being  able  to  work  in  it,  while 
another  drew  up  the  earth  in  a  basket,  the  workmen 

4 


26 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


called  it  at  first  a  grave.  When  we  got  down  past  six 
courses  of  stone,  in  which  were  carefully  cut  foot-holes, 
to  a  depth  of  3  meters,  we  came  to  a  lateral  passage 
which  leads  away  from  the  temple,  about  a  meter  high, 
not  vaulted  with  stone  but  cut  out  of  very  hard  earth. 
Now  the  talk  was  of  a  treasure-house.  After  clearing 
this  to  a  distance  of  16  meters,  breaking  a  shaft  down 
from  the  surface  for  ventilation,  we  came  to  the  point 
where  we  had  to  stop  work  for  the  season  for  lack  of 
funds,  having  found  nothing  in  the  passage  except 
uninteresting  fragments  of  pottery,  and  a  cow's  horn 
and  jaw-bone  at  the  bottom  of  the  pit.  The  latter 
objects  suggested  the  idea  of  a  sacrificial  pit ;  but  the 
long  passage  looks  more  like  a  watercourse  which  was 
very  probably  supplied  by  the  before  mentioned  con- 
duit at  the  west  end  of  the  temple.  A  supply  of  water 
at  the  steps  of  the  temple  would  have  been  a  great 
convenience. 

At  the  east  end  of  the  temple,  and  adjacent  to  it, 
are  two  blocks  of  poros,  which  probably  served  as 
foundations  of  bases  of  statues. 

At  a  distance  of  13.65  meters  from  the  east  front 
of  the  temple,  and  directly  in  the  rear  of  the  western 
part  of  the  stage  building,  is  a  large  foundation  of 
three  courses,  somewhat  over  4  meters  square,  broken 
away  in  the  middle  by  the  excavations  of  our  School 
in  1 89 1,  in  the  attempt  to  ascertain  its  character.  We 
cleared  the  ground  around  this  and  between  it  and 
the  temple.    From  the  close  connection  between  the 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


27 


two,  this  might  with  some  safety  be  called  an  altar. 
From  this  latter  to  the  vaulted  passage  through  the 
stage  building  into  the  orchestra,  the  distance  is  so 
short  as  to  make  that  passage  seem  the  natural  way 
from  the  sacred  precinct  into  the  theatre. 

After  uncovering  the  temple  we  dug  a  broad  trench 
back  toward  the  west  parodos  of  the  theatre,  and 
before  we  were  compelled  to  stop  had  nearly  cleared 
this  parodos.  Adjacent  to  this  on  a  level  with  the 
ground  outside,  but  so  high  above  the  level  of  the 
orchestra  that  the  parodos  can  have  led  up  to  it  only 
by  a  flight  of  steps,  some  traces  of  which  we  found, 
was  a  long  stylobate  parallel  to  the  north  side  of  the 
temple.  We  thought  at  first  that  we  had  found  a 
stoa,  another  object  of  our  search;  but  we  soon  ob- 
served that  the  column  bases,  though  in  situ,  were 
neither  arranged  at  regular  intervals  nor  squared  with 
one  another.  Several  drums  of  columns  found  near 
by  were  also  of  very  various  character.  Inscriptions, 
one  of  which  contained  aveOiqKev  and  another  ^u^et, 
seemed  to  show  that  we  had  here  a  stylobate  on 
which  were  set  up  memorials  of  victories  in  theatrical 
contests. 

Contemporaneously  with  this  work  near  the  thea- 
tre, over  which  Professors  Phillips  and  Capps  exercised 
especial  supervision,  several  other  excavations  were 
carried  on.  Between  the  theatre  and  the  Naval 
School  of  King  Otho,  and  quite  near  the  latter,  there 
appeared  on  the  surface  lines  of  walls  which  at  first 


28  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


sieht  looked  like  foundations  of  a  stoa.  In  excavat- 
ing  these  we  found  that  they  were  the  continuous 
walls  of  houses  on  either  side  of  a  street.  We  cleared 
several  of  these  houses,  finding  in  one  case  a  floor  of 
cement  and  pebbles  about  a  meter  below  the  surface. 
Some  walls,  perhaps  older  than  the  rest,  ran  regardless 
of  these  house  walls,  and  might  with  some  diffidence 
be  taken  as  an  indication  of  an  older,  pre-Persian 
Eretria  on  the  same  spot  as  the  later  city. 

At  the  foot  of  the  acropolis,  about  175  meters  to 
the  east  of  the  theatre,  I  noticed  the  corner  of  a  large 
stone  block  protruding  from  the  ground.  On  digging 
about  it,  I  found  it  hollowed  out  on  the  top  so  as  to 
make  a  lar^e  tank.  As  it  was  marked  on  the  side 
with  a  A,  it  appeared  to  belong  to  a  series  of  four.  By 
digging  back  in  the  direction  of  the  acropolis,  I  found 
the  other  three.  Back  of  the  tanks  came  two  stone 
blocks  0.72  meter  long,  with  channels  cut  in  the 
middle  of  each,  and  then  a  tile  conduit  delivering 
water  into  the  system  from  the  west  side.  Owing  to 
the  depth  of  earth,  here  about  six  feet,  I  did  not  trace 
the  conduit,  which  probably  brought  the  water  along 
the  foot  of  the  acropolis  from  the  same  valley  which 
supplied  the  temple. 

The  dimensions  of  the  tanks  are  as  follows :  — 

Length,  1.36;  breadth,  0.78 ;  height,  0.95. 

The  dimensions  of  the  hollow  are :  — 

Length,  1.16;  breadth  in  the  middle,  0.65;  depth  in 
the  middle,  0.35. 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


29 


Each  tank-  had  a  hole  in  the  bottom,  and  was 
covered  on  the  inside  with  two  thick  coatings  of 
stucco.  They  were  carefully  joined  together,  and  a 
channel  was  cut  to  let  the  water  flow  from  one  to  the 
other.  To  make  their  joints  more  secure,  a  transverse 
block  was  put  under  each  joint.  The  whole  series 
was  backed  up  against  a  wall,  about  twenty  feet  of 
which  I  uncovered.  Whether  it  belonged  to  a  build- 
ing is  not  certain.  An  interval  of  about  a  hands- 
breadth  was  left  between  the  tanks  and  this  wall, 
and  on  this  side  the  tanks  were  cut  with  a  straight 
perpendicular  face,  whereas  on  the  other  side  there 
was  considerable  molding  and  cutting  away  of  the 
block. 

The  whole  series  looks  like  a  lot  of  wash-tubs. 

An  important  result  of  this  discovery  is  the  assur- 
ance that  considerable  earth  has  accumulated  at  the 
foot  of  the  south  slope  of  the  acropolis.  Not  far  from 
the  tanks  was  found,  in  1885,  a  well  preserved  male 
statue,  a  little  over  life-size,  now  in  the  central  museum 
at  Athens  (Kabbadias's  Catalogue,  No.  244).  A  little 
to  the  south  of  the  tanks,  a  sudden  falling  off  of  the 
ground  betrays  a  terrace  wall  a  good  deal  broken,  but 
preserved  in  places,  and  having  considerable  extent. 
Here  one  might  hope  to  find  an  important  building, 
perhaps  a  stoa,  stretching  off  toward  the  theatre. 
The  agora  also,  one  might  hope  to  find.  The  supply 
of  water  certainly  indicates  some  sort  of  centre  of 
life. 


30 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


The  water  supply  of  Eretria  was  in  ancient  times 
more  abundant  than  now.  Farther  to  the  east,  and 
a  little  higher  up  the  acropolis  slope,  is  an  ancient 
well,  now  absolutely  dry.  A  year  or  two  ago  a  large 
reservoir  was  uncovered  in  the  modern  village,  with 
dimensions  of  about  6  m.  x  1.50  m.  x  1.50  m.,  and 
lined  with  fine  stucco.  I  mention  this  because  it  has 
probably  never  been  reported  in  any  archaeological 
paper,  and  it  is  now  rapidly  rilling  with  earth. 

On  the  principal  plateau  of  the  acropolis,  which 
slopes  gently  from  the  summit  to  the  south,  we  dug  a 
trench  about  fifty  feet  long,  to  a  depth  of  from  two  to 
five  feet,  with  a  few  cross-trenches,  touching  the  bed- 
rock in  various  places,  making  sure  that  this  was 
not  the  site  of  a  large  building.  Some  possibilities 
of  smaller  buildings  still  remain  on  the  east  slope, 
where  a  small  fragment  of  a  drum  of  a  Doric  column 
was  found  in  some  superficial  cutting  which  we  made 
there. 

At  the  foot  of  the  rocky  hill  called  Kotroni,  a  little 
over  a  mile  to  the  east  of  Eretria,  excavations  were 
undertaken  with  the  hope  of  finding  the  foundation 
of  the  temple  of  Artemis  Amarysia,  stated  by  Strabo 
(X.  10,  p.  448)  to  lie  seven  stadia  outside  the  city  wall. 
Since  an  old  church  stood  there  until  replaced  in 
recent  times  by  a  new  one  a  few  rods  away,  and  since 
marble  slabs  with  inscriptions  had  been  found  here  by 
the  owner  of  the  property,  Mr.  Stammatis,  I  had  con- 
ceived the  desire,  in  1 891,  to  make  here  the  first  sen- 


THIRTEENTH  ANNUAL  REPORT. 


31 


ous  trial  excavation  ever  made  with  this  end  in  view. 
But  work  for  two  days  with  about  half  our  force 
showed  that  the  bed-rock  lay  very  near  the  surface, 
and  that  here  are  no  Hellenic  walls.  The  temple  of 
Artemis  may  yet  be  found  not  far  away,  by  some 
lucky  chance ;  but  no  one  need  dig  for  it  in  the  tempt- 
ing terrace  immediately  at  the  foot  of  Kotroni.  Two 
new  grave-inscriptions  were  the  only  positive  result  of 
our  work  here. 

Somewhat  farther  east,  and  about  a  half  a  mile  from 
the  sea,  stands  a  conspicuous  tumulus,  similar  to  the 
famous  one  at  Marathon.  After  considerable  negotia- 
tion with  the  owner  of  the  ground  on  which  it  stands, 
Mr.  Billalis,  by  the  kind  intervention  of  the  Demarch 
of  Eretria,  Mr.  Zacharias,  I  secured  permission  to  open 
the  mound,  paying  one  hundred  drachmas  for  the  grain 
that  stood  in  our  way.  When  the  grain  was  reaped, 
a  slight  depression,  which  I  had  not  noticed  before, 
appeared  at  the  top  of  the  mound.  This  was  a  dis- 
couraging suggestion  that  it  might  have  been  already 
opened.  But  as  no  one  of  the  oldest  inhabitants 
knew  of  any  such  opening,  in  the  hope  that  the 
depression  might  have  been  caused  by  plowing,  we 
proceeded  to  cut  three  trenches,  about  two  meters 
wide,  from  the  periphery  to  the  centre  of  the  mound, 
and  to  sink  a  shaft,  about  four  meters  square,  in  the 
middle.  We  soon  found  that  the  core  of  the  mound 
was  a  tower  3.95  meters  square,  of  squared  blocks  of 
poros,  the  southern  half  of  which  had  been  broken 


32 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ATHENS. 


away.  As  we  proceeded  downward  we  had  to  remove 
block  after  block  which  had  already  been  dislodged 
from  its  place,  and  lay  in  our  way.  It  became  certain 
that  somebody  had  preceded  us,  but,  in  the  hope